1891 in art
May 10 – Danish sculptor Anne Marie Brodersen marries her compatriot, the classical composer Carl Nielsen, in St Marks English Church, Florence, the couple having first met on March 2 in Paris. June – Sidney Paget produces his first illustrations for Arthur Conan Doyles Sherlock Holmes stories in The Strand Magazine, henri Matisse begins his studies at the Académie Julian. Correspondence of Marie Bashkirtseff and Gustave Flaubert is published, paul Gauguin sails to French Polynesia. Impressionist Armand Guillaumin wins 100,000 francs in the French state lottery and is able to devote himself to painting full-time, félix Vallotton makes his first woodcuts. William-Adolphe Bouguereau The Goose Girl Work Interrupted Frank Bramley – For Of Such Is The Kingdom Of Heaven Edward Burne-Jones – Sponsa de Libano Philip Hermogenes Calderon – St. W. W
1891 in architecture
The year 1891 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. Ludington Building - Chicago, designed by William Le Baron Jenney, earliest surviving steel-framed building in the city, manhattan Building - Chicago, designed by William Le Baron Jenney, completed, worlds earliest surviving steel-framed building to use a purely skeletal supporting structure. Second Leiter Building - Chicago, designed by William Le Baron Jenney, monadnock Building - Chicago, tallest masonry load-bearing wall building when built. Sacred Heart Cathedral - Davenport, Iowa, designed by James J. Egan, St. Ambrose Cathedral - Des Moines, Iowa, designed by James J. Egan. Wainwright Building - St. Louis, Missouri, designed by Dankmar Adler, university of Pennsylvania Library - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, designed by Frank Furness. Several buildings constructed for the General Land Centennial Exhibition world fair - Prague, victoria Hall, Switzerland, a concert hall designed by Marc Camoletti. Stadttheater Zürich, designed by Fellner & Helmer, opened, house of the Estates in Helsinki, Finland, built. General Post Office, Birmingham, England, designed by Henry Tanner, Palace Theatre, Manchester, England, designed by Alfred Darbyshire. Royal Gold Medal - Arthur Blomfield, grand Prix de Rome, architecture, Henri Eustache. D. Sedding, English ecclesiastical architect May 7 - John Hayward, English Gothic Revival architect
1891 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1891. January – The Strand Magazine is first published in London, on June 25 Arthur Conan Doyles private consulting detective Sherlock Holmes appears in it for the first time, in the story A Scandal in Bohemia. January 31 – Henrik Ibsens play Hedda Gabler is first performed, at the Königliches Residenz-Theater in Munich, the first British performance is on April 20 at the recently reopened Vaudeville Theatre, London, with Elizabeth Robins as Hedda and co-directing. March 13 – Henrik Ibsens play Ghosts achieves a single London performance, to evade the Lord Chamberlains Offices censorship it has to be staged privately by the Independent Theatre Society, but still attracts strong criticism on moral grounds. May 21 – Maurice Maeterlincks play Intruder is premièred at Paul Forts Theatre dArt in Paris, late June – In a meeting of decadent poets in London, Oscar Wilde is first introduced to Lord Alfred Douglas by Lionel Johnson at Wildes Tite Street home. July 1 – International Copyright Act of 1891 comes into effect in the United States permitting foreign authors to register their works for copyright, on July 3, the first such work, the play Saints and Sinners by English author Henry Arthur Jones, is registered. August 22 – Israel Zangwills The Big Bow Mystery, the first classic full-length locked room mystery, october 9 – Émile Zolas stage adaptation of his novel Thérèse Raquin achieves a single London performance, its English stage première. To evade the Lord Chamberlains Offices censorship it has to be staged privately by the Independent Theatre Society, september 4 – Ambrose Bierce dates the preface of Tales of Soldiers and Civilians for this day, although it will not actually be issued until 1892. It includes An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, one of his best known works, december – Thomas Hardy writes The Sons Veto, which he regards as his best short story. December 7 – Maurice Maeterlincks play The Blind is premièred, tristan Bernard has his first work published in La Revue Blanche and adopts his pseudonym. Sophia Alice Callahans Wynema, a Child of the Forest is published, publication of the first complete 1-volume popular German language translation of Shakespeares plays. Approximate date – Edmund Clerihew Bentley, G. K. Chesterton and fellow pupils of St Pauls School, London, grant Allen – The Great Taboo Hall Caine – The Scapegoat J. M. Gardener – Is This Your Son, My Lord. André Gide – Les Cahiers dAndré Walter George Gissing – New Grub Street Thomas Hardy A Group of Noble Dames Tess of the dUrbervilles J. -K
1891 in music
February 23 - Fourteen-year-old cellist Pablo Casals gives a solo recital in Barcelona. May 5 - The Music Hall in New York City has its opening and first public performance. October 16 - The Chicago Symphony Orchestra gives its inaugural concert, the Peabody Mason Concerts are inaugurated with a performance by Ferruccio Busoni. The ensemble attached to the Glasgow Choral Union is formally recognised as the Scottish Orchestra, actions Speak Louder Than Words w. George Horncastle m. Felix McGlennon Dont mind, my Darling, paul Steinmark Hey, Rube. w. J. Sherrie Matthews m. Harry Bulger High School Cadets March m. John Philip Sousa Little Boy Blue w. Eugene Field m, ethelbert Nevin The Man Who Broke The Bank At Monte Carlo w. m. Fred Gilbert The Miners Dream Of Home w. m, will Godwin & Leo Dryden Molly O. w. m. Ethelbert Nevin The Pardon Came Too Late w. m, paul Dresser The Picture Thats Turned To The Wall w. m. Charles Graham Reuben And Cynthia w. m, dodworth, bandmaster and conductor Fanny Salvini-Donatelli, operatic soprano
