1886 in sports
1886 in sports describes the years events in world sport. College championship College football national championship – Yale Bulldogs England Arsenal FC founded as Dial Square FC by munitions workers from the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich in southeast London, Dial Square is the name of one of their workshops. At the end of the year, the players hold a pub meeting, five years later, the name is changed to Woolwich Arsenal. The clubs present name will be adopted in 1914 after the move to Islington, FA Cup final – Blackburn Rovers 2–0 West Bromwich Albion at The Oval, replay after 0–0 draw at The Oval. This is Blackburns third successive victory and the final is the first to feature two extant members of The Football League, december 11 – Dial Square F. C. later to become Arsenal FC ), play their first match, a 6–0 win over the Eastern Wanderers. Ireland March — Linfield F. C. is formed in Belfast, Scotland 20 March — John Lambie becomes the youngest Scotland player and captain, aged 17 years and 92 days. May 17— Motherwell Football Club is formed, scottish Cup final – Queens Park 3–1 Renton Switzerland Grasshopper Club Zürich founded. National championship National League v. American Association – St Louis AA defeats Chicago NL,4 games to 2, events The Sporting News established in St. Louis. It becomes the dominant American publication covering baseball, so much so that it acquires the nickname The Bible of Baseball, events The inaugural World Lightweight Champion is Jack McAuliffe, generally recognised following his 21st round knockout of Billy Frazier at Boston. Lightweights weigh 130 to 135 pounds, McAuliffe will hold the title until he retires undefeated in 1893. Jack Nonpareil Dempsey retains the World Middleweight Championship when he knocks out George LaBlanche in 13 rounds at Larchmont, John L. Sullivan knocks out Paddy Ryan in the third round at San Francisco. Sullivan retains the World Heavyweight Championship, lineal world champions World Heavyweight Championship – John L. Hampshire ceases to be a first-class county after years of difficult circumstances and poor results. They do play matches against Surrey and Sussex in 1886 but these matches are not recognised as first-class, Hampshire will not recover first-class status until the beginning of the 1895 season when they will be readmitted to the County Championship
1887 in sports
1887 in sports describes the years events in world sport. College championship College football national championship – Yale Bulldogs Events The rules are changed so that gametime is set at two halves of 45 minutes each, two paid officials, a referee and an umpire, are mandated for each game. American Association – Detroit Wolverines defeats Saint Louis Cardinals 10 games to 5 Events The two major leagues agree to a set of rules. The National Colored Base Ball League plays for a few weeks before folding, five black men play in the International League, the highest minor league, the high-water mark in racial integration of professional baseball. Lineal world champions World Heavyweight Championship – John L, the team plays 10 first-class matches, winning 6 with 2 draws and 2 defeats. England win both Test matches played by 13 runs and 71 runs respectively, the GAA seeks to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject foreign imports. Limerick GAA wins the inaugural All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
1892 in sports
1892 in sports describes the years events in world sport. 12 November – William Pudge Heffelfinger is paid $500 by the Allegheny Athletic Association to play in a game against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club and he is considered the first professional football player of all time. 13 March — Liverpool Football Club is founded after Everton is split by a fight at board level over the proposed purchase of the freehold at Anfield. One faction, retaining the name and players, quits Anfield. The other faction, which owns Anfield, decides to establish a new club there, the new club joins the Lancashire League prior to the 1892–1893 season. With the demise of the rival Football Alliance, the Football League is able to expand by inviting former Alliance members to join it, membership doubles from 14 to 28 clubs with divisions introduced for the first time in the 1892–93 season. The original Football League becomes the new First Division, expanded to 16 teams, darwen is relegated from the First Division, Newton Heath, Nottingham Forest and Sheffield Wednesday are elected to the First Division for 1892–93. Fry equals the record for the long jump of 23 ft. 5in – the record stands for 18 months. The National League plays a season, Boston Beaneaters winning the first half. At the end of the season, Boston defeats Cleveland 5–0 in a championship series, the experiment will not be repeated but it will be adapted after two-month interruption of the 1981 season. Events January 15 – James Naismiths rules for basketball are published for the first time in the Springfield YMCA International Training Schools newspaper and they said it was called Basketball. March 11 – First basketball game played in public, between students and faculty at the Springfield YMCA, the final score was 5–1 in favor of the students, with the only goal for the faculty being scored by Amos Alonzo Stagg. A crowd of 200 spectators watched the game, events 7 September — James J. Corbett wins the World Heavyweight Championship with a 21st round knockout of John L. Sullivan at the Olympic Club in New Orleans. Sullivan is gradually worn down by Corbetts combination of elusive footwork, Corbett holds the title until 1897. Lineal world champions World Heavyweight Championship – John L. Sullivan → James J, the team, captained by W G Grace, is organised by Lord Sheffield who later subscribes his Sheffield Shield to Australian domestic first-class cricket. 29 matches are played in total, of which 12 are won, eight of the games are first–class including three Tests versus Australia. Australia win the Test series 2–1 to claim The Ashes, beginning of first-class cricket in India as the annual Bombay Presidency Matches between the Europeans and the Parsees are recognised as the inaugural first-class fixtures. Soon afterwards, the inaugural tour of India by an overseas team takes place when Lord Hawke organises his 1892–93 English touring team
The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French, philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, however, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England. 1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and then commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, Almira, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century also saw the creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat. 1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States
The 1850s was a decade that ran from January 1,1850, to December 31,1859. At the mean time, The United States saw its peak on mass migration to the American West, that particularly made the nation experience an economic boom, as well as a rapidly increasing population. Crimean War fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the majority of the conflict takes place around Crimea, on the northern coasts of the Black Sea. On 8 October 1856, the Second Opium War between several powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River. Second War of Italian Independence, also known as Franco-Austrian War, moldavia and Wallachia are unified and form Romania. Gideon T. Stewart attempts to create a Prohibition Party, dissolution of the Mughal Empire by the British. First commercially successful sewing machine made by Isaac Singer Ukrainian settlers bring Carniolan honeybees to the Primorsky Krai The word girlfriend first appears in writing in 1855, the word boyfriend first appears in writing in 1856. Nikola Tesla American texts from the 1850s American speeches from the 1850s
The 1860s were an extremely different decade with numerous cultural, social, and political upheavals in Europe and America. Revolutions were prevalent in Germany and the Ottoman Empire, the abolition of slavery in America led to the breakdown of the Atlantic Slave Trade, which was already suffering from the abolition of slavery in most of Europe in the late 1820s and ’30s. After the Civil War, turmoil continued in Reconstruction, with the rise of white supremacist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan, replacement of President of Mexico Benito Juárez at first with Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and then by Emperor Maximilian of Mexico with the establishment of the Second Mexican Empire. Juárez eventually manages to recover his position, on 18 October 1860, the first Convention of Peking formally ended the Second Opium War. The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865, the Paraguayan War starts in South America, with the invasion of Paraguay by the Triple Alliance. It will kill almost 60% of the country’s population, the main phase of the New Zealand Wars between British colonials and the Māori population begins with the First Taranaki War in 1860. The most significant campaign is the Invasion of Waikato in 1863, the Kingdom of Prussia under Bismarck invaded Denmark in 1864, which ended in the division of Schleswig, the location of a pro-German revolt, between Prussia and the Austrian Empire. Though Prussia and Austria had both fought side by side in war, Prussia later attacked Austria in the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. The technological and logistical superiority of Prussias armed forces obliterated Austria and its allies, by the end of these conflicts, Prussia was seen as the most powerful state in Germany, and had total hegemony over the other German states. The NGF was formed after the Austro-Prussian war, uniting the states of north Germany, the Bhutan War between the British Empire and Bhutan lasted from 1864 to 1865. It ended in a British victory and the loss of some Bhutanese territory to British India, beginning of the Reconstruction era under President Andrew Johnson. 1863–64 January Uprising in the Russian Empire, on 19 July 1864 the fall of Nanjing formally ended the 14-year Taiping Rebellion. Italian Unification under King Victor Emmanuel II, Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, 15th and last of the Tokugawa shoguns loses control to the Meiji Emperor, the samurai class fails to survive while the daimyōs turn to politics. The Dominion of Canada is created by the British North America Act on July 1,1867, President of the United States Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, April 14,1865. King of Madagascar Radama II is captured by soldiers and strangled to death, manuel Isidoro Belzu, President of Bolivia is assassinated. Father of Canadian Confederation, Thomas DArcy McGee is assassinated by Patrick J. Whelan, sakamoto Ryōma, a prominent figure in the Bakumatsu era in Japan and part of the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate, is assassinated along with Nakaoka Shintarō at a Kyoto inn in 1867. The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is completed in 1869, the Suez Canal in Egypt is opened in 1869
