Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs also usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts, knickerbockers and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shirt, shorts, socks, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection. The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs also have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may also require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Bristol Rovers F.C.
Bristol Rovers Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Bristol, England. They compete in League One, the tier of English football. The team play their matches at Memorial Stadium, in Horfield, a suburb of Bristol. The club was founded in 1883 as Black Arabs F. C. and were known as Eastville Rovers. The clubs official nickname is The Pirates, reflecting the history of Bristol. According to a survey conducted in December 2003, Cardiff City and Swindon Town are considered their second, Rovers were admitted to the Football League in 1920 and have played there ever since, apart from spending the 2014–15 season in the Conference Premier. Their highest finishing positions were in 1956 and 1959, on both occasions ending the season in 6th place in Division Two, then the tier of English football. Rovers were Football League Trophy finalists in 1990 and 2007, the club was formed following a meeting at the Eastville Restaurant in Bristol in September 1883. It was initially called Black Arabs F. C. after the Arabs rugby team and this name only lasted for the 1883–84 season, and in a bid to draw more fans from the local area the club was renamed Eastville Rovers in 1884. The club played friendly games until the 1887–88 season, when it took part in the Gloucestershire Cup for the first time. In 1892 the club became a member of the Bristol and District League. In 1897 Eastville Rovers joined the Birmingham and District League, at the beginning of the 1897–98 season, the club turned professional and changed its name to Bristol Eastville Rovers, and on 17 February 1899 the name was officially changed to Bristol Rovers. In 1899 Bristol Rovers joined the newly formed Southern League, where remained until 1920. For the 1920–21 season, the Southern League teams were moved into the new Division Three of the Football League and they remained in this division for over 30 years, before winning the league, and promotion in the 1952–53 season. The club has been relegated six times—in 1961–62, 1980–81, 1992–93, 2000–01, 2010–11 and most recently at the end of the 2013–14 season. The highest position in the football ladder achieved by Rovers at the end of season is sixth place in the tier, which they did twice, once in 1955–56. The closest they came to the top flight was in 1955–56, the lowest league position achieved by the club is twenty-third out of twenty-four teams in the fourth tier, which has occurred twice. This position was matched at the end of the 2013–14 season and they returned to the league at the end of their first Conference season, with a penalty shootout victory over Grimsby Town in the play-off final
The civil parish of Trowbridge had a population of 33,108 at the 2011 census. The parish encompasses the settlements of Longfield, Lower Studley, Upper Studley, Studley Green, adjacent parishes include Staverton, Hilperton, West Ashton, North Bradley, Southwick and Wingfield, nearby towns are Bradford on Avon, Westbury, Melksham, Frome and Devizes. On John Speeds map of Wiltshire, the name is spelt Trubridge, there is evidence that the land on which Trowbridge is built was being farmed more than 3,000 years ago. In the 10th century written records and architectural ruins begin marking Trowbridges existence as a village and its feudal lord was an Anglo-Saxon named Brictric who was the largest landowner in Wiltshire. He seems to have administered his estates from Trowbridge, the first mention of Trowbridge Castle was in 1139 when it was besieged. The castle is thought to have been a castle. Fore Street follows the path of the ditch, and town has a Castle Street. It is likely that the Castle was built by Humphrey I de Bohun, the most notable member of the family was Henry de Bohun, born around 1176, who became lord of the manor when he was about 15 years of age. It was he who began to shape the medieval town. In 1200 he obtained a charter, arguably the earliest for a town in Wiltshire. His officials were to lay out burgage plots for traders, artisans, the outline of these plots can still be seen today in the footprints of some of the present shops in Fore Street. Within Trowbridge Castle was a 10th-century Anglo-Saxon church, Henry de Bohun turned this to secular use and instead had a new church built outside the Castle, this was the first St James Church. In the base of the tower of the present day church, below the subsequently added spire, in 1200 Henry de Bohun was created Earl of Hereford by King John. Like other barons, Henry was later threatened by King John, Henry then joined with the other barons to oppose Johns arbitrary rule and forced him to seal Magna Carta at Runnymede, and was elected as one of the 25 enforcers of the charter. Soon after Runnymede, Henry regained control of Trowbridge, a statue of Henry de Bohun stands high up in the House of Lords, looking down on the Lords in the chamber. This commemorates his presence at Runnymede and his role as one of the enforcers of the Charter. In 2015, the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, a copy of the statue, the capita or headquarters of the 25 enforcers are known as the Magna Carta Baron Towns. Most of these towns are in the north and east of England, only Trowbridge, Trowbridge developed as a centre for woollen cloth production from the 14th century
