1888 in Norwegian music
The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1888 in Norwegian music.
The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1888 in Norwegian music.
1. 1888 in art – February – Fifth annual exhibition of Les XX, at the Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique in Brussels. W. W. January 17 – Mohamed Nagy, Egyptian painter, february 22 – Horace Pippin, self-taught African-American painter. March 14 – Marc-Aurèle Fortin, Canadian painter, march 19 – Josef Albers, German artist, mathematician and educator. April 6 – Hans Richter, German painter, graphic artist, avant-gardist, june 12 – Tom Purvis, English poster artist. July 10 – Giorgio de Chirico, Greek-Italian painter, august 13 – Gleb W. Derujinsky, Russian-American sculptor. August 14 – Sydney Carline, English painter, war artist, august 30 – Siri Derkert, Swedish artist, sculptor and political campaigner. November 7 – Mariano Andreu, Spanish painter, enamelling master, sculptor, november 11 – Johannes Itten, Swiss colour theorist, painter and designer. Stanley Royle, English post-impressionist landscape painter
2. 1888 in architecture – The year 1888 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. Roof and dome of Seville Cathedral collapse in an earthquake, january 5 - The Neues deutsches Theater, Prague, designed by Fellner & Helmer with Baron Karl von Hasenauer and Alfons Wertmüller. April 11 - The Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, designed by Adolf Leonard van Gendt, may - Victoria Terminus station building, designed by Frederick William Stevens for the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, in Bombays Bori Bunder district. August 12 - Plaza de Toros de El Bibio, Gijón, Asturias, august 17 - Castle of the Three Dragons for 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition, Spain, designed by Lluís Domènech i Montaner. August 18 - Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof, designed by Hermann Eggert and Johann Wilhelm Schwedler, october 2 - Annunciation Cathedral, Kharkiv, Ukraine, designed by Mikhail Lovtsov. October 14 - Burgtheater, Ringstraße, Vienna, designed by Gottfried Semper, autumn - Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with Tech Tower used for classrooms. St. Annes Church, Bukit Mertajam, Malaysia, conquest Plantation, Pointe Coupee, Louisiana, USA, built in Victorian style. Illinois State Capitol, Springfield, Illinois, USA, ponce de León Hotel, St. Augustine, Florida, USA, designed by John Carrere and Thomas Hastings. Texas State Capitol, Austin, Texas, USA, designed by Elijah E. Myers, allegheny County Courthouse, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, designed by H. H. Richardson. High Royds Hospital near Leeds, England, designed by J. Vickers Edwards, several buildings for the International Exhibition of Science, Art and Industry held in Glasgow, key architect being James Sellars. Elizabeth Plankinton House, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, designed by E. Townsend Mix, royal Gold Medal - Theophil Freiherr von Hansen. Grand Prix de Rome, architecture, Albert Tournaire
3. Music of Norway – Norway is a rather sparsely populated country in Europe, but even so its music and its musical life are as complex as those of most other countries. Much has been learned about music in Norway from physical artifacts found during archaeological digs. These include instruments such as the lur, viking and medieval sagas also describe musical activity, as do the accounts of priests and pilgrims from all over Europe coming to visit St Olafs grave in Trondheim. In the later part of the 19th century, Norway experienced economic growth leading to greater industrialization and urbanization, more music was established in the cities, and opera performances and symphony concerts were considered to be of high standards. In this era both prominent composers and performers combined the European traditions with Norwegian tones, the import of music and musicians for dance and entertainment increased, and this continued in the 20th century, even more so when gramophone records and radio became common. In the last half of the 20th century, Norway, like other countries in the world. Before 1840, there were limited sources of folk music in Norway. Originally these historical attainments were believed to have a distinct Christian influence, as research continued, there was also mythical and fairy tale connections to the folk music. Overall the purpose of music was for entertainment and dancing. Norwegian folk music may be divided into two categories, instrumental and vocal, as a rule instrumental folk music is dance music. Norwegian folk dances are dances and usually performed by couples, although there are a number of solo dances as well. Norway has very little of the ceremonial dance characteristic of other cultures, dance melodies may be broken down into two types, two-beat and three-beat dances. The former are called halling, gangar or rull, whereas the latter are springar or springleik, Traditional dances are normally referred to as bygdedans. These dances, sometimes called courting dances were often connected to the important events of life, weddings, funerals. Folk music in Norway falls in another 2 main categories based in the populations from which they spring, North Germanic. Traditional Sami music is centered around a vocal style called joik. Originally, joik referred to one of several Sami singing styles. Its sound is comparable to the chanting of some American Aboriginal cultures