The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires, imperialism and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War, germany unified in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the part of the decade. The Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness, franco-Prussian War resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire. The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from 11 January 1879 to 4 July 1879, the Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire, the Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains. Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand, the German Empire and Alliance System emerged. Racial and economic politics in Americas Reconstruction were bitter, pessimistic, the Gilded Age began in 1874, lasting until 1896. The prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, the first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison, the steam drill is invented in 1879. Ludwig Boltzmann statistically defined thermodynamic entropy,1873 Weltausstellung in Vienna,1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and 1878 Exposition universelle in Paris. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar, the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122 and she still holds the record as of 2016. Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass
The 1880s was a decade that began on January 1,1880, and ended on December 31,1889. They occurred at the period of the Second Industrial Revolution. Most Western countries experienced an economic boom, due to the mass production of railroads. The modern city as well as the rose to prominence in this decade as well. The 1880s were also part of the Gilded Age, which lasted from 1874 to 1907, aceh War War of the Pacific Mahdist War 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War 13 September 1882 — British troops occupy Cairo, and Egypt becomes a British protectorate. American Indian Wars 20 July 1881 — Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana. Frequent lynchings of African Americans in Southern United States during the years 1880–1890 and this would be followed over the next few decades by conquest of almost the entirety of the remaining uncolonised parts of the continent, broadly along the lines determined. 3 August 1881, The Pretoria Convention peace treaty is signed,1884, International Meridian Conference in Washington D. C. held to determine the Prime Meridian of the world. 1884–1885, Berlin Conference, when the western powers divided Africa, the United States had five Presidents during the decade, the most since the 1840s. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, may to August,1883, Krakatoa, a volcano in Indonesia, erupted cataclysmically,36,000 people were killed, the majority being killed by the resulting tsunami. September 1887, The Yellow river flooded and killed about 900,000 people, the 1880s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts,13 March 1881 — Assassination of the Tsar of the Russian Empire Alexander II of Russia. 19 September 1881 — James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States 2 March 1882 — Roderick Maclean fails to assassinate Queen Victoria,3 April 1882 — Bob Ford assassinates Jesse James, legendary outlaw. 6 May 1882 - Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief Secretary for Ireland,1880, Oliver Heaviside of Camden Town, London, England receives a patent for the coaxial cable. In 1887, Heaviside introduced the concept of loading coils, in the 1890s, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin would both create the loading coils and receive a patent of them, failing to credit Heavisides work. 1880–1882, Development and commercial production of lighting was underway. Thomas Edison of Milan, Ohio, established Edison Illuminating Company on December 17,1880, based at New York City, it was the pioneer company of the electrical power industry. Edisons system was based on creating a power plant equipped with electrical generators. Copper electrical wires would then connect the station with other buildings, Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States
The phrase, The Gay Nineties, was not coined until the 1920s. This decade was also part of the Gilded Age, a phrase coined by Mark Twain, alluding to the seemingly profitable era that was riddled with crime and poverty. In the United States, the 1890s were marked by an economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893. As of January 23,2017, there is only 1 verified living person who was born in the 1890s. On December 29,1890,365 troops of the US 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns, surrounded an encampment of Miniconjou and Hunkpapa Sioux near Wounded Knee Creek, the Army had orders to escort the Sioux to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. One day earlier, the Sioux had been cornered and agreed to themselves in at the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. They were the very last of the Sioux to do. the process of disarming the Sioux, the 7th Cavalry quickly suppressed the Sioux fire, and the surviving Sioux fled, but US cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed. By the time it was over, about 146 men, women, twenty-five troopers also died, some believed to have been the victims of friendly fire as the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions. Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, with a number later dying from hypothermia. The incident is noteworthy as the engagement in history in which the most Medals of Honor have been awarded in the military history of the United States. This was the last tribe to be invaded which broke the backbone of the American Indian Wars,1891, Chilean Civil War fought from January to September. José Manuel Balmaceda, President of Chile, and the Chilean Army loyal to him face Jorge Montts Junta, the latter was formed by an alliance between the National Congress of Chile and the Chilean Navy. 1891, Tobacco Protest in Qajar dynasty Persia, on March 20,1890, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Shah of Iran granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a full monopoly over the production, sale, and export of tobacco for fifty years. In exchange, Talbot paid the shah an annual sum of £15,000 in addition to a quarter of the profits after the payment of all expenses. Now they were forced to seek permits from the Tobacco Régie as well as required to inform the concessionaires of the amount of tobacco produced, during the spring of 1891 mass protests against the Régie began to emerge in major Iranian cities. Initially it was the bazaaris who led the opposition under the conviction that it was their income, the reference to the Hidden Imam, a critical person in Shia Islam, meant that Shirazi was using the strongest possible language to oppose the Régie. Initially there was skepticism over the legitimacy of the fatwa, however Shirazi would later confirm the declaration,1892, The Johnson County War in Wyoming. Actually this range war took place in April 1892 in Johnson County, Natrona County, the combatants were the Wyoming Stock Growers Association and the Northern Wyoming Farmers and Stock Growers Association
The 1900s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1900, and ended on December 31,1909. The term nineteen-hundreds can also equally be used for the years 1900–1999, the Edwardian era covers a similar span of time. There are several varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in English. Using 1906 as an example, they are nineteen-oh-six, nineteen-six, which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, nineteen-oh-six is the most common, nineteen-six is less common, nineteen-ought-six is recognized, the strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an ohs or aughts decade. Russo-Japanese War establishes the Empire of Japan as a world power, battle of Riyadh was a minor battle of the Unification of Saudi Arabia. Battle of Dilam was a battle of the Unification War between Rashidi and Saudi rebels. First Saudi–Rashidi War was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh versus the Emirate of Hail, demand for Home Rule for Ireland Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa. January 1,1901, British colonies in Australia federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia May 20,1902 — Cuba gains independence from the United States, june 7,1905 — The Norwegian Parliament declares the union with Sweden dissolved, and Norway achieves full independence. October 5,1908 — Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire, April 19,1902 — A magnitude 7.5 earthquake rocks Guatemala, killing 2,000. May 8,1902 — In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre, April 7,1906 — Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. September 18,1906 — A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong, January 14,1907 — An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000. December 28,1908 — An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina, Sicily and Calabria, April 26,1900 — The Great Lumber Fire of Ottawa–Hull kills 7 and leaves 15,000 homeless. The fire began on a wharf and spread to the adjacent piers, warehouses, may 3,1901 — The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL, USA. July 10,1902 – The Rolling Mill Mine disaster in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, August 10,1903 — Paris Métro train fire. December 30,1903 — A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, February 7,1904 — The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, USA destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. June 15,1904 — A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York Citys East River kills 1,021, june 28,1904 — The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants. January 22,1906 — The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, Canada, the 1900s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts, July 29,1900 — King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci
The 1910s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1910, and ended on December 31,1919. The 1910s represented the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the half of the 19th century. The murder triggered a chain of events in which, within 33 days, the conflict dragged on until a truce was declared on November 11,1918, leading to the controversial, one-sided Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28,1919. However, each of these states had large German and Hungarian minorities, the decade was also a period of revolution in a number of countries. Russia also had a similar fate, since World War I led to a collapse in morale as well as to economic chaos and this atmosphere encouraged the establishment of Bolshevism, which was later renamed as communism. Like the Mexican Revolution, the Russian Revolution of 1917, known as the October Revolution, much of the music in these years was ballroom-themed. Many of the restaurants were equipped with dance floors. Prohibition in the United States began January 16,1919, with the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, armenian Genocide during and just after World War I. Wadai War Italo-Turkish War First Balkan Wars – two wars took place in South-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913. Saudi-Ottoman War Latvian War of Independence - a military conflict in Latvia between the Republic of Latvia and the Russian SFSR. The Russian Revolution is the term for the series of revolutions in Russia in 1917. April 13,1919 - The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, at Amritsar in the Punjab Province of British India, sows the seeds of discontent, xinhai Revolution causes the overthrow of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China. Madero proclaims the elections of 1910 null and void, and calls for a revolution at 6 p. m. against the illegitimate presidency/dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. The revolution lead to the ouster of Porfirio Díaz six months later, the Revolution progressively becomes a civil war with multiple factions and phases, culminating with the Mexican Constitution of 1917, but combat would persist for three more years. Germany abolishes its monarchy and becomes under the rule of a new elected government called the Weimar Republic, federal Reserve Act is passed by United States Congress, establishing a Central Bank in the US. George V becomes king in Britain, fourteen Points as designed by United States President Woodrow Wilson advocates the right of all nations to self-determination. Rise to power of the Bolsheviks in Russia under Vladimir Lenin, creating the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, easter Rising against the British in Ireland, eventually leads to Irish independence. Several nations in Eastern Europe get their own state, thereby replacing major multiethnic empires