Wells is a cathedral city and civil parish in the Mendip district of Somerset, on the southern edge of the Mendip Hills. Often described as Englands smallest city, it is only to the City of London in area and population. Wells is named from three wells dedicated to Saint Andrew, one in the place and two within the grounds of the Bishops Palace and cathedral. A small Roman settlement surrounded them, which grew in importance, the community became a trading centre based on cloth making and Wells is notable for its 17th century involvement in both the English Civil War and Monmouth Rebellion. In the 19th century, transport infrastructure improved with stations on three different railway lines, however, since 1964 the city has been without a railway link. The cathedral and the religious and medieval architectural history provide much of the employment. The historic architecture of the city has also used as a location for filming an increasing number of movies. The city was a Roman settlement that became an important centre under the Anglo-Saxons when King Ine of Wessex founded a church in 704. Two hundred years later, in 909, it became the seat of the bishopric of Wells, but in 1090. The move caused severe arguments between the canons of Wells and the monks of Bath until 1245 when the bishopric was renamed the Diocese of Bath and Wells, to be elected by both religious houses. Wells was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Welle, from the Old English wiells, not as a town but as four manors with a population of 132, which implies a population of 500–600. Earlier names for the settlement have been identified which include Fontanetum, in a charter of 725 granted by King Ina to Glastonbury, tidesput or Tithesput furlang relates to the area east of the bishops garden in 1245. Wells was part of, and gave its name to, the hundred of Wells Forum, Wells had been granted charters to hold markets by Bishop Robert and free burgage tenure was granted by Bishop Reginald. Wells was recognised as a borough by a Royal charter of King John in 1201. The city remained under control until its charter of incorporation from Queen Elizabeth I in 1589. During the English Civil War, at what became known as the Siege of Wells, col. William Strode had 2,000 men and 150 horse. Parliamentarian troops then used the cathedral to stable their horses and damaged much of the sculpture by using it for firing practice. William Penn stayed in Wells shortly before leaving for America, spending a night at The Crown Inn, here he was briefly arrested for addressing a large crowd in the market place, but released on the intervention of the Bishop of Bath and Wells
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 449,300 in 2016. The district has the 10th largest population in England, while the Bristol metropolitan area is the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, the city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts, Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, in 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristols modern economy is built on the media, electronics and aerospace industries. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the U. K. - the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road, rail, sea and air by the M5 and M4, Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations, and Bristol Airport. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, the most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge. It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor. Alternative etymologies are supported with the numerous variations in Medieval documents with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms. The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge, utilizing another form, Brastuile, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric and it appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, and the Bristolian L is what eventually changed the name to Bristol. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, a Roman settlement, Abona, existed at what is now Sea Mills, another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000, by about 1020, it was a centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name
Ashton Gate Stadium
Ashton Gate Stadium is a stadium in Ashton Gate, Bristol, England, and is the home of Bristol City F. C. and Bristol Rugby. Located in the south-west of the city, just south of the River Avon, the ground has also played a part in the history of rugby in the city. Several rugby internationals have been held, starting with England versus Wales in 1899,100 years later, the All Blacks took on Tonga in a 1999 Rugby World Cup pool match. As of the 2014-2015 season, Bristol Rugby permanently moved to Ashton Gate and it has hosted two England under-21 international friendlies. The first was against Romania’s under-21’s on 21 August 2007, the other was against Uzbekistan’s under-21’s on 10 August 2010. The hosts beat the visitors 2 -0 with Danny Rose scoring on the 64th minute and it marked the completion of the redevelopment of Ashton Gate and The Lansdown Stand is the largest in the stadium and has a capacity of 11,000. It has two tiers and is equipped with multiple executive boxes, the roof is covered in solar panels to provide a renewable energy source to power the entire stadium. Beneath the stand lies the changing rooms and offices, Dolman Stand The Dolman Stand, which lies opposite the Lansdown Stand, was built in 1970. At that time it was built it had a small, flat Family Enclosure in front of it, in the summer of 2007, the original wooden seats in the upper area were replaced by modern plastic seats. It is named after the club chairman and president Harry Dolman. This stand was redeveloped over the summer of 2015 as part of the redevelopment of Ashton Gate, Atyeo Stand The Atyeo stand is the smallest in the stadium and was built in 1994 to replace an open terrace. It contains new dressing rooms and a large gymnasium and it is named after Bristol City legend John Atyeo, who played 645 times for City and scored 351 goals, making him the clubs top goalscorer ever. He died in 1993, a year before the new stand opened, after the demolition of the Wedlock Stand, the north-east section of this stand was used to house the away fans. As the construction of the Lansdown Stand has been completed, away fans are situated in the Western three-quarters of the Atyeo Stand, for cup matches this can be extended to the whole of this stand. South Stand The South Stand was completed just after the end of the 2014-15 season as part of the redevelopment of Ashton Gate and it has a capacity of 6,071 and is all-seater. Unlike the other stands at Ashton Gate, it is not named after a person who had ties with the club. The stand is linked to the neighbouring Dolman and Lansdown stands via a concourse, Wedlock East End Stand The old East End was demolished during the summer of 2014 and has been completely rebuilt to modern standards. It was built as a terrace in 1928, converted to seats in the 1990s and was the traditional home fans end until 1994
Clevedon Town F.C.