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Highbury, London, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club has won 13 League titles,12 FA Cups, Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893. They entered the First Division in 1904, and have accumulated the second most points. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, in the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, and another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970–71, they won their first League and FA Cup Double, between 1989 and 2005, they won five League titles and five FA Cups, including two more Doubles. They completed the 20th century with the highest average league position, Herbert Chapman won Arsenals first national trophies, but died prematurely. He helped introduce the WM formation, floodlights, and shirt numbers, Arsène Wenger has been the longest-serving manager and has won the most trophies. His teams set several English records, the longest win streak, the longest unbeaten run, in 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury. They became Tottenham Hotspurs nearest club, commencing the North London derby, in 2006, they moved down the road to the Emirates Stadium. Arsenal earned €435. 5m in 2014–15, with the Emirates Stadium generating the highest revenue in world football, based on social media activity from 2014–15, Arsenals fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2016, Forbes estimated the club was the second most valuable in England, on 1 December 1886, munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with David Danskin as their first captain. Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C. s first home was Plumstead Common, though spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead. Royal Arsenal won Arsenals first trophies in 1890 and 1891, Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893. They registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended later that year, Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers, businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall took the club over, and sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury and this saw their third change of name, the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to simply The Arsenal
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct, Professional standards of practice and ethics for a particular field are typically agreed upon and maintained through widely recognized professional associations, such as the IEEE. Some definitions of professional limit this term to those professions that serve some important aspect of public interest, in narrow usage, not all expertise is considered a profession. Although sometimes incorrectly referred to as professions, occupations such as skilled construction, the completion of an apprenticeship is generally associated with skilled labour, or trades such as carpenter, electrician, mason, painter, plumber and other similar occupations. A related distinction would be that a professional does mainly mental work, although professional training appears to be ideologically neutral, it may be biased towards those with higher class backgrounds and a formal education. His evidence is both qualitative and quantitative, including examinations, industry statistics and personal accounts of trainees. A key theoretical dispute arises from the observation that established professions are subject to strict codes of conduct, some have thus argued that these codes of conduct, agreed upon and maintained through widely recognized professional associations, are a key element of what constitutes any profession. Thus, as people became more and more specialized in their trade, they began to profess their skill to others, with a reputation to uphold, trusted workers of a society who have a specific trade are considered professionals. Ironically, the usage of the word profess declined from the late 1800s to the 1950s, centre for the Study of Professions Organizational culture Professional boundaries Professional sports
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979. In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government. The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Vejle Boldklub, founded in 1891, is a Danish professional football club from the town of Vejle. The club has won the Danish championship five times and the Danish cup title six times, the clubs homeground is Vejle Stadion in Nørreskoven since 1922. The club has played in red shirts and white shorts since 1911, the main rivals of Vejle Boldklub are AGF from Aarhus and AC Horsens from Horsens. In July 2011, Vejle Boldklub merged with Kolding FC and became Vejle Boldklub Kolding, the merger however was short lived and in June 2013 it was split into Vejle Boldklub and Kolding IF. The club was founded by 23 men from Vejle on 3 May 1891 as a cricket club, football first became a part of the clubs activities in 1902. The period from 1910 to 1920 is often referred to as Vejle Boldklub’s first golden age, in this period the club took part in the Jutland championship final seven times and won it four times in 1912,1913,1914 and 1915. About 15,000 people were seated at Vejle Stadion on 22 May 1952, one of the central players in the Vejle team was Bent Sørensen, who later went on to become the clubs first national team player. On 10 May 10,1956, VB in front of 25,000 people in Parken, Copenhagen, once again Bent Sørensen scored the winner. After this VB played in the best Danish league for 36 years, in 1958 the club won its first Danish championship, and also went on to win the Danish cup. This made VB the first club in Denmark to win the Double, among the stars in the squad was Tommy Troelsen and Henning Enoksen. Tommy Troelsen was only 17 years old when he played in the final, normally 15, 000–20,000 people attended the matches in Vejle those days. K. B. were beaten 8–3 and Odense Boldklub were sent home with a 7–2 defeat, the manager was Frits Gotfredsen and he was the man who started developing the attacking style of play that made VB the most popular club in Denmark in this period. The 1959 season also offered great moments for the history books, the biggest triumph was without a doubt the cup win against AGF. 33,000 people came to the arena to watch the match between the two great clubs from Jutland. VB won the game 1–0, but it has never been decided who scored the winner, both the ball, Henning Enoksen and a couple of AGF players were in the net. However, it was a goal and VB could celebrate the second cup win in two years. At the Olympic Games in Rome in 1960 four VB players were selected in the Danish side which won a silver medal. The four VB players were, Henning Enoksen, Tommy Troelsen, Poul Mejer, the trophy was won through great attacking football, and there was never any doubt that VB would win it
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Harpenden Town F.C.