As of the start of 1886, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Upper Burma is formally annexed to British Burma, january 5 – Publication of Robert Louis Stevensons novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. January 18 – Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England, january 29 – Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile, the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. February 14 – The first train load of oranges leaves Los Angeles via the transcontinental railroad, march 3 – The Treaty of Bucharest ends the Serbo-Bulgarian War in the Balkans. March 8 – Anti-Chinese sentiments result in riots in Seattle, USA, march 16 – A law establishing the Kiel Canal is adopted. March 17 – Carrollton Massacre,20 African Americans are killed in Mississippi, march 29 – Wilhelm Steinitz becomes first recognized World Chess Champion. April 4 – William Ewart Gladstone introduces the First Irish Home Rule Bill in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, april 6 – Vancouver in British Columbia is incorporated. April 25 – Easter occurs on the latest possible date, may 4 A general strike begins in the United States, which escalates into the Haymarket Riot and eventually wins the eight-hour day for workers. Emile Berliner starts work that leads to the invention of the gramophone, may 8 – American pharmacist Dr. John Pemberton invents a carbonated beverage that will be named Coca-Cola. May 15 – Portugal and France agree to regulate the borders of their colonies in Guinea, may 17 Motherwell Football Club is founded in Scotland. Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, The U. S. Supreme Court rules that corporations have the rights as living persons. May 29 – John Pemberton begins to advertise Coca-Cola, June 2 – U. S. President Grover Cleveland marries Frances Folsom in the White House, becoming the only President of the United States to wed in the executive mansion. She is 27 years his junior, June 3 – Uganda Martyrs, Charles Lwanga, twelve other Catholic boys and men and nine Anglicans are burned to death at the orders of Kabaka Mwanga II of Buganda in Namugongo. June 10 – The Mount Tarawera volcano erupts in New Zealand, resulting in the deaths of over 150 people, June 12 – King Ludwig II of Bavaria is detained as part of a deposition, drowning the following day under mysterious circumstances. Six weeks later his unfinished Neuschwanstein Castle is opened to the public, June 13 – The Great Vancouver Fire devastates much of Vancouver, British Columbia. June 30 – The Royal Holloway College for women is opened by Queen Victoria near London in England, july 3 – Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent Motorwagen. July 9 – Charles Hall files a patent for his process of turning aluminium oxide into molten aluminium, july 23 – Steve Brodie fakes a jump from the Brooklyn Bridge. July 25 – Robert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury becomes Great Britains 30th Prime Minister, july 31 – Death of Hungarian composer Franz Liszt
As of the start of 1887, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 11 – Louis Pasteurs anti-rabies treatment is defended in the Académie Nationale de Médecine by Dr. Joseph Grancher, january 20 – The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base. January 21 The Amateur Athletic Union is formed, Brisbane receives a one-day rainfall of 465 millimetres – a record for any Australian capital city. January 24 – Battle of Dogali, Abyssinian troops defeat the Italians, january 28 In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, USA, the largest snowflakes on record are reported. They are 15 inches wide and 8 inches thick, construction of the foundations of the Eiffel Tower starts in Paris, France. February 2 – In Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, the first Groundhog Day is observed, february 4 – The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, as passed by the 49th United States Congress, is signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. February 5 – The Giuseppe Verdi opera Otello premieres at La Scala, february 8 – The Dawes Act, or the General Allotment Act, is enacted. February 23 – The French Riviera is hit by a large earthquake, february 26 – At the Sydney Cricket Ground, George Lohmann becomes the first bowler to take eight wickets in a Test innings. March 3 – Anne Sullivan begins teaching Helen Keller, march 4 – Gottlieb Daimler unveils his first automobile. March 7 – North Carolina State University is established as North Carolina College of Agriculture, march 13 – Chester Greenwood patents earmuffs. April 1 – Mumbai Fire Brigade is established, April 4 – Argonia, Kansas elects Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States. April 9 – The Charter of Incorporation was approved for The Teutonia Maennerchor Hall in the East Allegheny neighborhood of Pittsburgh, April 10 – The Catholic University of America is founded on Easter Sunday. April 21 – Schnaebele incident – French/German border incident nearly leads to war between the two countries, April 20 – Occidental College is founded. May 3 – An earthquake hits Sonora, Mexico, may 9 – Buffalo Bills Wild West Show opens in London. May 14 – The cornerstone of the new Stanford University, in northern California, is laid, June 8 – Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his punched card calculator. June 18 – The Reinsurance Treaty is closed between Germany and Russia, June 21 The British Empire celebrates Queen Victorias Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th year of her reign. June 23 – The Rocky Mountains Park Act becomes law in Canada, creating that nations first national park, June 28 – Minot, North Dakota is incorporated as a city. June 29 – The United Retail Federation is established in Brisbane, july – James Blyth operates the first working wind turbine at Marykirk in Scotland
As of the start of 1888, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In Germany,1888 is known as the Year of the Three Emperors, currently, it is the year that, when written in Roman numerals, has the most digits. This will be surpassed as late as 2888, january 3 – The 91-centimeter telescope is first used at Lick Observatory in California. January 12 – The Schoolhouse Blizzard hits Dakota Territory, the states of Montana, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, january 13 – The National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D. C. January 21 –– Amateur Athletic Union is founded by William Buckingham Curtis in the United States, january 26 –– The Lawn Tennis Association is founded in England. February 6 –– Gillis Bildt becomes Prime Minister of Sweden, february 27 – In West Orange, New Jersey, Thomas Edison meets with Eadweard Muybridge, who proposes a scheme for sound film. March 8 – The Agriculture College of Utah, is founded in Logan, march 9 – Frederick III becomes German Emperor and King of Prussia. March 11 – The Great Blizzard of 1888 begins along the seaboard of the United States, shutting down commerce. March 13 – De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. is founded in Kimberley, march 15 – Start of the Sikkim Expedition, a British military expedition to expel the Tibetans from northern Sikkim. March 16 – Foundation stone for a new National Library of Greece is laid in Athens, march 20 – The very first Romani language operetta premieres in Moscow, Russia. March 23 – A meeting called by William McGregor to discuss establishment of The Football League is held in London, march 27 – The Rescue of the Renown, Dorus Rijkers saves the 30-man crew of the Renown off the Netherlands coast, risking his own life. March 29 – Death of French-Jewish composer Charles-Valentin Alkan, march – International Council of Women formed, a key event in the international womens movement. April 3 The Brighton Beach Hotel in Coney Island is moved 520 feet using six steam locomotives by civil engineer B. C. Miller to save it from ocean storms. April 6 – First New Years Day of the solar calendar adopted by Siamese King Chulalongkorn with the 106th anniversary of Bangkoks founding in 1782 as its epoch, April 11 – The Concertgebouw in Amsterdam is inaugurated. April 16 – The German Empire annexes the island of Nauru, April 21 – The Texas State Capitol building, completed at a cost of 3 million dollars, opens to the public in Austin. May 1 – The United States Congress establishes the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, may 8 – Royal opening of the International Exhibition of Science, Art and Industry in Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow. May 12 – The North Borneo Chartered Companys territories become the British protectorate of North Borneo, may 13 – In Brazil, the Lei Áurea abolishes the last remnants of slavery. May 28 – In Scotland, Celtic F. C. plays its first official match winning 5–2 against Rangers F. C, may 30 – Hong Kongs Peak Tram begins operation
As of the start of 1889, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 A total eclipse of the Sun is seen over parts of California, wovoka experiences a vision leading to the start of the Ghost Dance movement in the Dakotas. January 4 – An Act to Regulate Appointments in the Marine Hospital Service of the United States is signed by President Grover Cleveland and it establishes a Commissioned Corps of officers as a predecessor to the modern-day U. S. January 5 – Preston North End F. C. is declared the winner of the inaugural Football League in England, january 8 – Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his electric tabulating machine in the United States. January 15 – The Coca-Cola Company is originally incorporated as the Pemberton Medicine Company in Atlanta, january 22 – Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, D. C. January 30 – Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria, and his mistress Baroness Mary Vetsera commit a suicide in the Mayerling hunting lodge. February 5 – The first issue of Glasgow University Magazine is published, February 15 – The first issue of La Solidaridad is published. February 11 – The Meiji Constitution of Japan is adopted, the 1st Diet of Japan convenes in 1890, February 22 – President Grover Cleveland signs a bill admitting North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington as U. S. states. March 4 – Benjamin Harrison is sworn in as President of the United States, March 9 – Yohannes IV, Emperor of Ethiopia, is killed in the Battle of Metemma, Sudanese forces, who had been almost defeated, rally and destroy the Ethiopian army. Yohannes is probably the worlds last ruler ever to die in battle, Menelik II proclaims himself as the successor on March 25. March 11 – The North Carolina Legislature issues a charter for the creation of Elon College, March 15 – Samoan crisis, German and American warships keep each other at bay in a standoff in Apia harbor, ending when a cyclone blows in and sinks them all. March 22 – English Association football team Sheffield United F. C. formed at the Adelphi Hotel, March 23 – Claiming to be the Promised Messiah and Mahdi, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founds the Ahmadiyya Muslim community in Punjab Province. March 31 – The Eiffel Tower is inaugurated, at 300 m, its height exceeds the previous tallest structure in the world by 130 m. Contemporary critics regard it as aesthetically displeasing, april 1 – Following a failed attempt at a coup, French defense minister Georges Boulanger is forced to flee the country. April 10 – The Hammarby Roddförening is founded in Sweden, april 16 – Charlie Chaplin is born in London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. April 20 – Adolf Hitler is born at Braunau am Inn in Austria-Hungary on the border with Bavaria, april 22 – At high noon in Oklahoma Territory, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Rush of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed, may 2 – Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, signs a treaty of amity with Italy, giving Italy control over what will become Eritrea. May 6 – The Exposition Universelle opens in Paris with the Eiffel Tower as its entrance arch, the Galerie des machines, at 111 m, spans the longest interior space in the world at this time