4. Edmund Neupert – Edmund Neupert was a Norwegian pianist and composer. His father was a descendant of a German family belonging to the nobility and he was a teacher at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin from 1866-1868. He then moved to Copenhagen, where he held a position at the conservatory for two years. In 1881 he traveled to Moscow, and in 1882 he moved to Christiania, in 1883 he stayed in New York City. Neupert was regarded as an outstanding pianist and piano pedagogue, often compared to Franz Liszt and he was now best remembered as the soloist at the world premiere of Edvard Griegs Piano Concerto in A minor. This occurred on 3 April 1869 in the Casino Concert Hall in Copenhagen, the piano used for the performance was lent for the occasion by Anton Rubinstein, who attended the concert. Grieg himself was not present, due to back home in Norway. Neupert was also the dedicatee of the edition of the concerto. Among Neuperts compositions, the 24 Concert-Etüden and the 24 Octav-Etüden are especially highly regarded, Neupert was married to Hilda Bergh and the couple had one son Robert Isidor Neupert. Free scores by Edmund Neupert at the International Music Score Library Project
5. Norsk biografisk leksikon – Norsk biografisk leksikon is the largest Norwegian biographical encyclopedia. The first edition was issued between 1921 and 1983, including 19 volumes and 5,100 articles and it was published by Aschehoug with economic support from the state. Kunnskapsforlaget bought the rights to NBL1 from Aschehoug in 1995, the project had economic support from the Fritt Ord Foundation and the Ministry of Culture, and the second edition was launched in the years 1999-2005, including 10 volumes and ca.5,700 articles. In 2006 the work for an edition of NBL2 began. In 2009 an Internet edition, with access, was released by Kunnskapsforlaget together with the general-purpose Store norske leksikon. The electronic edition features additional biographies, and updates about dates of death of biographees, apart from that, the vast body of text is unaltered from the printed version. This is a list of volumes in the edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon. Published 2005 Volume 10, Wilberg–Aavik, plus extra material, published 2005 This is a list of volumes in the first edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon. Published 1923 Volume 2, Bjørnstad–Christian Frederik, published 1925 Volume 3, Christiansen–Eyvind Urarhorn. Published 1931 Volume 6, Helland–Lars Jensen, published 1934 Volume 7, Lars O. Jensen–Krefting. Published 1940 Volume 10, Narve–Harald C, published 1949 Volume 11, Oscar Pedersen–Ross. Published 1966 Volume 16, Sørensen–Alf Torp, published 1969 Volume 17, Eivind Torp–Vidnes. Published 1975 Volume 18, Vig–Henrik Wergeland, published 1977 Volume 19, N. Wergeland–Øyen
6. Halling (dance) – The Halling is a folk dance traditionally performed in rural Norway, although versions of the halling can also be found in parts of Sweden. The dance is performed by young men at weddings and parties. The halling is a dance in 68 or 24 that includes acrobatic, athletic competition between the dancers. Hallingdans can best be described as rhythmic acrobatic dance and consists of a number of steps which requires both strength and softness elation, the dance is associated with the valleys and traditional districts of Valdres and Hallingdal, where it is often referred to as the laus. The term refers to it being danced solo, not in couples, according to some scholars, the word may refer to the fact that the dance was half the performance, as the other half was the springar. The meter of the dance is 24 or 68 of a quite fast, the musician has to give the dancers enough impetus to perform the various challenging moves that are involved in the dance such as the nakkespretten, kruking, hodestift and especially the kast. The dancer Olav Thorshaug performed hallingdans shows in the United States of America around 1910–1920, one of the dance moves is called hallingkast. In this move, a girl has traditionally held a hat using a stick or something similar. Kast is seen as the test of strength, which involves kicking a hat that is held about 230 to 280 cm above the floor, some girls have been able dancers themselves, and known to be as agile as any man. Noted Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg composed several pieces of music for the dance in his Lyric Pieces. The finale of Geirr Tveitts Piano Concerto No,5, published in 1954, is described as Tempo di Halling. The dance was used in the Norwegian winning contribution to the 2009 Eurovision Song Contest performed by the Frikar Dance Company together with singer, Frikar Dance Company has toured 29 countries with halling dance the last years. The history of hallingdans Dancers performing the Halling The home page of Frikar Dance Company The youtube channel of Frikar Dance Company
