Blackburn Rovers F.C.
The club was established in 1875, becoming a founding member of The Football League in 1888. It is one of three clubs to have been both a founder member of the Football League and the Premier League. In 1890, Rovers moved to Ewood Park, Blackburn Rovers have been English champions three times, and have won six FA Cups and one Football League Cup. Blackburn are the only extant club to have won three consecutive FA Cups, the club has spent the majority of its existence in the top flight of English football. In 1992, Rovers gained promotion to the new Premier League a year after being taken over by local entrepreneur Jack Walker, in 1995, Rovers became Premier League champions. In the 1998–99 season, the club was relegated and it was promoted back to the Premier League two years later, in the 2000–01 season. It has qualified for the UEFA Cup four times, once as League Cup winners, twice as the Premier Leagues sixth-placed team, the 2011–12 season marked the clubs 72nd, non-consecutive, year in the top flight. Rovers are currently one of six clubs to have won the Premier League, along with Arsenal, Chelsea, Manchester United, Manchester City. The clubs motto is Arte et Labore, By Skill and Hard Work in Latin, the club was founded following a meeting, at the Leger Hotel, Blackburn, on 5 November 1875. The meeting was organised by two men, namely John Lewis and Arthur Constantine. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the possibility of forming a club to play under Association rules. The first match played by Blackburn Rovers took place in Church, on 28 September 1878, Blackburn Rovers became one of 23 clubs to form the Lancashire Football Association. On 1 November 1879 the club played in the F. A, Cup for the first time, beating the Tyne Association Football Club 5–1. Rovers were eventually put out of the competition in the round after suffering a heavy 6–0 defeat by Nottingham Forest. On 25 March 1882 the club won through to the final of the F. A, Blackburn Rovers was the first provincial team to reach the final, but the result was a 1–0 defeat by the Old Etonians. Cup on 29 March 1884 with a 2–1 victory over the Scottish team Queens Park, the same teams played the F. A. Cup final again the season, with Blackburn Rovers again emerging victorious. Rovers repeated this success yet again the season, winning the final replay 2–0 against West Bromwich Albion
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge, shorts and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, black, red, yellow, green and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, often, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control. The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal, body and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
Notts County F.C.
Notts County Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England. With records of games as early as 28 November 1862, Notts County is recognised as the oldest association football team in the world now playing at a professional level. Between 1888–89 and 2013–14 they played a total of 4,756 Football League matches – more than any other English team, the team plays in League Two, the fourth tier of the English football league system. County play their games at Meadow Lane in black and white striped shirts. The club has had spells in the top division of English football, most recently in 1991–92. Notable former managers of Notts County include Jimmy Sirrel, Howard Wilkinson, Neil Warnock, Howard Kendall, the club has had several owners. In the 21st century, a series of problems has seen the club owned by a supporters trust. Notts County are the oldest professional club in the world having been formed in 1862. Notts pre-dated The Football Association and initially played a game of its own devising, at the time of its formation, Notts County, like most sports teams, were considered to be a gentlemen-only club. Notts County are considered to be one of the pioneers of the game and are the oldest of the worlds professional association football clubs. In November 1872, the Notts County full-back Ernest Greenhalgh played for England against Scotland in the international match. In 1888, Notts County, along with 11 other football clubs and they finished their first league season in 11th place, but avoided the dubious honour of the wooden spoon, which went to Midlands rivals Stoke. However, Notts County did achieve their highest ever finish of third in 1890–91. On 25 March 1891, Notts County reached the FA Cup final for the first time, the Magpies were defeated 3–1 by Blackburn Rovers at The Oval, despite having beaten the same side 7–1 in the league only a week earlier. This achievement is also memorable for Notts County becoming the first club outside the top division to win the FA Cup, in 1910 they moved to Meadow Lane. Notts County were relegated in 1926 in what was to be their last season in the English top flight for half a century. The 1925–26 season was the last season that famed giant goalkeeper Albert Iremonger played for the club, in the 1946–47 season, the ground was used temporarily by Nottingham Forest after the River Trent flooded both Meadow Lane and the City Ground. Forest again used Meadow Lane in 1968, after fire destroyed the main stand at the City Ground, the golden age of the club came just after the end of World War II