Clevedon Town Football Club are an English semi-professional football club based in the village of Kenn outside of Clevedon, Somerset. The club is affiliated to the Somerset County Football Association and is an FA chartered Standard club They are currently members of the Western League Premier Division, Clevedon FC was formed in 1880, making the club one of the oldest clubs in the West Country. They were founder members of the Western League in 1892 although their stay only lasted three seasons, after dropping back into local football they re-joined the Western League in the 1910–11 season. They initially played at Dial Hill, still the home of the cricket club, but they moved to a new site at Old Street in 1895. After the War the club returned to the Western League. However the club became known for their runs in the FA Amateur Cup. This cup success, however, was not matched in the league and Clevedon spent several years in Division 2 before resigning, for financial reasons, the clubs name was later changed to Clevedon Town to reflect their new status. Clevedon joined the ranks in 1974 when Ray Mabbutt, father of future Spurs star Gary Mabbutt became their first paid player. The 1980s also saw the club pick up their first Somerset Premier Cup in the 1986–87 season, the protest was upheld and the tie ordered to be replayed. In their first season at their new home in 1992–93, the gained promotion to the Southern League for the first time. Promotion to the Premier Division followed in 1998 and, although Town were relegated again in 2000–01, in 2006 they reached the first round proper of the FA Cup but went down 4–1 to Football League opposition Chester City. The club at the end of the 2009–10 season suffered relegation, Clevedon Town have a fierce rivalry with neighbours Weston-super-Mare, who are situated in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset. However, the rivalry has been put on the back-burner as of late since Weston-super-Mare was promoted to the Southern League Premier Division in 2002–03 after winning promotion at Clevedon Town 1–0, the two have not played in the same league since. Clevedon Town play their games at The Hand Stadium, Davis Lane, the Hand Stadium took its name from the Hand family, successive generations of which were involved in running the club for nearly 100 years. The facility includes a pitch, training facilities, a 300-seater stand, tiered terracing around the whole ground. The complex also includes function/conference facilities as well as Vibe, Clevedons only nightclub, the record attendance of the Hand Stadium is 2,261, when the club played Chester City in a First Round FA Cup tie on 11 November 2006. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Players that have achieved success in other sports
Wells City F.C.