As of the start of 1890, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 The Kingdom of Italy establishes Eritrea as its colony in the Horn of Africa, in Michigan, the wooden steamer Mackinaw burns in a fire on the Black River. January 2 The steamship Persia is wrecked off Corsica,130 lives are lost, alice Sanger becomes the first female staffer in the White House. January 25 The United Mine Workers of America is founded, nellie Bly completes her round-the-world journey in 72 days. February 9 – The Weather Bureau is established within the United States Department of Agriculture, february 17 – The British steamship Duburg is wrecked in the South China Sea,400 lives are lost. February 24 – Chicago is selected to host the Columbian Exposition March 1 The British steamship Quetia founders in the Torres Straits,124 lives are lost, léon Bourgeois succeeds Jean Antoine Ernest Constans as French Minister of the Interior. March 3 – The first American football game in Ohio State University history is played in Delaware, Ohio, against Ohio Wesleyan, March 4 – The Forth Bridge across the Firth of Forth in Scotland is opened to rail traffic. March 8 – North Dakota State University is founded in Fargo, March 17 – The first railway in Transvaal, the Randtram, opens between Boksburg and Braamfontein in Johannesburg. March 20 – Kaiser Wilhelm II dismisses Otto von Bismarck, March 27 – The March 1890 middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak,24 significant tornadoes are spawned by one system killing least 146 people. March 28 – Washington State University is founded in Pullman, april 2 – Kashihara Shrine, a landmark spot in Nara Prefecture, Japan, officially built by Emperor Mutsuhito. April 14 – First International Conference of American States in Washington DC, may 1 – A coordinated series of mass rallies and one-day strikes held throughout many cities and mining towns in Europe and North America to demand an eight-hour workday. May 2 – Oklahoma Territory becomes effective, may 12 – The first ever official English County Championship cricket match begins in Bristol, Yorkshire beats Gloucestershire by 8 wickets. May 20 – Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh moves to Auvers-sur-Oise on the edge of Paris in the care of Dr Paul Gachet where he will produce around seventy paintings in as many days, may 31 – The 5-story skylight Arcade opens in Cleveland, Ohio. June 1 – The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Holleriths tabulating machine to tabulate census returns using punched card input, june 12 – In Michigan, the wooden steamer Ryan is lost near Thunder Bay Island. June 20 – The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde published by Philadelphia-based Lippincotts Monthly Magazine, june 27 – Canadian-born boxer George Dixon defeats the British bantamweight champion in London, giving him claim to be the first black world champion in any sport. July 1 – Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty is signed by Great Britain and Germany, July 2 – The Sherman Antitrust Act and Sherman Silver Purchase Act become United States law. July 3 – Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U. S. state, July 10 – Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U. S. state. July 13 – In Minnesota, storms result in the Sea Wing disaster on Lake Pepin, July 14 – First recorded use of lime-green to describe a color
As of the start of 1891, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Paying of old age pensions begins in Germany, january 5 – Beginning of the Australian shearers strike that leads indirectly to the foundation of the Australian Labor Party. January 16 – The Chilean Civil War of 1891 breaks out, january 20 – Jim Hogg becomes the first native Texan to be governor of that state. January 27–May 2 – Jamaica International Exhibition, january 29 – Liliuokalani is proclaimed Queen of Hawaii. January 31 – The Portuguese republican revolution breaks out in the city of Porto. February – Beginning of the Tobacco Protest in Iran, february 14 – In the FA Cup quarter final in English Association football, a goal is deliberately stopped by handball on the goal line. An indirect free kick is awarded, since the penalty kick and this event probably changes public opinion on the penalty kick, seen previously as an Irishmans motion. February 15 – Allmänna Idrottsklubben sports club is founded in Stockholm, february 21 – Springhill, Nova Scotia, suffers a serious mining disaster. March 3 – The International Copyright Act of 1891 is passed by the 51st United States Congress, march 12 – Djurgårdens IF sports club is founded in Stockholm. March 14 – In New Orleans, a lynch mob storms the Old Parish Prison and lynches 11 Italians arrested, march 15 – Jesse W. Reno patents the first escalator at Coney Beach. March 17 – The British steamship SS Utopia, carrying Italian migrants to New York, sinks in the harbor of Gibraltar after collision with the battleship HMS Anson. March 18 – Official opening of the London–Paris telephone system, april 1 The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago. The London–Paris telephone system is opened to the general public. April 5 – Census in the United Kingdom,15.6 million people live in cities of 20,000 or more in England, may – Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claims to be the Promised Messiah and the Mahdi awaited in Islam. May 1 Troops fire on a workers May Day demonstration in support of the 8-hour workday in Fourmies, France, killing 9, the first Fascio dei lavoratori is founded by Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida in Catania, Sicily. May 5 – The Music Hall in New York has its opening and first public performance. May 11 – Ōtsu incident, Tsesarevich Nikolay Alexandrovich of Russia survives an assassination attempt while visiting Japan, may 15 – Pope Leo XIII issues the encyclical Rerum novarum on the rights and duties of capital and labor, resulting in the creation of many Christian Democrat parties throughout Europe. May 20 – Thomas Edisons prototype kinetoscope is first displayed at Edisons Laboratory, june 1 – The Johnstown Inclined Plane opens in Johnstown, Pennsylvania
As of the start of 1892, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Ellis Island begins accommodating immigrants to the United States, January 15 –James Naismiths rules for basketball are published for the first time in the Springfield YMCA International Training Schools newspaper, in an article titled A New Game. February 18 – Pennsauken Township, New Jersey is incorporated, February 27 – Rudolf Diesel applies for a patent on his compression ignition engine. February 29 – St. Petersburg, Florida is incorporated, march 1 – Theodoros Deligiannis ends his term as Prime Minister of Greece and Konstantinos Konstantopoulos takes office. March 6–8 – Exclusive Agreement, Rulers of the Trucial States sign an agreement by which they become de facto British protectorates, march 11 – First basketball game ever played in public, between students and faculty at the Springfield YMCA. The final score is 5–1 in favor of the students, with the goal for the faculty being scored by Amos Alonzo Stagg. A crowd of 200 spectators watches the game, march 13 – Ernest Louis, a grandson of Queen Victoria, becomes Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine on the death of his father, Grand Duke Louis IV. March 15 – The Liverpool Football Club is founded by John Houlding, Houlding decides to form his own team after Everton leaves Anfield in an argument over rent. March 18 – Sir Frederick Stanley announces his intention to donate the Stanley Cup, march 20 – The first ever French rugby championship final takes place in Paris. Pierre de Coubertin referees the match, which Racing Club de France wins 4–3 over Stade Français, march 31 – The worlds first fingerprinting bureau is formally opened by the Buenos Aires Chief of Police, it has been operating unofficially since the previous year. April – The Johnson County War breaks out between small farmers and large ranchers in Wyoming, April 15 – The General Electric Company is established through the merger of the Thomson-Houston Company and the Edison General Electric Company. April 29 – Redondo Beach, California, USA is founded, may 7 – The Cook Islands issue their first postage stamps. May 19 – Battle of Yemoja River, British troops defeat Ijebu infantry in modern-day Nigeria, may 20 – Last broad gauge Down train from Paddington on Great Western Railway. May 22 – The British conquest of Ijebu Ode marks a major extension of power into the Nigerian interior. May 24 – Prince George becomes Duke of York, may 28 – In San Francisco, John Muir organizes the Sierra Club. June 4 – Abercrombie & Fitch is established by David T. Abercrombie, june 5 – An oil fire in Oil City, Pennsylvania, kills 130 people. June 7 – Homer Plessy is arrested for sitting on the car in Louisiana. June 11 – The Limelight Department, later one of the worlds first film studios, is established in Melbourne
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football. The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia, Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard, Yale and Columbia then agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
Princeton Tigers football
Princeton’s football program—along with the football program at nearby Rutgers University—is the oldest in the world. The schools competed in American footballs first intercollegiate contest in 1869, students from The College of New Jersey traveled to New Brunswick, New Jersey on November 6,1869 to play Rutgers College in a new variant of rugby called football. Rutgers won the inaugural game 6 runs to 4 runs, a week later, Rutgers students traveled to Princeton, New Jersey for a rematch, which Princeton won. Due in part to their invention of the sport, the Tigers were one of the dominant forces in the days of intercollegiate football. The Tigers won their last national championship in 1950 when Dick Kazmaier, the policy further insulated Princeton and the Ivy League from the national spotlight. Despite an undefeated season in 1964, Princeton was not among the top 10 teams in the season-ending AP Poll, the NCAA split Division I collegiate football into two subdivisions in 1978, then called I-A for larger schools, and I-AA for the smaller ones. The NCAA had devised the split, in part, with the Ivy League in mind, unable to play competitively against long-time rival Rutgers anymore, Princeton stopped scheduling them as a football opponent after 1980. Then in 1982 the NCAA created a rule that stated an average attendance must be at least 15,000 to qualify for I-A membership. This forced the hand, as only some of the member schools met the attendance qualification. Choosing to stay rather than stand their ground separately in the increasingly competitive I-A subdivision. Despite often finishing its seasons ranked in the subdivision, Princeton cannot play in the NCAA Division I Football Championship per Ivy League rules. Most recently, Princeton instituted a coaching change as ten-year coach Roger Hughes was replaced by Cincinnati Bengals assistant offensive line coach Bob Surace. Surace was an All-Ivy league center at Princeton and graduated in 1990, beginning in 2018 Princeton will play Penn in their final game, intensifying the already heated rivalry between these two neighboring Ivy League schools. Conference championships,1957,1963,1964,1966,1969,1989,1992,1995,2006,2013, and 2016. In 1914, Princeton built Palmer Stadium, the college football stadium ever built. Palmer Stadium was modeled after the Greek Olympic stadium and seated 45,750 spectators, in the 1990s the university decided to demolish it for a new stadium rather than undertake a long and expensive renovation process, as Harvard had with its stadium in 1984. During the construction of the new stadium, the Tigers played a season of nine away games, Princeton University Stadium opened on September 19,1998 and seats 27,773. After eight years of grass fields, FieldTurf artificial playing surface was installed for the 2006 football season
