West Bromwich Albion F.C.
The club was formed in 1878 and has played at its home ground, The Hawthorns, since 1900. Albion were one of the members of the Football League in 1888 and have spent the majority of their existence in the top tier of English football. They have been champions of England once, in 1919–20 and have been runners-up twice but they have had success in the FA Cup. The first came in 1888, the year the league was founded, and they also won the Football League Cup at the first attempt in 1966. The clubs longest consecutive period in the top division spanned twenty-four years between 1949 and 1973, and from 1986 to 2002 they spent their longest ever spell out of the top division and they currently play in the Premier League. The team has played in blue and white stripes for most of the clubs history. The club was founded as West Bromwich Strollers in 1878 by workers from George Salters Spring Works in West Bromwich, the club joined the Birmingham & District Football Association in 1881 and became eligible for their first competition, the Birmingham Cup. They reached the quarter-finals, beating several longer-established clubs on the way, in 1883, Albion won their first trophy, the Staffordshire Cup. Albion joined the Football Association in the year, this enabled them to enter the FA Cup for the first time in the 1883–84 season. In 1885 the club turned professional, and in 1886 they reached the FA Cup final for the first time and they reached the final again in 1887, but lost 2–0 to Aston Villa. In 1888 the team won the trophy for the first time, as FA Cup winners, they qualified to play in a Football World Championship game against Scottish Cup winners Renton, which ended in a 4–1 defeat. Thus when the Football League started later that year, Albion became one of the founder members. Albions second FA Cup success came in 1892, beating Aston Villa 3–0 and they met Villa again in the 1895 final, but lost 1–0. The team suffered relegation to Division Two in 1900–01, their first season at The Hawthorns and they were promoted as champions the following season but relegated again in 1903–04. The club won the Division Two championship once more in 1910–11, and the season reached another FA Cup Final. Albion won the Football League title in 1919–20 for the time in their history following the end of World War I. The team finished as Division One runners-up in 1924–25, narrowly losing out to Huddersfield Town, in 1930–31, they won promotion as well as the FA Cup, beating Birmingham 2–1 in the final. The Double of winning the FA Cup and promotion has not been achieved before or since, Albion reached the final again in 1935, losing to Sheffield Wednesday, but were relegated three years later
Preston North End F.C.
Preston North End Football Club is a professional association football club located in the Deepdale area of Preston, Lancashire. They play in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. Prestons unbeaten League and Cup season earned them the nickname The Invincibles, Prestons most recent major trophy success was their FA Cup victory over Huddersfield Town in 1938. Many notable players have played for the club, including Tom Finney, Bill Shankly, Tommy Docherty, Alan Kelly, Sr. and Graham Alexander. On 21 January 1875, the club leased a field opposite Moor Park on the site of the current Deepdale stadium, Preston North End were famously successful during the early years of professional football in England. In 1887, Preston beat Hyde 26–0 in the First Round of the FA Cup, Preston forward Jimmy Ross scored eight goals in the match, going on to score 19 goals in the competition that season, also still a record. The clubs last major win was their FA Cup triumph in 1938. Prestons most famous player, Sir Tom Finney, played for the club between 1946 and 1960, Finney is considered to be one of the greatest footballers of all time, and was also a local lad, dubbed the Preston Plumber due to his professional training as a plumber. Finney remains the top goalscorer, with 187 goals from 433 appearances. Following Finneys retirement, Preston were relegated to the Second Division in 1961 and have not played in the top division since, the club did reach the FA Cup final in 1964, but lost to West Ham United. Preston were relegated to the Third Division in the 1969–70 season, Alan Ball, Sr. John McGrath oversaw Prestons promotion back to the Third Division a year later, where they remained when John Beck took over in October 1992. The 38-year-old Beck had only recently been sacked by Cambridge United, the club almost made it two promotions in a row to reach the Premier League, but lost to Bolton Wanderers in the 2001 play-off final. Simon Grayson was appointed by the club on 18 February 2013, of Simon Graysons next 10 games, Preston won 3, drew 4 and lost 3. In Simon Graysons first summer in charge, he permanently signed 4 players, Tom Clarke, a centreback, Chris Humphrey, a winger, Kevin Davies, a Centre forward and Alex Nicholson. He also signed Declan Rudd on a long loan from Norwich City. He allowed 3 players to leave during the summer, those being Luke Foster, Chris Robertson, the 2013–14 season started off well, unbeaten in their first 9 league games. They also beat local rivals Blackpool in the League Cup, before being beaten by Lancashire rivals Burnley in the second round. The 9 league game unbeaten run came to an end on 5 October, against Peterborough United, Preston then went on another 9 game unbeaten league run, winning 5 and drawing 4, including a win against Leyton Orient, only their second league defeat of the season