William Billy Townley, born in Blackburn 14 February 1866, died 30 May 1950 in Blackpool, England, was an English Football player and coach. Townleys career as a player began with Blackburn Olympic F. C and he joined Blackburn Rovers in 1886 and won the FA Cup with the club in 1890 and 1891. He scored another goal in the defence of the title as the Rovers overcame Notts County 3–1 the following year. Townleys total of four goals in FA Cup finals has to date only been bettered once, by Liverpools Ian Rush, Townley was capped twice for England, in 1889 and 1890, scoring two goals in the second of those matches, which was a 9–1 victory over Ireland. In 1894 he moved to Darwen and played there for six years before joining Manchester City, in Germany, as in the rest of Europe at the time, the game was strictly amateur in character and players often had to contribute to team expenses. Coaches were often hired for special occasions only, or for a period to help develop the skills of a team. Townleys first coaching job was with DFC Prague who were beaten by VfB Leipzig in Germanys first national championship staged in 1903 and he later joined Karlsruher FV, losing finalists in 1905, and led them to a their only national title in 1910. The following year he was hired by the northern Bavarian club SpVgg Fürth and this club owned the most advanced facilities in Germany and was quickly becoming the largest club in the country with a membership approaching 3,000. Two months after his arrival Fürth lost against English side Newcastle United only 1–2, in December 1913 Townley got the call from Bayern Munich, but on a loan arrangement he re-joined Fürth in April of the following year to guide them through the national championship rounds. In the final Fürth captured its first national title, defeating defending champions VfB Leipzig and it is not clear, but he may then have returned to Munich, before the horrors of World War I overtook the continent, obscuring knowledge of Townleys activities during this period. He re-emerged with Bayern in 1919 and coached there until 1921 and it appears he was loaned to the Swiss club FC St. Gallen in August 1920 for what was probably a summer training camp. Afterward Townley moved to SV Waldhof in Mannheim where he spent two months aiding in the preparations for the South German Championship. The teams campaign was cut short by eventual national champions 1 and it then appears that he may have coached in Sweden before joining SC Victoria Hamburg where he and his son, playing as a striker, spent a couple of seasons. In 1923 William Townley returned to St. Gallen where he stayed until February 1925, Townley interrupted his time in Switzerland for a four-month stint with the Dutch national team to guide them through the 1924 Olympics in Paris. In May 1926 Townley rejoined SpVgg Fürth for the final in which they overcame Hertha Berlin to win their second national title – the third national title to his credit. A year later he was coaching 1925 finalists FSV Frankfurt and spent some time working with nearby Union Niederrad, now in his mid-60s, Townley took up his last known posting in 1932 with Arminia Hannover, then a strong regional side. Arminia defeated Dresdner SC in a match, but lost in the next round at home to eventual champions Fortuna Düsseldorf. This marks the zenith of Arminias achievement and the last significant role of a pioneer of the game in Germany
1890 FA Cup Final
The 1890 FA Cup Final was contested by Blackburn Rovers and The Wednesday at the Kennington Oval. Blackburn won 6–1, with goals from William Townley, Nat Walton, Jack Southworth, the Wednesdays goal was scored by Albert Mumford. Townleys hat-trick was the first in an FA Cup Final and this was the last of seven consecutive and eight total finals refereed by Major Francis Marindin. Haydn Arthur Morley, who was Wednesdays captain in the final and this was the seventh, and last, final in a row that had been officiated by Major Francis Marindin of the Royal Engineers and veteran of the Crimean War. Played 29 March 1890 Attendance,20,000 Referee, Major Francis Marindin 1889–90 Competition Results at rsssf. com FA Cup Final lineups Soccerbase summary Match report at www. fa-cupfinals. co. uk
George Geordie Dewar, was a Scottish footballer who played in the early days of professional football for Blackburn Rovers as well as being capped twice for Scotland. He was born in Dumbarton, Scotland, Dewar served his apprenticeship as a ships upholsterer before embarking on a full-time career as a professional footballer. A powerful centre half, he came to prominence in football with Dumbarton Athletic before joining Dumbarton in September 1887. His first cap came on 24 March 1888 in the British Home Championship match at the Solitude Ground and he also played in the 3–2 victory over England the following April. One of the people watching the England v. Scotland game in April 1889 was Tom Mitchell and he was looking to strengthen his side by buying the best players from Scotland. Mitchell persuaded Dewar to join Blackburn, in doing so, he brought an end to his career as at this time Scotland did not select men playing in England. Dewar became a fixture in the Blackburn team over the few years, playing 174 league matches. Blackburn fielded a team consisting of nine England or Scotland internationals, Rovers lived up to expectations as they romped away with the Cup defeating their Yorkshire opponents 6–1 with goals by Billy Townley, Nat Walton, Jack Southworth and Joe Lofthouse. Blackburn reached the FA Cup Final again in 1891, on this occasion Notts County were their opponents. In the final, played at Kennington Oval on 21 March, Rovers put County under pressure from the beginning and in the 8th minute, before the end of the first-half, Southworth and Townley had added further goals. Jimmy Oswald of Notts County scored a consolation goal but Blackburn finished comfortable 3–1 winners. In June 1897 he moved to New Brighton Tower and was part of the team won the Lancashire League championship. At Southampton he only made four appearances in November/December 1898 replacing the injured Bob Petrie, now in his thirties and with his best days behind him he retired from football in 1899 and returned to his native Scotland. Dewar died in 1915 aged 48