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Danish Football Association
The Danish Football Association is the governing body of football in Denmark. It is the organization of the Danish football clubs and runs the professional Danish football leagues and it is based in the city of Brøndby and is a founding member of both FIFA and UEFA. The DBU has also been the body of futsal in Denmark since 2008. The DBU was founded in 1889 and was the first Football Association outside of Great Britain, however, it did not register games officially before the 1908 Summer Olympics, meaning that the win in the 1906 Intercalated Olympics tournament was not officially recorded by the DBU. Greenland is not a member of FIFA or any continental federation, the DBU awards the best national team players each year, with an award to the best senior team player, as well as the best player in three of the DBUs six national youth teams. Player of the Year Since 1963, the DBU has awarded the Danish Player of the Year in a vote amongst the Danish players, the record number of award wins is four, by Brian Laudrup. DBU found new sponsor DONG, an oil company, in 2004, official site in Danish and English Denmark at FIFA site Denmark at UEFA site
English Football League
The English Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888 as the Football League, the league is the oldest such competition in world football and it was the top-level football league in England from its foundation in the 19th century until 1992, when the top 22 clubs split away to form the Premier League. The league has 72 clubs evenly divided into three divisions, which are known as the Championship, League One and League Two, with 24 clubs in each division, the Football League has been associated with a title sponsor between 1983 and 2016. As this sponsor changed over the years the league too has been known by various names, the English Football League is also the name of the governing body of the league competition, and this body also organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The operations centre of the Football League is in Preston, while its commercial office is in London, the commercial office was formerly based in Lytham St Annes, after its original spell in Preston. The Football League consists of 70 professional association football clubs in England and 2 in Wales and it runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. It also organises two knockout cup competitions, the Football League Cup and Football League Trophy, the Football League was founded in 1888 by then Aston Villa director William McGregor, originally with 12 member clubs. Steady growth and the addition of more divisions meant that by 1950 the League had 92 clubs, the Football League therefore no longer includes the top 20 clubs who belong to this group, although promotion and relegation between the Football League and the Premier League continues. In total,136 teams have played in the Football League up to 2013, the Football Leagues 72 member clubs are grouped into three divisions, the Football League Championship, Football League One, and Football League Two. Each division has 24 clubs, and in any season a club plays each of the others in the same division twice, once at their home stadium. This makes for a total of 46 games played each season, clubs gain three points for a win, one for a draw, and none for a defeat. At the end of the season, clubs at the top of their division may win promotion to the higher division. At the top end of the competition, three Championship clubs win promotion from the Football League to the Premier League, with the bottom three Premier League clubs taking their places, reserve teams of Football League clubs usually play in the Central League or the Football Combination. Since the 2004–05 season, penalties have existed for clubs entering financial administration during the season and it is also required that a club exiting administration agree a Creditors Voluntary Agreement, and pay in full any other footballing creditors. Failure to do either of these result in a second. The other main situation in which is a club may lose points is by fielding an improperly registered or otherwise ineligible player. If a club is found to have done this, then any points earned from any match that player participated in will be deducted, the EFL organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The EFL Cup was established in 1960 and is open to all EFL and Premier League clubs, the EFL Trophy is for clubs belonging to EFL League One and EFL League Two
Preston North End F.C.
Preston North End Football Club is a professional association football club located in the Deepdale area of Preston, Lancashire. They play in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. Prestons unbeaten League and Cup season earned them the nickname The Invincibles, Prestons most recent major trophy success was their FA Cup victory over Huddersfield Town in 1938. Many notable players have played for the club, including Tom Finney, Bill Shankly, Tommy Docherty, Alan Kelly, Sr. and Graham Alexander. On 21 January 1875, the club leased a field opposite Moor Park on the site of the current Deepdale stadium, Preston North End were famously successful during the early years of professional football in England. In 1887, Preston beat Hyde 26–0 in the First Round of the FA Cup, Preston forward Jimmy Ross scored eight goals in the match, going on to score 19 goals in the competition that season, also still a record. The clubs last major win was their FA Cup triumph in 1938. Prestons most famous player, Sir Tom Finney, played for the club between 1946 and 1960, Finney is considered to be one of the greatest footballers of all time, and was also a local lad, dubbed the Preston Plumber due to his professional training as a plumber. Finney remains the top goalscorer, with 187 goals from 433 appearances. Following Finneys retirement, Preston were relegated to the Second Division in 1961 and have not played in the top division since, the club did reach the FA Cup final in 1964, but lost to West Ham United. Preston were relegated to the Third Division in the 1969–70 season, Alan Ball, Sr. John McGrath oversaw Prestons promotion back to the Third Division a year later, where they remained when John Beck took over in October 1992. The 38-year-old Beck had only recently been sacked by Cambridge United, the club almost made it two promotions in a row to reach the Premier League, but lost to Bolton Wanderers in the 2001 play-off final. Simon Grayson was appointed by the club on 18 February 2013, of Simon Graysons next 10 games, Preston won 3, drew 4 and lost 3. In Simon Graysons first summer in charge, he permanently signed 4 players, Tom Clarke, a centreback, Chris Humphrey, a winger, Kevin Davies, a Centre forward and Alex Nicholson. He also signed Declan Rudd on a long loan from Norwich City. He allowed 3 players to leave during the summer, those being Luke Foster, Chris Robertson, the 2013–14 season started off well, unbeaten in their first 9 league games. They also beat local rivals Blackpool in the League Cup, before being beaten by Lancashire rivals Burnley in the second round. The 9 league game unbeaten run came to an end on 5 October, against Peterborough United, Preston then went on another 9 game unbeaten league run, winning 5 and drawing 4, including a win against Leyton Orient, only their second league defeat of the season
Aston Villa Football Club is a professional association football club based in Aston, Birmingham, that plays in the Championship, the second level of English football. Founded in 1874, they have played at their current home ground, Villa Park, Aston Villa were one of the founder members of the Football League in 1888. They were also one of the members of the Premier League in 1992. Aston Villa are one of only five English clubs to be crowned champions of Europe and they have also won the First Division Championship seven times, the FA Cup seven times, the Football League Cup five times, and the UEFA Super Cup once. They have a local rivalry with Birmingham City and the Second City derby between the sides has been played since 1879. The clubs traditional kit colours are claret shirts with sky blue sleeves, white shorts and their traditional badge is of a rampant lion, which was introduced by the clubs Scottish chairman William McGregor in honour of the Royal Standard of Scotland. The club is owned by Recon Group Limited, a company chaired by Chinese businessman Tony Xia. Aston Villa Football Club were formed in March 1874, by members of the Villa Cross Wesleyan Chapel in Handsworth which is now part of Birmingham, the four founders of Aston Villa were Jack Hughes, Frederick Matthews, Walter Price and William Scattergood. Aston Villas first match was against the local Aston Brook St Marys Rugby team, as a condition of the match, the Villa side had to agree to play the first half under Rugby rules and the second half under Association rules. The club won their first FA Cup in 1887 with captain Archie Hunter becoming one of the games first household names. Aston Villa were one of the teams that competed in the inaugural Football League in 1888 with one of the clubs directors. Aston Villa emerged as the most successful English club of the Victorian era, winning no fewer than five League titles, in 1897, the year Villa won The Double, they moved into their present home, the Aston Lower Grounds. Supporters coined the name Villa Park, no official declaration listed the ground as Villa Park. This was largely the result of a defensive record, they conceded 110 goals in 42 games,7 of them coming from Arsenals Ted Drake in an infamous 1–7 defeat at Villa Park. Like all English clubs, Villa lost seven seasons to the Second World War, the team was rebuilt under the guidance of former player Alex Massie for the remainder of the 1940s. The team struggled in the league though and were relegated two seasons later, due in part to complacency. However, under the stewardship of manager Joe Mercer Villa returned to the top-flight in 1960 as Second Division Champions, the following season Aston Villa became the first team to win the Football League Cup. Mercers forced retirement from the club in 1964 signalled a period of deep turmoil, the most successful club in England was struggling to keep pace with changes in the modern game, with Villa being relegated for the third time, under manager Dick Taylor in 1967
Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C.