Harpenden Town Football Club is a football club based in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England. It was established in 1891 and was the member of the Herts County League in 1898. It has reached the Second Round of the FA Vase twice in its history and it is currently a member of the Spartan South Midlands League Division One. The club was established in 1891 as Harpenden F. C. however, the club left after two seasons, and changed its name to the current one in 1908. The club rejoined the league in the Western Division for the 1908–09 season, winning the league in 1910–11, the following season the club repeated their league win, but this time won the playoff to become overall champions. In 1912–13, the club finished runners-up in the Western Division, the club left the league in 1922, only to return in 1948. Upon their return into the league, Harpenden Town was placed in Division One, in 1957, Harpenden left the Herts County League to join the South Midlands League Premier Division. The club won the South Midlands League Premier Division in 1961–62 and 1964–65, and finished runners-up in 1969–70, however, this lasted only one season as the club finished third and were promoted back to the Premier Division. Harpenden were relegated again in 1982, and returned only after winning Division One in 1989–90, in 1997–98, the club became founder members of the Spartan South Midlands League Premier Division North. They were relegated to the Senior Division in 2000, the club spent three seasons in the Premier Division after finishing runners-up in 2002–03, but returned to Division One in 2006. During the Summer of 2013 Steve Fakes took over as Chairman, the Club announced their plans to redevelop the infrastructure at Rothamsted Park to ensure that the facilities were adequate to support the push for promotion to the Premier Division. In December 2013 Danny Plumb took over as First team Manager having previously been assistant manager to Simon Andrews, the clubs home ground is Rothamsted Park
Redditch United F.C.
Redditch United Football Club is an English football club based in Redditch, Worcestershire. The club participates in the Southern League Premier Division, and play their games at The TRICO Stadium. Redditch Town were established in 1891 and immediately joined the Birmingham Combination, the club achieved its first success by winning the Worcestershire Senior Cup in 1894 and becoming runners-up in 1898. In 1914 they won the Birmingham Combination Championship for the first time and, finally, the 1930s were a much more rewarding period for the club and its supporters, starting by winning the Worcestershire Senior Cup and the Birmingham Senior Cup in successive seasons. Reds almost achieved a double in 1932–33 when, having won the Combination. Apart from an appearance in the Birmingham Senior Cup final just before the World War. In 1953 Redditch regained the Combination Championship and were runners-up in the Worcestershire Senior Cup and this Championship success was repeated in 1955. In 1957 they were runners-up in the Birmingham Senior Cup, in 1971–72 the club reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, losing 6–0 in the replay at Peterborough United after a 1–1 draw at home in front of a crowd of 4,500. At the end of the season they finished sixth in the West Midlands League Premier Division and they won the Worcestershire Senior Cup in 1974 and 1975. The following season they won Division One North and were promoted to the Premier Division, in 1978–79 they finished eighth in the league, and became founder members of the Alliance Premier League. However, they finished bottom in its first season, and dropped into the Southern Leagues Midland Division, after finishing as runners-up in 1985–86, the club were promoted to the Premier Division, where they remained until relegation in 1989. The following season, they reached the first round of the FA Cup, at the end of the season they beat Northwich Victoria 4–3 over the two-legged final of the Staffordshire Senior Cup. In 1997–98 the Reds reached two cup finals, the Southern League Cup and the Birmingham Senior Cup, both were lost, and the cup run caused a large fixture backlog that resulted in the club having to play nine matches in nine days at the end of the season. In 2003–04 the club won the Southern League Western Division, due to league reorganisation caused by the establishment of the Conference North and South, the club entered play-offs to be promoted to the new leagues. After beating Kings Lynn 1–0 and Merthyr Tydfil 3–0, the club were promoted to the Conference North, after a ninth-place finish in 2004–05, Redditch struggled in 2005–06, only avoiding relegation on the final day of the season. After a very difficult 2010–11 campaign in the Conference North, Redditch were relegated to the Southern League Premier Division where they remain currently, on 17 March 2011, businessman Chris Swan took over the club, after a previous attempt to purchase Kidderminster Harriers fell through. This is 5 recent Redditch United seasons for a full history look List of Redditch United F. C. seasons Note, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Players with international caps in bold See Redditch United F. C