John Southworth, was a footballer who played in the early days of professional football for Blackburn Rovers and Everton as well as being capped three times for England. He was the top scorer in the Football League in 1890–91 and he began his football career at the age of 7 when he helped form a junior club named Inkerman Rangers. He later played for Brookhouse Perseverance, which was a side for Blackburn Olympic. Southworth was promoted to the Olympic second team in 1883–84 and his ability was quickly recognised by the committee at Olympic and he was made captain of the second team and first reserve when there was a vacancy in the first team. It was at time that he rejected the first approach by Blackburn Rovers to join them. Whilst guesting in a match for Accrington he received a knee injury which threatened his career. Having lost some of his mobility he turned his hand to goalkeeping, the following year he signed professional terms with Chester despite his knee problems. At recently formed Chester, he scored their first ever goal against their local rivals Wrexham Olympic in 1886, in the 1885–86 season, despite having signed professional for Chester FC earlier in the season, he turned out for Blackburn Olympic in their First Round FA Cup match. As a result of the subsequent FA enquiry he was suspended for four months, a keen musician, he took a job with a theatre in Chester and returned to Olympic, resuming his old position of centre forward. Having overcome his injuries, he became a success as a centre forward. Both were involved in performances at the Royalty Theatre in Chester, with Jack playing the violin, the first season of the Football League began in September 1888. Rovers’ first league took place on 15 September 1888 when they shared ten goals in an exciting encounter with Accrington. Southworth converted a cross from Harry Fecitt to score Blackburns first goal in the league, the other scorers for Blackburn were James Beresford, Billy Townley and Fecitt. Southworth scored his first hat-trick for Blackburn at Burnley in November, in the FA Cup match against Aston Villa Southworth scored four goals as Blackburn registered an 8–1 victory, before going out in the semi-final to Wolves. Blackburn ended the inaugural League season in place, Southworth missed only one of the 22 league games and was Blackburns top scorer with seventeen league goals. Southworth was christened the Prince of Dribblers, a contemporary wrote that, His dodging, his neat passing, his speed and general accuracy in shooting won the hearts of the spectators at the Leamington ground. He is built for speed, he plays an unselfish game, arguably the finest goal-scorer in the Football League during its early years, Southworth scored in all three of his appearances for England. He won his first international cap for England against Wales on 23 February 1889, Southworth also scored in the other two games he played for his country against Wales and Scotland
Jimmy Forrest (footballer)
James Henry Forrest was an English footballer whose career spanned the transition from amateurism to professionalism in English football in the 1880s and 1890s. He was the first professional player to appear for England for whom he made eleven appearances, Forrest was born in Blackburn and began playing football at school. By the time he was twelve, he was captain of local side Imperial United and he was first spotted by Blackburn Rovers when playing for Witton in 1880. By now he had left school and was working as a tape sizer in the cotton trade, after moving on to play for Kings Own Blackburn, he was eventually persuaded to join Rovers in January 1883. According to Philip Gibbons in Association Football in Victorian England, the Welsh had few answers to the skilful England forwards, in the cup final, played at the Kennington Oval on 29 March, Rovers lined up against a Queens Park side, most of whom were Scottish internationals. After half an hour of play in the final, Forrest delivered an excellent pass to Jimmy Brown who rounded two defenders prior to crossing the ball into the Queens Park goalmouth. The goalkeeper, George Gillespie, was unable to clear the ball fell to Joe Sowerbutts who had only to apply the gentlest touch to help the ball between the posts. Shortly after, William Anderson thought he had scored for the Scots, Forrest was almost certainly offside but, in the absence of an appeal by the Scots, Mandarin allowed the goal to stand. By half-time, Queens Park had pulled a back through Christie. In the second half, both sides had goals disallowed for offside, but there was no score, and Blackburn Rovers took the cup for the first time. In the 1884–85 FA Cup, Blackburn again came through the early rounds without difficulty, with a victory over Rossendale before meeting local rivals, Rovers won the derby match 3–2 in a tight game with a brace from Howard Fecitt and a third from Joe Sowerbutts. Rovers then easily went past Forrests old club Witton and Romford and this resulted in a 2–0 victory for the cup holders, who then met Old Carthusians in the semi-final, played on 7 March 1885. A week before the semi-final, Forrest was selected for the Home Championship match against Ireland, together with his Rovers teammates, Herby Arthur, Joe Lofthouse, England beat the Irish with ease by four goals to nil, including a goal each from Lofthouse and Brown. The Rovers quartet retained their places for the match, against Wales, played on 14 March at Leamington Road. England were disappointing and Wales returned home with a well-deserved 1–1 draw, the next England match was a week later on 21 March against Scotland to be played at The Oval. Forrest and his three Blackburn colleagues were again selected for England, the Scottish officials complained as they argued that Forrest was a professional. At the time he was receiving £1 a week from Blackburn Rovers, Forrest was eventually allowed to play but he had to wear a different jersey from the rest of the team. Blackburn Rovers also had to not to pay him his wages in the week that he played for England