Wolverhampton Wanderers Football Club /ˌwʊlvərˈhæmptən/ is a professional association football club based in the city of Wolverhampton, West Midlands. The club was known as St. Lukes FC and was founded in 1877. They compete in the Championship, the second highest tier of English football, the following season saw two further managers dismissed as the club then suffered a second relegation, ending up in League One. However, in the season they gained promotion back to the Championship where they currently reside. The clubs current head coach is Paul Lambert, who took charge in November 2016, having become professional, the club were nominated to become one of the twelve founder members of the Football League in 1888, in which they played the first Football League match ever staged. They ended the season in third place, as well as reaching their first FA Cup Final, losing 0–3 to the first Double winners. At the conclusion of the campaign the club relocated for a time when they moved to Molineux. Wolves lifted the FA Cup for the first time in 1893 when they beat Everton 1–0, and added a second triumph in 1908, two years after having dropped into the Second Division. After struggling for years to regain their place in the top division, the club suffered a further relegation in 1923, entering the Third Division. Eight years later Wolves regained their status after winning the Second Division title under Major Frank Buckley. This game had been the last in a Wolves shirt for Stan Cullis, the 1950s were by far the most successful period in the clubs history. Captained by Billy Wright, Wolves finally claimed the championship for the first time in 1953–54. This became the final spur for Gabriel Hanot, the editor of LÉquipe, to propose the creation of the European Cup, although the decade opened with a fourth FA Cup victory and almost the first double of the 20th century, the 1960s saw Wolves begin to decline. Cullis was sacked in September 1964 in a season that ended with relegation and this exile would last only two seasons though, as they were promoted in 1967 as runners-up. During the close season in 1967, Wolves played a season in North America as part of the fledgling United Soccer Association league which imported clubs from Europe. Playing as the Los Angeles Wolves, they won the Western Division, the clubs return to the English top flight heralded another period of relative success under Bill McGarry, with a fourth place in 1971 qualifying them for the newly created UEFA Cup. They lifted silverware though two later, when they won the League Cup for the first time by beating Manchester City 2–1 in the final. The club was saved from liquidation at the last minute when it was purchased by a consortium fronted by former player Derek Dougan
The club was established in 1875, becoming a founding member of The Football League in 1888. It is one of three clubs to have been both a founder member of the Football League and the Premier League. In 1890, Rovers moved to Ewood Park, Blackburn Rovers have been English champions three times, and have won six FA Cups and one Football League Cup. Blackburn are the only extant club to have won three consecutive FA Cups, the club has spent the majority of its existence in the top flight of English football. In 1992, Rovers gained promotion to the new Premier League a year after being taken over by local entrepreneur Jack Walker, in 1995, Rovers became Premier League champions. In the 1998–99 season, the club was relegated and it was promoted back to the Premier League two years later, in the 2000–01 season. It has qualified for the UEFA Cup four times, once as League Cup winners, twice as the Premier Leagues sixth-placed team, the 2011–12 season marked the clubs 72nd, non-consecutive, year in the top flight. Rovers are currently one of six clubs to have won the Premier League, along with Arsenal, Chelsea, Manchester United, Manchester City. The clubs motto is Arte et Labore, By Skill and Hard Work in Latin, the club was founded following a meeting, at the Leger Hotel, Blackburn, on 5 November 1875. The meeting was organised by two men, namely John Lewis and Arthur Constantine. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the possibility of forming a club to play under Association rules. The first match played by Blackburn Rovers took place in Church, on 28 September 1878, Blackburn Rovers became one of 23 clubs to form the Lancashire Football Association. On 1 November 1879 the club played in the F. A, Cup for the first time, beating the Tyne Association Football Club 5–1. Rovers were eventually put out of the competition in the round after suffering a heavy 6–0 defeat by Nottingham Forest. On 25 March 1882 the club won through to the final of the F. A, Blackburn Rovers was the first provincial team to reach the final, but the result was a 1–0 defeat by the Old Etonians. Cup on 29 March 1884 with a 2–1 victory over the Scottish team Queens Park, the same teams played the F. A. Cup final again the season, with Blackburn Rovers again emerging victorious. Rovers repeated this success yet again the season, winning the final replay 2–0 against West Bromwich Albion
Bolton Wanderers Football Club is a professional association football club based in Bolton, Greater Manchester. The club currently competes in League One, the tier of the English football league system. The club was formed as Christ Church Football Club in 1874, founder members of the Football League in 1888, Bolton have spent the highest number of seasons of any club in the top flight without winning the title. The closest they have come to the title is third in the First Division on three occasions, as of 2015, the club has spent more seasons in the top division than any other club outside the current Premier League. Bolton were a successful cup side in the 1920s, winning the FA Cup three times, the club won the cup a fourth time in 1958. A leaner spell followed, reaching a nadir in 1987 when the club spent a season in the Fourth Division, the club regained top-flight status in 1995 after a 15-year absence. In a period of success, the club qualified for the UEFA Cup twice, reaching the last 32 in 2005–06. The club played at Burnden Park for 102 years from 1895, on 9 March 1946, The Burnden Park disaster occurred, which was a human crush in which 33 Bolton fans lost their lives. In 1997 it moved out of town to the Reebok Stadium, the stadium was renamed the Macron Stadium in July 2014, to reflect the clubs new deal with Italian sportswear company Macron. The club was founded by the Reverend Joseph Farrall Wright, Perpetual curate of Christ Church Bolton and Thomas Ogden, the schoolmaster at the adjacent church school in 1874 as Christ Church F. C. It was initially run from the church of the name on Deane Road. The club left the following a dispute with the vicar. The name was chosen as the club initially had a lot of difficulty finding a permanent ground to play on, Bolton were one of the 12 founder members of the Football League, which formed in 1888. At the time Lancashire was one of the strongest footballing regions in the country, having remained in the Football League since its formation, Bolton have spent more time in the top flight than out of it. In 1894 Bolton reached the final of the FA Cup for the first time, a decade later they were runners-up a second time, losing 1–0 to local rivals Manchester City at Crystal Palace on 23 April 1904. In this period Bolton equalled their record finish of third twice, in 1920–21 and 1924–25, on 28 April 1923, Bolton won their first major trophy in their third final, beating West Ham United 2–0 in the first ever Wembley FA Cup final. The match, famously known as The White Horse Final was played in front of over 127,000 supporters, boltons centre-forward, David Jack scored the first ever goal at Wembley Stadium. Driven by long-term players Joe Smith in attack, Ted Vizard and Billy Butler on the wings, in 1928 the club faced financial difficulties and so was forced to sell David Jack to Arsenal to raise funds
West Bromwich Albion F.C.
The club was formed in 1878 and has played at its home ground, The Hawthorns, since 1900. Albion were one of the members of the Football League in 1888 and have spent the majority of their existence in the top tier of English football. They have been champions of England once, in 1919–20 and have been runners-up twice but they have had success in the FA Cup. The first came in 1888, the year the league was founded, and they also won the Football League Cup at the first attempt in 1966. The clubs longest consecutive period in the top division spanned twenty-four years between 1949 and 1973, and from 1986 to 2002 they spent their longest ever spell out of the top division and they currently play in the Premier League. The team has played in blue and white stripes for most of the clubs history. The club was founded as West Bromwich Strollers in 1878 by workers from George Salters Spring Works in West Bromwich, the club joined the Birmingham & District Football Association in 1881 and became eligible for their first competition, the Birmingham Cup. They reached the quarter-finals, beating several longer-established clubs on the way, in 1883, Albion won their first trophy, the Staffordshire Cup. Albion joined the Football Association in the year, this enabled them to enter the FA Cup for the first time in the 1883–84 season. In 1885 the club turned professional, and in 1886 they reached the FA Cup final for the first time and they reached the final again in 1887, but lost 2–0 to Aston Villa. In 1888 the team won the trophy for the first time, as FA Cup winners, they qualified to play in a Football World Championship game against Scottish Cup winners Renton, which ended in a 4–1 defeat. Thus when the Football League started later that year, Albion became one of the founder members. Albions second FA Cup success came in 1892, beating Aston Villa 3–0 and they met Villa again in the 1895 final, but lost 1–0. The team suffered relegation to Division Two in 1900–01, their first season at The Hawthorns and they were promoted as champions the following season but relegated again in 1903–04. The club won the Division Two championship once more in 1910–11, and the season reached another FA Cup Final. Albion won the Football League title in 1919–20 for the time in their history following the end of World War I. The team finished as Division One runners-up in 1924–25, narrowly losing out to Huddersfield Town, in 1930–31, they won promotion as well as the FA Cup, beating Birmingham 2–1 in the final. The Double of winning the FA Cup and promotion has not been achieved before or since, Albion reached the final again in 1935, losing to Sheffield Wednesday, but were relegated three years later
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Highbury, London, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club has won 13 League titles,12 FA Cups, Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893. They entered the First Division in 1904, and have accumulated the second most points. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, in the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, and another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970–71, they won their first League and FA Cup Double, between 1989 and 2005, they won five League titles and five FA Cups, including two more Doubles. They completed the 20th century with the highest average league position, Herbert Chapman won Arsenals first national trophies, but died prematurely. He helped introduce the WM formation, floodlights, and shirt numbers, Arsène Wenger has been the longest-serving manager and has won the most trophies. His teams set several English records, the longest win streak, the longest unbeaten run, in 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury. They became Tottenham Hotspurs nearest club, commencing the North London derby, in 2006, they moved down the road to the Emirates Stadium. Arsenal earned €435. 5m in 2014–15, with the Emirates Stadium generating the highest revenue in world football, based on social media activity from 2014–15, Arsenals fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2016, Forbes estimated the club was the second most valuable in England, on 1 December 1886, munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with David Danskin as their first captain. Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C. s first home was Plumstead Common, though spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead. Royal Arsenal won Arsenals first trophies in 1890 and 1891, Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893. They registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended later that year, Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers, businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall took the club over, and sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury and this saw their third change of name, the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to simply The Arsenal
Sheffield Wednesday F.C.