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church also shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages, locations and cultures. The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
Panachaiki F. C. is a football club based in Patras, Greece. Founded in 1891, they play the 2015–16 season in the Greek second division and they have reached the Greek Cup semi-finals twice as well as the quarter-finals on ten occasions. Moreover, they were the first Greek club outside Athens and Thessaloniki to represent Greece in a European competition, Panachaiki F. C. is the football department of Panachaiki Gymnastiki Enosi, a multi-sport club. In 1979, the department became professional and independent and they have played their home games in various grounds since their first official game in 1899, mainly the Kostas Davourlis Stadium, their traditional home ground, and the Pampeloponnisiako Stadium. The history of Panachaiki began in 1891, when Panachaikos Gymnastikos Syllogos was founded, in 1894, a rival sports club, Gymnastiki Eteria Patron, was founded in Patras by former Panachaikos members. It was only in 1923 that both came to an agreement and decided to merge, forming Panachaiki Gymnastiki Enosi. The football department was founded in 1899 by the Brit Arthur Morphy, during the next years, the first players of the football team were athletes from the Clubs other departments, members of the British community of Patras and Italian emigrates. Former Manchester United manager Wilf McGuinness took over as coach for the 1974–75 season before he returned to England 18 months later. The teams privately owned arena is the Kostas Davourlis Stadium, holding a capacity of 11,321 speactators, Panachaiki has also been using the municipality-operated Pampeloponnisiako Stadium, which has a capacity of 23,588. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, province, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community. In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
Belfast Celtic F.C.
Belfast Celtic Football Club was a football club in Northern Ireland that was founded in 1891, and was one of the most successful teams in Ireland until it withdrew from the Irish League in 1949. The club, formed in 1891 simply as Celtic, was named after Celtic Football Club of Glasgow, upon incorporation as a limited company in 1901, however, the club adopted the name Belfast Celtic, the title Celtic Football Club Ltd already being registered by the Glasgow club. Their home from the year was Celtic Park on Donegall Road in west Belfast. Celtic won their first league title in 1900 after beating fierce rivals Linfield by a single goal, Celtics support base was strongly Irish nationalist. Despite this, the club went from strength to strength and the years proved to be Celtics strongest. The club also produced some of the greatest players of their generation, charlie Tully of Celtic, learned how to kick a ball with Belfast Celtic. The end came on Boxing Day 1948 at the annual Linfield-Celtic game at Windsor Park, Celtic were winning for most of the match but Linfield equalised in the last minute. Linfield fans invaded the pitch and attacked several Celtic players including centre-forward Jimmy Jones who suffered a broken leg, soon after the club decided to withdraw from the league. After the 1948-49 season Belfast Celtic went on a tour of America from which they returned amidst internal wrangling over flags, at a meeting of the board it was decided that Celtic would temporarily leave the league until such matters had been resolved. They were not resolved and the internal wrangling at boardroom level continued until Celtic Park was sold to developers, a final match was played away to Coleraine on June 24,1960. The ground continued to function as a greyhound stadium until the 1980s when it was bulldozed and replaced by the Park Centre, today, a small plaque reminds shoppers a football team played here. A small museum has since opened in the Park Centre. Belfast Celtic were one of four clubs that made the biggest crowds in the Irish League, the other three being Linfield, Distillery, and Glentoran. C
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Vale of Leithen F.C.