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge, shorts and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, black, red, yellow, green and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, often, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control. The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal, body and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
Colonel Sir Francis Arthur Marindin, KCMG served with the Royal Engineers and was a key figure in the early development of association football. He was later knighted for his work in public services, born in Weymouth, Dorset, he was the second son of the Rev. Samuel Marindin of Chesterton, in the parish of Worfield, Shropshire. He was educated at Eton College and the Royal Military Academy, Marindin joined the Royal Engineers as an Ensign on 28 December 1854 and saw active service in the Crimean War. He was a member of the Board of Trade Railway Inspectorate and he was ultimately an honorary colonel in the Engineer and Railway Staff Corps. He is credited with having founded the Royal Engineers Football team in 1869, the club had been founded in at least 1863 and is notable as the first side to exploit modern teamwork and passing tactics. He retired from the Royal Engineers in 1879 at the rank of Major, as a football player, Marindin played in the first FA Cup Final in 1872, which the Royal Engineers team lost to Wanderers. At the time, Marindin held the rank of Captain, Marindin become the President of the Football Association in 1874 and served in that capacity until 1890. As a referee he took charge of the 1880 FA Cup final and this period included a replay at Derbyshire County Cricket Clubs Racecourse Ground in 1886, the first time an FA Cup Final had been played outside London. In his last final, crowds invaded the pitch and soldiers had to clear the field and he was considered one of the outstanding referees who really knows the rules. He was widely known simply as The Major and he became an Inspecting Officer for the Board of Trade in 1875, rising to Senior Inspector of Railways in 1895. His work in this regard involved travelling the country to test and he helped develop Londons new electrical lighting system and was knighted in 1897. He died aged 61 on 21 April 1900 at home at Hans Crescent, London S. W. and was buried on the family Scottish property at Craigflower, Torryburn, Dunfermline
Hyde United F.C.
Hyde United Football Club is a semi-professional football club in Hyde, Greater Manchester, England. Formed in 1919, the changed its name to Hyde FC between 2010 and 2015 as part of a sponsorship deal with Manchester City. The teams strip is red shirts and white shorts and their ground is the 4,250 capacity Ewen Fields. Hyde Uniteds record attendance was in 1952 when 7,600 spectators attended a game against Nelson, the clubs all-time leading goalscorer is Pete OBrien who scored 247 goals. Hyde F. C. was founded on 27 July 1885 at the White Lion pub in the town centre and they played on a field near the Bankfield Hotel, until 1898 when they moved to Townend Street and set up a club headquarters at the Gardeners Arms pub. They moved to Ewen Fields in 1906 after merging with Hyde St. Georges, in 1917, Hyde FC folded because of what was termed war reaction. Hyde United formed in 1919 after demands for a club to be re-established. After one season in the Lancashire and Cheshire Federation, Hyde joined the Manchester League and by 1930 had won it five times, in the 1920s, players wore black-and-white halved shirts for a spell. The club moved into the Cheshire County League in 1930 and won the League Challenge Cup four years later, the decade after the Second World War proved to be a purple patch for the club. In 1946, they won the Cheshire Senior Cup, the first of many trophies to arrive at Ewen Fields during the ten years. In 1953, Hyde won the League Cup followed by a league, the 1955–56 season saw the club retain the championship and finish as runners-up in the following three seasons. They reached the FA Cup first round in 1954 only to lose 5–1 away to Workington and they won the League Cup in 1973, and in 1981 finished as runners-up in the league and winners of the Cheshire Senior Cup and The League Challenge Shield. The first year saw the club score 91 goals. They reached the first round of the FA Cup where they lost 2–0 at Burnley, with Peter Wragg as manager, also reaching the Northern Premier League Cup final— only to lose on penalties to South Liverpool. However, they were back in the final in 1986 when they beat Marine 1–0. In 1986, as a result of the changes introduced following the Bradford City stadium fire, in 1993, Pete OBrien was appointed manager for a second time, but only remained in charge until the end of the season, when he resigned to take-over at Droylsden. Mike McKenzie took over from OBrien in June 1994, during the 1995–96 season, Ewen Fields astroturf pitch was relaid in grass, then played host to another FA Trophy semi-final, this time against Northwich Victoria. After Mike McKenzie left the club in 2001 by mutual consent, after an unsuccessful 2001–02 season, Nolan was sacked