Sheffield Wednesday Football Club is a professional association football club based in Sheffield, England. The team competes in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. Formed as an offshoot of The Wednesday Cricket Club in 1867, in 1868 they won the Cromwell Cup, only the second tournament of its kind, and in 1877 they won the inaugural Sheffield Challenge Cup, the oldest county cup in England. They were founding members and inaugural champions of the Football Alliance in 1889, in 1992 they became founder members of the Premier League. The club has spent most of its history in English footballs top flight. The Owls, as they are nicknamed, have won four league titles, Wednesday have also competed in UEFA cup competitions on four occasions, reaching the quarter-finals of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1963. Since 1899 the club has played its matches at Hillsborough stadium. Although no contemporary evidence has found to support the claim. Nevertheless, an 1842 article in Bells Life magazine states the club was founded as far back as 1816, the club was so named because it was on Wednesdays that the founding members had their day off work. They were initially based at the New Ground in Darnall, and often went by the name of Darnall Wednesday, in 1855 they were one of six clubs that helped build Bramall Lane, and held a wicket there for many years. The proposal proved very popular, with over 60 members signing up for the new team on the first night and they played their first match against The Mechanics on 19 October the same year, winning by three goals and four rouges to nil. On 1 February 1868, Wednesday played their first competitive match as they entered the Cromwell Cup. A week after their semi-final, they went on to win the cup, beating the Garrick club in the final after extra time, a key figure during the formative years of the football club was Charles Clegg, who joined the Wednesday in 1867. His relationship with the club lasted for the rest of his life and he also became president and chairman of the Football Association, and was known as the Napoleon of Football. In 1876 Wednesday acquired Scot James Lang, although he was not employed by the club, he was given a job by a member of the Sheffield Wednesday board that had no formal duties. He is now acknowledged as the first professional player in England. With Lang in their team the club became one of the strongest in the region. In 1880 the club entered the FA Cup for the first time, but although they had had Lang on their books a decade earlier, the club officially remained staunchly amateur, and this stance almost cost the club its very existence
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
Nottingham Forest Football Club is a professional association football club based in Nottinghamshire, England. The team play in the Championship, the tier of English football. The club, often referred to as Forest, have played matches at the City Ground since 1898. Founded in 1865, Forest were founder members of the Football Alliance in 1889, since then, they have mostly competed in the top two League tiers, bar five seasons in the third tier. Forest won the FA Cup in 1898 and 1959, Forest were founded in 1865 as Nottingham Forest Football and Bandy Club by a group of shinty players shortly after their neighbours Notts County, in 1862. They joined the Football Alliance in 1889, and won the competition in 1892, in their early years Forest were a multi-sports club, as well as their roots in bandy and shinty, the baseball club Forest deployed were British champions in 1899. Forests charitable approach to the sport helped teams like Liverpool, Arsenal, in 1886, Forest donated a set of football kits to help Arsenal establish themselves – the North London team still wear red. Forest also donated shirts to Everton and helped secure a site to play on for Brighton, Forest claimed their first major honour when they won the 1898 FA Cup, beating Derby County 3–1 at Crystal Palace. However, for much of the first half of the 20th century the club spent life in the Second Division and had to seek re-election in 1914 after finishing bottom. In 1949 the club were relegated to the Third Division, but were promoted back two years later as champions having scored a record 110 goals in the 1950–51 season. They therefore became the first team to defeat the Wembley hoodoo, by this time Forest had replaced Notts County as the biggest club in Nottingham and went on to become runners-up in the First Division and FA Cup semi-finalists in 1967. However, after a successful period for the club, Forest were relegated from the First Division in 1972. Clough became the most successful manager in the history of Nottingham Forest, cloughs first game in charge was the third round FA Cup replay against Tottenham Hotspur, a 1–0 victory thanks to a goal by Scottish centre-forward Neil Martin. Nottingham Forest became one of the few teams to win the First Division Championship a year after winning promotion from the Second Division and they also won the European Super Cup and two League Cups. The club reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup in 1983–84 but were knocked out by Anderlecht in controversial but uncertain circumstances. The case was dismissed and Anderlecht was acquitted from all charges Nottingham Forests next major trophies came in 1989 when they won the Football League Cup. Cloughs side retained the League Cup in 1990 when they beat Oldham Athletic 1–0, in Forests team that day was young Irish midfielder Roy Keane, who had joined the club the previous summer. In the summer of 1991, Brian Clough broke Forests transfer record fee by signing the top scorer, Millwall striker Teddy Sheringham
Birmingham City F.C.
Birmingham City Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Birmingham, England. Formed in 1875 as Small Heath Alliance, they became Small Heath in 1888, then Birmingham in 1905, the team compete in the EFL Championship, the second tier of the English football league system. As Small Heath, they played in the Football Alliance before becoming founder members, the most successful period in their history was in the 1950s and early 1960s. They won the competition for the second time in 2011. St Andrews has been their ground since 1906. They have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with Aston Villa, their nearest neighbours, the clubs nickname is Blues, due to the colour of their kit, and their fans are known as Bluenoses. Birmingham City were founded as Small Heath Alliance in 1875, the club turned professional in 1885, and three years later became the first football club to become a limited company with a board of directors, under the name of Small Heath F. C. Ltd. From the 1889–90 season they played in the Football Alliance, which ran alongside the Football League, in 1892, Small Heath, along with the other Alliance teams, were invited to join the newly formed Football League Second Division. The club adopted the name Birmingham Football Club in 1905, and moved into their new home, St Andrews Ground, matters on the field failed to live up to their surroundings. Birmingham were relegated in 1908, obliged to apply for two years later, and remained in the Second Division until after the First World War. Frank Womacks captaincy and the creativity of Scottish international playmaker Johnny Crosbie contributed much to Birmingham winning their second Division Two title in 1920–21, Womack went on to make 515 appearances, a club record for an outfielder, over a twenty-year career. 1920 also saw the debut of the 19-year-old Joe Bradford, who went on to score a club record 267 goals in 445 games, and won 12 caps for England. In 1931, manager Leslie Knighton led the club to their first FA Cup Final and they were finally relegated in 1939, the last full season before the Football League was abandoned for the duration of the Second World War. The name Birmingham City F. C. was adopted in 1943, under Harry Storer, appointed manager in 1945, the club won the Football League South wartime league and reached the semifinal of the first post-war FA Cup. Two years later won their third Second Division title, conceding only 24 goals in the 42-game season. Storers successor Bob Brocklebank, though unable to stave off relegation in 1950, when Arthur Turner took over as manager in November 1954, he made them play closer to their potential, and a 5–1 win on the last day of the 1954–55 season confirmed them as champions. In their first season back in the First Division, Birmingham achieved their highest league finish of sixth place. They also reached the FA Cup final, losing 3–1 to Manchester City in the game notable for Citys goalkeeper Bert Trautmann playing the last 20 minutes with a bone in his neck
Grimsby Town F.C.