Vale of Leithen Football Club are a football club from the town of Innerleithen, Scotland. They play in the Lowland Football League, and their games take place at the towns Victoria Park. The club is one of the oldest in the Scottish Borders, having formed in 1891, the club played at Caddon Park and initially played their first two games as Leithen Vale but subsequently changed their name to Vale of Leithen Football Club. In 1922, they moved to their current home, Victoria Park, the teams motto is Keep Faith, and features on their club crest, along with the towns patron saint, St. Ronan. The home strip features a blue shirt with sleeves, blue shorts and red socks. Vale of Leithen should not be confused with the slightly differently named junior team Vale of Leven, the club joined the Lowland Football League in 2013. As of 20 September 2016 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. East of Scotland Football League Winners, 1924–25, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1986–87 Official club site
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is also the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is also a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.42 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the area of its capital and largest city. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, only larger in size than Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for approximately 4000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento, one of the oldest European settlements in the region, in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a struggle between Spain, Portugal, Argentina and Brazil. It remained subject to influence and intervention throughout the 19th century. Modern Uruguay is a constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, peace, lack of corruption, e-government, on a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peace-keeping missions than any other country. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income, Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth, innovation and infrastructure. It is regarded as a country by the UN. Uruguay is also the third-best ranked in the world in e-Participation, Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, rice, soybeans, frozen beef, malt and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguays electricity comes from energy, mostly hydroelectric facilities. The Economist named Uruguay country of the year in 2013, acknowledging the innovative policy of legalizing the production, sale, the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including bird-river, the name could also refer to a river snail called uruguá that was plentiful in the water. The only documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, the Portuguese discovered the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516, the indigenous peoples fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries
Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club
Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club is a defunct Uruguayan sports club, originally established as a cricket and football institution by British railway workers. The football section of the club still remains named Club Atlético Peñarol and those lands had been used for agriculture only and famous because of the best quality of its vineyards and fruits. One of the achievements of the company was the establishment of a rural school in the town. Due to the activity, the village became populous. The sons of blonde Albion, who were part of the company, the first committee was formed by eight members, Mr. Hudson, Lucy, Moor, Davenport, Hopkins, Davies and Penny. They chose Mr. Frank Henderson as the first president of the club, the membership fee was established in $0,50. One day later, the committee resolved to name the club Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club and that same day two members of the committee were chosen to write the rules, while two other members were chosen to search for a field to practice sports. The club also designated three members to take over advertising with the purpose of bringing new members to the institution, the article I of clubs statute stated that the club colors would be black and orange and that only workers of Central Railway would be admitted as members. Nevertheless, the committee could admit people outside the company but they were not allowed to vote in case of being accepted, at the beginning, all the CURCC presidents were managers of the CUR. In 1907 the company appointed W. Bayne as manager and sent him to Montevideo, when the CURCC executives told Bayne he was the new president of the institution, he did not accept the offer, alleging that the coaches damaged by the supporters led to significant costs. Other reason given by Bayne was the lack of players-workers, CURCC took part of the recently created Primera División of Uruguay, along with Nacional, other team from Montevideo with whom CURCC had a strong rivalry. While CURCC represented the British immigrants to Uruguay and rail workers as well, the club took part of 13 editions of the domestic championship, winning it in five occasions between 1900 and 1911. CURCC also won the Copa de Competencia three times, internationally, the squad won the Copa de Honor Cousenier twice. Having been established as a club, football began to be practised at CURCC in 1892, relegating other sports, such as cricket. The first football match played by CURCC was that year versus a combined team of English High School. The match was won by CURCC 3-2, the club was also known as Peñarol due to the neighborhood where it had been established. In 1912 a new committee was organized in order to some of the CURCC statute books. The proposals were to give a bigger participation to non-railway employed members, another suggestion was to rename the club CURCC Peñarol
Football League First Division
The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League. Between 1888 and 1992 it was the division in the English football league system. Following the creation of the FA Premier League it was a second-level division, in 2004 it was rebranded as the Football League Championship. The Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor and it originally consisted of a single division of 12 clubs, known as The Football League. When the League admitted additional members from the rival Football Alliance in 1892, for the next 100 years, the First Division was the top professional league in English football. Then, in 1992 the 22 clubs making up the First Division elected to resign from the Football League, the Football League was consequently re-organised, with the Second, Third and Fourth Divisions now renamed the First, Second and Third respectively. Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, the First Division was renamed as the Football League Championship prior to the start of the 2004–05 season, as part of a league-wide rebrand. Liverpool were the most frequent winners of the First Division when it was the top flight of English football, winning it a total of 18 times. After the creation of the Premier League, the new Division One title was won more than once by one club, Sunderland. The First Division initially consisted of 12 founder clubs, since then it has undergone a series of expansions as football became more popular, as of the 1975–76 season players had to make 14 appearances for their club during the season in order to qualify for a winners medal. See List of English football champions, see List of winners of English Football League Championship and predecessors