7. Polka – The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, local varieties of this dance are also found in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Latin America and the United States. The name polka possibly comes from the Czech word půlka, referring to the short half-steps featured in the dance. e, the absence of diacritics, both referring to the half-tempo 24 and the half-jump step of the dance. Zíbrt also ironically dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich that polka comes from the Czech word pole, on the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests that the etymology given by Fr. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the true Czech folk origin of Polka, Nejedlý also writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek also claims the Hradec Králové roots of a Polka. OED also suggests that the name may have derived from the Czech polka meaning Polish woman. The word was introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s. It should not be confused with the polska, a Swedish 34-beat dance with Polish roots, a related dance is the redowa. Polkas almost always have a 24 time signature, folk music of Polka style appeared in written music about 1800. She is said to have called the dance Maděra, because of its liveliness, the dance was further propagated by the music teacher Josef Neruda, who witnessed Anna dance in an unusual way, put the tune to paper, and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt notices that a claim that the events happened in Týnec nad Labem. Zibrt writes that when he published this story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper. In particular, he wrote according to further witness, the originating event actually happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem. Zíbrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia, from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zíbrt also wrote that simple Czech folk claimed that knew and danced Polka long before the nobles got hold of it. By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague, from there, it spread to Vienna by 1839, and in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor. It was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as polkamania, the dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular dance until the late 19th century
8. Mazurka – The mazurka is a Polish folk dance in triple meter, usually at a lively tempo, and with strong accents unsystematically placed on the second or third beat. The folk origins of the mazurek are two other Polish musical forms which are the slow kujawiak, and the fast oberek, the mazurek is always found to have either a triplet, trill, dotted eighth note pair, or an ordinary eighth note pair before two quarter notes. In the 19th century, the dance became popular in many ballrooms in different parts of Europe, the Polish national anthem has a mazurek rhythm but is too slow to be considered a mazurek. In Polish, mazurka is actually the genitive and accusative cases of mazurek, several classical composers have written mazurkas, with the best known being the 69 composed by Frédéric Chopin for solo piano. In 1825 Maria Szymanowska wrote the largest collection of piano mazurkas published before Chopin, Chopin first started composing mazurkas in 1825, but his composing did not become serious until 1830, the year of the November Uprising, a Polish rebellion against the Russian Tsar. Chopin continued composing them until 1849, the year of his death, the stylistic and musical characteristics of Chopins mazurkas differ from the traditional variety because Chopin in effect created a completely separate and new genre of mazurka all his own. For example, he used techniques in his mazurkas, including counterpoint. By including more chromaticism and harmony in the mazurkas, he made them more interesting than the traditional dances. Chopin also tried to compose his mazurkas in such a way that they could not be used for dancing, however, while Chopin changed some aspects of the original mazurka, he maintained others. His mazurkas, like the traditional dances, contain a great deal of repetition, repetition of certain measures or groups of measures, of entire sections, the rhythm of his mazurkas also remains very similar to that of earlier mazurkas. This use of rhythm suggests that Chopin tried to create a genre that had ties to the original form, the dance was common as a popular dance in Europe and the United States in the mid- to late nineteenth century. In Cape Verde the mazurka is also revered as an important cultural phenomenon played with bands led by a violinist. It also takes a variation of the dance form and is found mostly in the north of the