Grimsby Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in the seaside town of Cleethorpes, North East Lincolnshire, England. The team compete in League Two, the tier of league football in England. They were formed in 1878 as Grimsby Pelham and later became Grimsby Town, the club is located at Blundell Park where it has been since 1898. They are the most successful of the three professional clubs in historic Lincolnshire, being the only one to play top-flight football. It is also the club of the three to reach an FA Cup semi-final It has also spent more time in the English games first. In 2008 Buckley took Grimsby to the again, but lost out to MK Dons in the final of the Football League Trophy. Grimsby managed to reach the Conference play-off final in both 2015 and 2016, after losing to Bristol Rovers they defeated Forest Green Rovers to earn promotion back to the Football League. Initial relegation back in 2010 made them the club to compete in all top five divisions of English football. Grimsbys claims to fame are that their 1939 FA Cup semi-final with Wolverhampton Wanderers attendance of 76,962 is still a record at Manchester Uniteds Old Trafford stadium and they were also the first English club to appoint a foreign manager doing so in 1954 with Hungarian manager Elemér Berkessy. The clubs record holder is John McDermott, who made 754 appearances between 1987 and 2007, while their leading scorer is Pat Glover, with 180 goals. Grimsby Town F. C. was formed in 1878 after a meeting held at the Wellington Arms public house in Freeman Street, Grimsby. Several attendees included members of the local Worsley Cricket Club who wanted to form a club to occupy the empty winter evenings after the cricket season had finished. The club was originally called Grimsby Pelham, this being the name of the Earl of Yarborough. In 1880 the club purchased land at Clee Park which was to become their ground until 1889 when they relocated to Abbey Park, before moving again in 1899 to their present home, Blundell Park. The original colours were blue and white hoops, which were changed to chocolate, in 1888 the club first played league football, joining the newly formed Combination. The league soon collapsed and the year the club applied to join the Football League. Instead the club joined the Football Alliance, in 1890 the club became a limited company and in 1892 finally entered the Football League, when it was expanded to two divisions. The first game was a 2–1 victory over Northwich Victoria, however they finished as champions at the first attempt and at the subsequent re-election vote, replaced local rivals Lincoln City in the Football League
Manchester City Football Club is a football club in Manchester, England. Founded in 1880 as St. Marks, they became Ardwick Association Football Club in 1887, the club moved to the City of Manchester Stadium in 2003, having played at Maine Road since 1923. After losing the 1981 FA Cup Final, the club went through a period of decline, having regained their Premier League status in the early 2000s, the club was purchased in 2008 by Abu Dhabi United Group and has become one of the wealthiest in the world. Since 2011 the club have won five major honours, including the Premier League in 2012 and 2014, by 2014–15, Manchester City had the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €463.5 million. In 2016, Forbes magazine estimated they were the sixth most valuable football club. City gained their first honours by winning the Second Division in 1899, with it promotion to the highest level in English football. A fire at Hyde Road destroyed the main stand in 1920, in the 1930s, Manchester City reached two consecutive FA Cup finals, losing to Everton in 1933, before claiming the Cup by beating Portsmouth in 1934. The club won the First Division title for the first time in 1937, after relegation to the Second Division in 1963, the future looked bleak with a record low home attendance of 8,015 against Swindon Town in January 1965. In the summer of 1965, the management team of Joe Mercer, in the first season under Mercer, City won the Second Division title and made important signings in Mike Summerbee and Colin Bell. Further trophies followed, City won the FA Cup in 1969, before achieving European success by winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1970, beating Górnik Zabrze 2–1 in Vienna. City also won the League Cup that season, becoming the second English team to win a European trophy, the club continued to challenge for honours throughout the 1970s, finishing one point behind the league champions on two occasions and reaching the final of the 1974 League Cup. Former United player Denis Law scored with a backheel to give City a 1–0 win at Old Trafford, the final trophy of the clubs most successful period was won in 1976, when Newcastle United were beaten 2–1 in the League Cup final. A long period of decline followed the success of the 1960s and 1970s, Malcolm Allison rejoined the club to become manager for the second time in 1979, but squandered large sums of money on unsuccessful signings, such as Steve Daley. A succession of managers then followed – seven in the 1980s alone, under John Bond, City reached the 1981 FA Cup final but lost in a replay to Tottenham Hotspur. The club were relegated from the top flight in the 1980s. However, this was only a respite, and following Reids departure Manchester Citys fortunes continued to fade. City were co-founders of the Premier League upon its creation in 1992, after two seasons in Division One, City fell to the lowest point in their history, becoming the second ever European trophy winners to be relegated to their countrys third league tier, after 1. After relegation, the club underwent off-the-field upheaval, with new chairman David Bernstein introducing greater fiscal discipline, under manager Joe Royle, City were promoted at the first attempt, achieved in dramatic fashion in a play-off against Gillingham
Sheffield United F.C.
Sheffield United Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. The team competes in League One, the tier of English football. The football club was formed in 1889 as an offshoot of Sheffield United Cricket Club, the club have played their home games at Bramall Lane since their formation in 1889. Bramall Lane is currently an all-seater ground with a capacity of 32,609, Sheffield United won the original First Division in 1898 and the FA Cup in 1899,1902,1915 and 1925. They were beaten finalists in the FA Cup in 1901 and 1936 and they reached the semi-finals of the League Cup in 2003 and 2015. For most of the history they have played in red. Their closest rivals are Sheffield Wednesday, with whom they contest the Steel City Derby, Sheffield United formed on 22 March 1889 at the Adelphi Hotel, Sheffield by the President of the Cricket Club Sir Charles Clegg. The Wednesday had moved from Bramall Lane to their own ground at Olive Grove, Sir Charles Clegg was incidentally also the president of The Wednesday. Their darkest days came between 1975 and 1981 and they did fall back into the Third Division in 1988, but new manager Dave Bassett masterminded a quick revival which launched the Blades towards one of the most successful eras in their history. Successive promotions in the aftermath of the 1988 relegation saw them return to the First Division in 1990 after a 14-year exile and they survived at this level for four seasons and reached an FA Cup semi-final in the 1992–93 season before being relegated in 1994. Three years later, however, Warnock delivered a Premier League return as the Blades finished runners-up in the rebranded Football League Championship, Neil Warnock resigned as manager after the Blades went down. The Blades did reach the Championship playoff final in 2009 under Kevin Blackwell, in the 2011–12 season, the club finished third in League One, narrowly missing out on automatic promotion to rivals Sheffield Wednesday, and entered the playoffs. With victory over Stevenage in the semi-final, United missed out on a return to the Championship after suffering a penalty shootout defeat to Huddersfield Town. In 2014, the Blades gained the nickname of giant-killers, having reached the FA Cup semi-finals at Wembley, losing 5–3 to Hull City. In 2014–15, they reach the quarter-finals of the FA Cup and semi-finals of the Football League Cup, the club was formed by members of the Sheffield United Cricket Club, itself formed in 1854 and the first English sports club to use United in its name. Sheffield Uniteds predominant nickname is The Blades, a reference to Sheffields status as the producer of cutlery in the United Kingdom. Because of this, the nickname would also be used in reference to rivals Sheffield Wednesday, another nickname used was The Cutlers. In 1907, Wednesday came to be referred to as The Owls, in reference to their new ground in Owlerton, within Sheffield fans of the club are also sometimes referred to as Unitedites
Bramall Lane is a football stadium in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is the home of Sheffield United and it was also used by Sheffield Wednesday and Sheffield F. C. for major matches. This is because Sheffield Wednesday are a club and used to own this ground. It has been the home of Sheffield United since the establishment in 1889. It is the oldest major stadium in the still to be hosting professional association football matches. The stadium was built on a Sheffield road named after the Bramall family, the Bramalls owned The Old White House on the corner of Bramall Lane and Cherry Street, and subsequently built the Sheaf House, now a public house that still stands at the top of Bramall Lane. The stadium was opened as a cricket ground. It was also used for games in the 19th century by Sheffield F. C. and Sheffield Wednesday. Bramall Lane is one of two grounds which has hosted England football internationals, an England cricket test match and an FA Cup Final. It also regularly hosted FA Cup Semi Finals and replays between 1889 and 1938, the ground has also hosted rugby league games for the Sheffield Eagles, a Billy Graham Evangelist meeting in 1985 and a pair of rock concerts by Bruce Springsteen in 1988. The record attendance for the ground is 68,287, set at an FA Cup 5th Round tie between Sheffield United and Leeds United on 15 February 1936. Bramall Lane opened as a ground in 1855, having been leased by Michael Ellison from the Duke of Norfolk at an annual rent of £70. The site was then away from the industrial area. It was built to host the matches of cricket clubs and originally had six clubs playing there, one of whom was the Wednesday Cricket Club. Bramall Lane opened on 30 April 1855 as a ground with a match between The Eleven and The Twenty Two, The Eleven, despite being the senior team. A team representing Yorkshire played the first county match at the ground on 27 August 1855, against Sussex, although the first county game had been played eight years earlier, the official Yorkshire County Cricket Club was not formed until 1863. The idea came from Ellison, who was using his own finances to support the club and it was the clubs headquarters until 1893, when they moved to Headingley in Leeds. In 1897, Jack Brown and John Tunnicliffe recorded a first wicket score of 378 against Sussex—a ground record that has never been beaten, browns score of 311 and Yorkshires innings of 681 for 5 declared were also records when the cricket ground closed
The land on which the stadium stands was originally Deepdale Farm. It was leased on 21 January 1875 by the towns North End sports club and originally used for cricket and it hosted its first association football match on 5 October 1878. As football grew in popularity, it necessary to have raised areas. In the 1890s Preston built the West Paddock, which ran along the touch line, by the turn of the century, crowds were regularly over 10,000 and in 1921 they had to expand again. The Spion Kop was built and the West Paddock was extended to meet the Kop end, the pitch was removed to allow the building of the Town End, which was completed in 1928 but was destroyed by fire only five years later and had to be rebuilt. The Pavilion Stand, a small stand of two tiers holding the changing rooms and offices, was built and opened in 1934. The record league attendance for Preston North End at Deepdale is 42,684 v Arsenal in the First Division,23 April 1938, the womens team Dick, Kerrs Ladies also used to played at Deepdale, often beating mens professional teams in front of large crowds. During the 1960s and 1980s, big changes took place as roofs were placed on the stands, seating was installed, the original plans for the re-developed stadium were inspired by the Luigi Ferraris Stadium in Genoa, Italy. The regeneration of Deepdale began in 1995 when the old West Stand was demolished to make way for the new £4. 4m Sir Tom Finney Stand which includes press areas and restaurants. The next stand to be developed was the Bill Shankly Kop in 1998, followed by the Alan Kelly Town End in 2001, in 2008, a 25-metre screen was also erected on the roof of the Bill Shankly Kop. The statue, unveiled in July 2004, was inspired by a photo taken at the Chelsea versus PNE game played at Stamford Bridge, there had been a big downpour just before the kick off. The match would not have been played today because there were huge pools of water on the playing surface, I was going past a defender and the ball ran in to a pool of water. It was a photograph and it won the Sports Photograph of the Year award. The sculpture is a true likeness, Deepdale was used during the 2005 UEFA Womens Championship for three group games and a semi-final. Deepdale was the venue when the England Under-21s played Iceland in March 2011, Deepdale was used again at the end of the 2011–12 season to host two England Under-19s Elite Qualifying Round matches against Slovenia and Switzerland. Webcam showing construction of the fourth Stand