Albert Edward James Matthias Jem Bayliss was an English football player who played for West Bromwich Albion, as well as the English national side. He captained the West Bromwich Albion side which won the 1888 FA Cup Final, West Bromwich Albion FA Cup winner,1888 FA Cup finalist,1886 and 1887 Player profile at EnglandStats. com Player profile at Spartcus Educational Matthews, Tony. West Bromwich Albion, The Complete Record
Western European Summer Time
Western European Summer Time is a summer daylight saving time scheme,1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Also sometimes erroneously referred to as Irish Summer Time, the scheme runs from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year. At both the start and end of the schemes, clock changes take place at 01,00 UTC, during the winter, Greenwich Mean Time is used. The asymmetry reflects temperature more than the length of daylight, Ireland observes Standard Time during the summer months and changes to UTC+0 in winter. As Irelands winter time period begins on the last Sunday in October and finishes on the last Sunday in March, the result is the same as if it observed summer time. The following countries and territories use Western European Summer Time during the summer, starting in 1916, the dates for the beginning and end of BST each year were mandated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In February 2002, the Summer Time Order 2002 changed the dates and times to match European rules for moving to, note, Until 1 October 1916 time in all of Ireland was based on Dublin Mean Time, GMT −25 minutes. BBC News report, Tundra time call in clocks debate, UK Government Report, Overview of the pros and cons of British Summer Time
Bob Roberts (footballer, born 1859)
Robert John Roberts, better known as Bob Roberts, was an English football goalkeeper. He spent the majority of his career at West Bromwich Albion, with whom he won an FA Cup winners medal and he won three caps for England and is the first West Bromwich Albion player to have appeared at international level. He was nicknamed Long Bob and The Prince of Goalkeepers, Roberts was born in West Bromwich as one of five children to James Roberts in April 1859. After leaving Christ Church school Bob became a plasterer by trade, while his interest in sport led him to join the George Salters Spring Works football team, the West Bromwich Strollers. On 23 November 1878 Roberts played in the first recorded Strollers game, Roberts continued to play for the club after they changed their name to West Bromwich Albion in 1880. He played in positions, including full-back, half-back and forward. However he was not a success as an outfield player, one observer describing him thus. His first match between the posts appears to have taken place on either 18 December 1880 against Wednesbury Royal George and he helped Albion reach the semi-final of the Birmingham Senior Cup in both 1881–82 and 1882–83. In the latter season the club won their first trophy, the Staffordshire Senior Cup, according to the newspaper The Athlete, Roberts could take a lot of credit for the win by his fine keeping. In 1885 Albion reached the FA Cup quarter-final, but lost 2–0 to Blackburn Rovers, with the legalisation of professionalism in the summer of 1885, Roberts and his team mates all became professional players in 1885–86, and proceeded to win both the Birmingham and Staffordshire cups. Albion lost to Blackburn Rovers in the 1886 FA Cup Final and he received another runners-up medal the following year as Albion were defeated 1–0 by rivals Aston Villa in the 1887 final. During the cup run he is credited with scoring a goal from a long kick downfield against Derby Junction, twelve months later he helped his team to victory in the 2–1 win over Preston North End in the 1888 final. His performance for Albion was described as most remarkable by The Times, later that year Roberts played in the Championship of the World match, which pitted the English FA Cup holders against the winners of the Scottish Cup. Albion lost the game 4–1 to Renton at Hampden Park, Roberts played in Albions first ever Football League match on 8 September 1888, keeping a clean sheet in the 2–0 victory over Stoke. His appearance made him one of two players to have played in both Albions first FA Cup game and their first league game. He was ever-present in that first league season of 1888–89, making 22 appearances, in October 1889 he was suspended by the FA for four matches, after he took part in an unsanctioned match at Walsall. Roberts made 84 appearances in the league and the FA Cup during his Albion career, taking into account friendlies and local cup competitions, he appeared around 400 times for the club. In May 1890 Roberts moved on a transfer to Sunderland Albion