Wells City F. C. are a football club based in Wells, Somerset, England. The club is affiliated to the Somerset County FA and they are currently members of the Western League Premier Division and play at the Athletic Ground. They joined the Western League Division Two in 1929 and won the Western League title in 1950, declining performances culminated in relegation to the second division after the 1956–57 season and after three seasons in the Western League Division Two, Wells City left the league. Wells rejoined the Somerset Senior League in 1960–61 with the competing in the Mid-Somerset Football League. Wells finished 6th in their first season back in the Somerset Senior League, the side finished very much in mid-table until 1965–66 when they were third behind Street and Welton Rovers Reserves. They were runners-up behind Paulton Rovers in 1971–72, relegation from the Premier Division to Division occurred at the end of the 1977–78 season with promotion to the top section being gained at the end of 1979–80. Promotion back again was a time in arriving, not until 1994 would Wells City grace the top flight of Somerset football. Soon the yo-yo effect happened once more with relegation at the end of 1997–98 followed by bouncing back up in 1998–99. The club maintained a Premier Division place until promotion back to the Western Football League Division One in 2008, Wells City would finally reclaim the Somerset Senior Cup in 2006–07, defeating Burnham United 2–1 at Weston-super-Mare. Wells Citys first season back in the Western League saw them finish a respectable finish in 10th place. On 24 April 2010 Wells City earned promotion to the Premier Division of the Western Football League after finishing 1st and they were however relegated back to Division One in 2013. Wells City play their games at the Athletic Ground, Rowdens Road, Wells
Ashley Down is an area in the north of Bristol. It lies on high ground east of Bishopston, north of St Andrews and St Werburghs, west of Muller Road, the main artery is Ashley Down Road. It is divided between the Ashley and Bishopston wards of Bristol City Council, Ashley Down was developed in Victorian times. A number of detached villas were built on Ashley Down Road. Smaller terraced houses were built in the north of the district, in 1845 George Müller entered into a contract for the purchase of 7 acres of ground at £120 per acre for the accommodation, feeding, clothing and education of 300 destitute and orphan children. On 18 June 1849 the orphans transferred to the new building, by the time he died in 1898, Müller had received £1,500,000 through prayer and had over 10,000 children in his care. The orphanage continued on the Ashley Down site until 1958, orphan Houses 2,4 and 5 are now owned by Bristol City College, while No 3 House, on the other side of Ashley Down Road was converted into private flats in 2007. No 1 House is currently being redeveloped as flats, in 1958 the buildings became Bristol College of Science and Technology. The site has been used as the set for the BBC television series Casualty. Muller Road, which runs near the site of the orphanage, is named after its founder, in 1889 W. G. Grace bought some land at Ashley Down, which became and remained the home of Gloucestershire County Cricket Club. The ground has a capacity of 8,000, in July 2009, Gloucestershire C. C. C. announced plans to redevelop the ground into a 20,000 capacity stadium. The ground will include a world class media centre and conference facilities. In March 2010, Bristol City Council gave the go-ahead for the new ground, Ashley Down Old Boys RFC is a rugby club playing in Gloucestershire League I. They are members of the Bristol Combination, between 1864 and 1964 Ashley Down was served by Ashley Hill railway station. Geograph of the Ashley Down area
Mangotsfield is an urban area and former parish in the unitary authority of South Gloucestershire, to the north-east of Bristol. The village was mentioned in the Domesday Book in 1086 as Manegodesfelle and it was previously the name of a parish, split into two in 1927, Mangotsfield Urban and Mangotsfield Rural which existed until 2015, then renamed to Emersons Green. Mangotsfield is the home of Mangotsfield United F. C. rodway Hill is a favourite spot for dog walkers and the starting point of many pigeon races. There is one school in Mangotsfield, Mangotsfield School
British Newspaper Archive
The British Newspaper Archive web site provides access to searchable digitised archives of British newspapers. It was launched in November 2011, the British Library Newspapers section was based in Colindale in North London, until 2013, and is now divided between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The Library has an almost complete collection of British and Irish newspapers since 1840 and this is partly because of the legal deposit legislation of 1869, which required newspapers to supply a copy of each edition of a newspaper to the library. London editions of daily and Sunday newspapers are complete back to 1801. In total the collection consists of 660,000 bound volumes and 370,000 reels of microfilm containing tens of millions of newspapers with 52,000 titles on 45 km of shelves. After the closure of Colindale in November 2013, access to the 750 million original printed pages was maintained via an automated and climate-controlled storage facility in Boston Spa, in May 2010 a ten-year programme of digitisation of the newspaper archives with commercial partner DC Thomson subsidiary Brightsolid began. In November 2011, BBC News announced the launch of the British Newspaper Archive, the same newspapers from this partnership have also been made available to view on Findmypast and Genes Reunited. The digitisation project established a search facility which people could consult without having to visit the British Library newspaper depository in person. The Thomason Tracts and Burney collections are held at St Pancras, the section also has extensive records of non-British newspapers in languages that use the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. The Librarys substantial holdings of newspapers in the languages of Asia and the Middle East may be accessed at the Librarys reading rooms at St. Pancras. While access within the British Library is free, online access is via a system based on daily or item charges. As part of The Wikipedia Library, Brightsolid provided free one-year subscriptions to a number of experienced Wikipedia editors from July 2014. The agreement was terminated in 2016 because structural changes at their parent organisation mean that there is no longer interest in continuing the partnership with The Wikipedia Library. Reviews of the service have been mixed, with some early responses complimentary about the ability to access, however, there have been complaints of the excessive cost and the general policy of the British Library allowing a private company the rights to the newspapers. One writer noted that, The BNA demonstrates what happens to our cultural heritage when there is no political will for public investment, web site of the British Newspaper Archive