archipelago, mainly in São Nicolau. In the south it finds popularity in the island of Brava, czech composers Bedřich Smetana, Antonín Dvořák, and Bohuslav Martinů all wrote mazurkas to at least some extent. For Smetana and Martinů, these are single pieces, whereas Dvořák composed a set of six mazurkas for piano, and in 1991 Albert Hyden performed a sonet for the president called alpha Q. In France, Impressionistic composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel both wrote mazurkas, Debussys is a piece, and Ravels is part of a suite of an early work. Jacques Offenbach included a mazurka in his ballet Gaîté Parisienne, Léo Delibes composed one which appears several times in the first act of his ballet Coppélia, the mazurka appears frequently in French traditional folk music. In the French Antilles, the mazurka has become an important style of dance, a creolised version of the mazurka is mazouk, which was introduced to the French Caribbean during the 19th century
9. Waltz – The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in triple time, performed primarily in closed position. There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the waltz that date from 16th century Europe, the French philosopher Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so closely that their faces touched. Kunz Haas wrote, Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner, the peasants of Bavaria, Tyrol, and Styria began dancing a dance called Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler, also known as the Schleifer, a dance in 34 time, was popular in Bohemia, Austria, and Bavaria. While the eighteenth century upper classes continued to dance the minuet, describing life in Vienna, Don Curzio wrote, The people were dancing mad. The ladies of Vienna are particularly celebrated for their grace and movements of waltzing of which they never tire, there is a waltz in the second act finale of the opera Una Cosa Rara written by Martin y Soler in 1786. Solers waltz was marked Andante con moto, or at a pace with motion, but the flow of the dance was sped-up in Vienna leading to the Geschwindwalzer. In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a known as Langaus, became a sliding step. In the 19th century, the word primarily indicated that the dance was a one, one would waltz in the polka to indicate rotating rather than going straight forward without turning. The Viennese custom is to anticipate the second beat of each measure, making it sound as if the third is late. The metronome speed for a full bar varies between 60 and 70, with the waltzes of the first Strauss often played faster than those of his sons. Shocking many when it was first introduced, the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the 1780s, according to contemporary singer Michael Kelly, it reached England in 1791. During the Napoleonic Wars, infantry soldiers of the Kings German Legion introduced the dance to the people of Bexhill and it became fashionable in Britain during the Regency period, having been made respectable by the endorsement of Dorothea Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador. Diarist Thomas Raikes later recounted that No event ever produced so great a sensation in English society as the introduction of the waltz in 1813, in the same year, a sardonic tribute to the dance by Lord Byron was anonymously published. Influential dance master and author of manuals, Thomas Wilson published A Description of the Correct Method of Waltzing in 1816. Come, its time to be going home, the waltz, and especially its closed position, became the example for the creation of many other ballroom dances. Subsequently, new types of waltz have developed, including many folk and it incorporated hesitations and was danced to fast music. A hesitation is basically a halt on the foot during the full waltz measure
10. Wedding music – Wedding music applies to music played at wedding celebrations, including the ceremony and any festivities before or after the event. There are many different styles of music that can be played during the entrance, during the service there may be a few hymns, especially in liturgical settings. Music can be used to announce the arrival of the participants of the wedding, and in western cultures. Some couples may consider traditional wedding marches clichéd and choose a modern piece of music or an alternative such as Canon in D by Johann Pachelbel. At the end of the service, in Western services, the bride and groom march back up the aisle to a lively recessional tune, the piece achieved popularity after it was played during the wedding of Victoria, Princess Royal to Prince Frederick William of Prussia in 1858. Another popular choice is Widors Toccata from Symphony for Organ No.5, weddings in other cultures have different formats. In Egypt, there is a rhythm called the zaffa. Traditionally, a dancer will lead the bride to the wedding hall, accompanied by musicians playing the elzaff, on drums and trumpets. This is of unknown antiquity, and may even be from the pre-Islamic era, at Jewish weddings, the entrance of the groom is accompanied by the tune Baruch Haba. Siman Tov meanwhile is a celebratory song
11. Accordion – Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist, the concertina and bandoneón are related, the harmonium and American reed organ are in the same family. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open and these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instruments reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block. The performer normally plays the melody on buttons or keys on the manual. The accordion is widely spread across the world, nevertheless, in Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, zydeco, jazz music. The piano accordion is the official city instrument of San Francisco, the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning harmonic, musical. Today, native versions of the accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, accordions have many configurations and types. Similar to a bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, and is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal. It is used to pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibration. These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals, each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, and to allow the sound to better project. The grille for the manual is usually larger and is often shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment. The manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it, the different types have varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format, the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, which is used for many musical genres
12. Bukkehorn – A bukkehorn also called ″Billy Goat Horn″ in English is an ancient Norwegian musical instrument, made from the horn of a ram or a goat. The bukkehorn is usually made from a goat horn harvested 5 to 7 years before the instrument is crafted and it was traditionally used by shepherds and milkmaids on summer dairy farms in the high mountains, as a signal-instrument or as a scaring instrument. When the Bukkehorn later got finger holes it became possible to play melodies with it, the instrument has two blowing-techniques, the trumpet-principle is the most common, but the clarinet-principle is also used. The most famous artist playing this instrument is Karl Seglem
13. Hardanger fiddle – A Hardanger fiddle is a traditional stringed instrument used originally to play the music of Norway. In modern designs, this type of fiddle is very similar to the violin, though with eight or nine strings and thinner wood. Four of the strings are strung and played like a violin, while the rest, aptly named understrings or sympathetic strings, the Hardingfele is used mainly in the southwest part of Norway, whereas the ordinary violin is found elsewhere. The Hardingfele is used for dancing, accompanied by rhythmic loud foot stomping and it was also traditional for the fiddler to lead the bridal procession to the church. Sometimes pieces of bone are used to decorate the pegs and the edges of the instrument, the earliest known example of the hardingfele is from 1651, made by Ole Jonsen Jaastad in Hardanger, Norway. Originally, the instrument had a rounder, narrower body, around the year 1850, the modern layout with a body much like the violin became the norm. Specifically, the Hardingfele is a D instrument, meaning that the Hardingfeles written C corresponds to D on a non-transposing instrument, the notes given below for tunings are therefore relative to the Hardingfeles written A, not to a concert A. The understrings are tuned to vibrate according to the main tuning, for example, when the main strings are tuned A-D-A-E, the understrings are tuned B-D-E-F♯-A. The tuning largely depends on the region in which the instrument is being played, in Norway, more than 20 different tunings are recorded. Most hardanger tunes are played in a common tuning, the hardanger fiddle can also be played in low bass, the word bass referring to the lowest string, the normal violin tuning. In certain regions the Gorrolaus tuning is sometimes used, another tuning is called troll tuning. Legend has it that the fiddler learned fanitullen tunes from the devil and this tuning limits the melodic range of the tunes and is therefore sparsely used. The technique of bowing a Hardingfele also differs from that used with a violin and its a smoother, bouncier style of bowing, with a lighter touch. The player usually bows on two of the strings at a time, and sometimes three. This is made easy by the flatness of the bridge. The strings of the fiddle are slimmer than those of the violin, the Hardingfele has had a long history with the Christian church. Well known early fiddle maker Isak Botnen is said to have learned some of his craft from church lay leader and school master Lars Klark, as well as the methods for varnishing from pastor Dedrik Muus. In many folktales the devil is associated with the Hardingfele, in many good players were said to have been taught to play by the devil