William Isiah Bassett was an English association footballer, director and club chairman who served West Bromwich Albion for over half a century. Born in West Bromwich, the oldest of a coal merchants six children, at only 5 feet 5 inches, establishing himself as a winger in various local amateur sides, he joined West Bromwich Albion in 1886, playing outside-right. He played 261 Football League games for the club, scoring 61 goals, on 28 April 1894, Bassett became the first ever Albion player to be sent off, he was dismissed for using unparliamentary language in a friendly match away at Millwall. Bassett made his 311th and final appearance for Albion on the last day of the 1898–99 season. Bassett became an Albion director in 1905, following the resignation of the board in its entirety. The club was in financial trouble and had had a writ served upon them by their bank. Bassett became chairman in 1908, and helped the club to avoid bankruptcy once more in 1910 by paying the players summer wages from his own pocket and he remained Albions chair until his death. His activities in the footballing world let him to take an active role in the development of both the Football Association and the Football League. Billy Bassett died in West Bromwich on 8 April 1937 at the age of 68, two days after his death, a minute silence was held prior to Albions 4–1 defeat to Preston North End in the FA Cup semi-final at Highbury. The Albion players were clearly affected, with Teddy Sandford saying, West Bromwich Albion FA Cup winner,1888, FA Cup winner,1892 FA Cup Runner-up,1887 England profile McOwan, Gavin. The Essential History of West Bromwich Albion
Captain (association football)
The team captain is usually identified by the wearing of an armband. The only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the toss prior to kick-off. Contrary to what is said, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the general behaviour when necessary. At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will also be the first one to hoist it. The captain also generally leads the teams out of the room at the start of the match. The captain generally provides a point for the team, if morale is low. Captains may join the manager in deciding the first team for a certain game, in youth or recreational football, the captain often takes on duties, that would, at a higher level, be delegated to the manager. A club captain is usually appointed for a season, if he is unavailable or not selected for a particular game, then the club vice-captain will be appointed to perform a similar role. The match captain is the first player to lift a trophy should the team win one, a good example of this was in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final when match captain Peter Schmeichel lifted the trophy for Manchester United as club captain Roy Keane was suspended. In the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, match captain Frank Lampard jointly lifted the trophy for Chelsea with club captain John Terry, a club may appoint two distinct roles, a club captain to represent the players in a public relations role, and correspondent on the pitch. After Neville retired in 2011, regular starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain, são Paulos Rogério Ceni is the player who has worn the captains armband the most times. A vice-captain is a player that is expected to captain the side when the captain is not included in the starting eleven, or if, during a game. Examples include Manuel Neuer succeeding Philipp Lahm at Bayern Munich, Marcelo attaining from Sergio Ramos at Real Madrid C. F, gary Cahill being the understudy of John Terry at Chelsea FC and Lionel Messi taking over from Andrés Iniesta at FC Barcelona. Similarly, some clubs also name a 3rd captain to take the role of captain when both the captain and vice-captain are unavailable, during the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Germany had three captains. Michael Ballack had skippered the team since 2004, including the successful qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup. Lahm ended up becoming the permanent captain of Germany, as Ballack was never called up for the national team
Joe Wilson (footballer, born 1861)
Joseph James Wilson was an English footballer who played at outside left. During his 15-year playing career he represented several teams from the West Midlands region and he gained an FA Cup winners medal with West Bromwich Albion and was the scorer of the clubs first ever goal in The Football League. Wilson was born in Handsworth, Birmingham and attended St Marys Council School and he began his football career during the amateur era, joining Hamstead Swifts in 1877 before transferring to Aston Unity three years later. He remained at the club for just one month, then turned professional with West Bromwich Albion in September 1887. In the final five minutes of the match, Wilson scored Albions first ever league goal, in August 1890, Wilson was transferred to Kidderminster Harriers, where he played for twelve months before a move to Birmingham St Georges. Wilson later worked as a goldsmith in Birminghams Jewellery Quarter for 25 years prior to the Second World War and he died in Acocks Green, Birmingham on 20 October 1952
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium