Killarney is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. Its natural heritage and location on the Ring of Kerry make Killarney a popular tourist destination, Killarney won the Best Kept Town award in 2007, in a cross-border competition jointly organised by the Department of the Environment and the Northern Ireland Amenity Council. In 2011, it was named Irelands tidiest town and the cleanest town in the country by Irish Business Against Litter, Killarney has featured prominently in early Irish history, with religious settlements playing an important part of its recorded history. Its first significantly historical settlement was the monastery on nearby Innisfallen Island founded in 640 by St. Finian the Leper, Innisfallen or Inishfallen is an island in Lough Leane, one of the three Lakes of Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland. It is home to the ruins of Innisfallen Abbey, one of the most impressive archaeological remains dating from the early Christian period found in the Killarney National Park, the monastery was founded in 640 by St.
Finian the Leper, and was occupied for approximately 850 years. Over a period of about 300 of these, the monks wrote the Annals of Innisfallen, the monks were dispossessed of the abbey on 18 August 1594, by Elizabeth I. The location of the monastery on the island is thought to have given rise to the name Lough Leane, according to tradition the Irish High King Brian Boru received his education at Innisfallen under Maelsuthain OCarroll. Maelsuthain has been credited as the originator of the Annals. It is possible for tourists to visit the island during the summer months, the local townland which overlooks present day Killarney, may have begun as a pagan religious site. The site has associated with the 5th century missionary St. Abban. According to legend, St. Finian founded a monastery at Aghadoe in the 6th or 7th century, the first written record of a monastery dates from 939 AD in the Annals of Innisfallen where the Aghadoe monastery is referred to as the Old Abbey. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, the Normans built Parkavonear Castle, the castle was perhaps intended as an early warning outpost due to its views of the entire Killarney valley and lakes region.
Ross Castle was built on the shore in the late 15th century by local ruling clan the ODonoghues Mor. Ownership of the castle changed hands during the Desmond Rebellions of the 1580s to the Mac Carty Mor, Muckross Abbey was founded in 1448 as a Franciscan friary for the Observantine Franciscans by Donal McCarthy Mor. The abbey was burned down by Cromwellian forces under General Ludlow in 1654, Killarney was heavily involved in the Irish War of Independence. The town, and indeed the county, had strong republican ties. The Great Southern Hotel, was for a while taken over by the British, One notable event during the war was the Headford Ambush when the IRA attacked a railway train a few miles from town. A day after the Ballyseedy Massacre, five Republican prisoners were murdered in Killarney in retaliation, killarneys tourism history goes back at least to the mid 18th century, when Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare, began to attract visitors and new residents to the town
Thurles is a town in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is located in the parish of same name in the barony of Eliogarty. The cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly is located in the town, Thurles is located in mid-County Tipperary and is surrounded by the Silvermine Mountains and the Slieveardagh Hills. The town itself is built on a crossing of the River Suir, the M8 motorway connects Thurles to Cork and Dublin via the N75 and N62 roads. The N62 connects Thurles to the centre of Ireland via Templemore, the R498 links Thurles to Nenagh. Thurles railway station opened on 13 March 1848, the ancient territory of Éile obtained its name from pre-historic inhabitants called the Eli, about whom little is known beyond what may be gathered from legends and traditions. The extent of Éile varied throughout the centuries with the rise, before the 5th century A. D. the details of its history which can be gleaned from surviving records and literature are exceedingly meagre and confusing.
During this century however Éile appears to have reached its greatest extent, the southern part of this territory embraced the baronies of Eliogarty and Ikerrin, a great part of Middle Third, the territory of Ileagh and a portion of the barony of Kilnamanagh Upper. The OFogartys gave their name to the town, in Irish, Durlas Éile means Strong Fort of Éile, or more correctly Durlas Éile Uí Fhogartaigh. The clan dominated the regions of Templemore and the Devils Bit stretching as far as the Tipperary/Kilkenny border. Towards the end of the century, the power of the ODonoghue clan began to wane and by the early part of the thirteenth century. It is to the Butlers that Thurles owes much of its early development and their architectural legacy may be seen today with two of the original family fortresses still standing. Theobald Walter, 1st Baron Butler was the ancestor of the Irish branch of the Butler dynasty and he was granted a large section of the northeastern part of the kingdom of Limerick. Later in 1328, his descendant, James Butler, was created Earl of Ormond by King Edward III of England, Thurles was originally an agricultural market town.
It is now a town having chain stores like Dunnes Stores, Aldi, Boots UK and Holland. Thurles Shopping centre was extended and plans to open a new a Tesco store to replace the current store in Liberty Square have been announced. Stakelums Hardware, which moved to the Nenagh road, is one of the biggest family owned business in the town. McKevitts Costcutter is another family business that operates two supermarkets in the town
It is one of the constituent counties of Munster GAA. Cork is one of the few counties in Ireland, competing in a similar level in both gaelic football and hurling. As of the end of the 2015 National Leagues, Cork compete in the top division of both sports, by comparison, Cork has only won All-Ireland Senior Football Championship seven times. Traditionally football is strongest in the half of the county. Hurling is the dominant sport in the east, with such as Sarsfields. Naturally, there are exceptions to this rule of thumb, with hurling pockets in football areas, one example is Fermoy in east Cork, which has seven Cork football titles to its name. As well as this, the St. Finbarrs club in the city has eight Cork football titles and 25 in hurling, Corks current GAA crest is based on the traditional coat of arms of Cork city. Like the coat of arms, the crest features the Kings old castle, the centre foreground of the crest features a ship, as does the coat of arms. This is due to Corks history as a city, shown in the city motto Statio Bene Fida Carinis.
The badge features two footballs, along with a pair of hurleys. Corks traditional colours are red and white, but this was not always the case, in its early days of competing, the county wore a blue jersey with a saffron-coloured C emblazoned on the chest. This was changed in 1919 when the Cork hurlers were preparing to play Dublin in the All-Ireland Final, in the week leading up to the game, British forces broke into the county board offices on Maylor Street in the city centre and seized the Cork jerseys. Because of the loss of their kit, the county board borrowed jerseys from the now-defunct Father OLeary Temperance Association team, Cork went on to win the game, ending a sixteen-year spell without a trophy. Following this win Cork decided to wear the red jerseys in their future games. This red and white colour scheme has led to the Cork strip being nicknamed the blood, a colour clash with Louth in the 1957 All-Ireland Football Final saw Cork wear the blue jerseys again, but this occasion saw the team wear the blue jersey of the province of Munster.
In 1976 Corks footballers became involved in an incident known as the three stripes affair, before the Munster football final Cork were offered a set of Adidas jerseys. The use of these jerseys caused controversy as it seemed to undermine the promotion of Irish manufacturers, Corks alternative colours are traditionally white jerseys and white shorts. These alternate colours were worn in the 1973 All-Ireland Football Final when Cork defeated Galway to claim their fourth title and they were worn again in the 2010 Final when Cork defeated Down for their seventh title
Christy Ring Cup
The Christy Ring Cup is the second tier senior inter-county championship in hurling after the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship. Each year, the team in the Christy Ring Cup is promoted to the All-Ireland Championship. The Christy Ring Cup was introduced for the 2005 season and it replaced the All-Ireland Senior B Hurling Championship. The winners of the championship receive the Christy Ring Cup, named after former Cork hurler Christy Ring who many regard as the greatest hurler of all time, in the 2016 season and Antrim tied in the final. For history before 2004, see All-Ireland Senior B Hurling Championship In 2003 the Hurling Development Committee was charged with restructuring the entire hurling championship. The committee was composed of chairman Pat Dunny, Liam Griffin, P. J. OGrady, Ger Loughnane, Cyril Farrell, Jimmy OReilly, Willie Ring, Pat Daly and Nicky English. Over the course of three months they held discussions with managers and officials, while taking a submission from the Gaelic Players Association.
The basic tenet of the proposals was to structure the hurling championship into three tiers in accordance with 2004 National Hurling League status. The top tier was confined to 12 teams, while the ten teams would contest the second tier which was to be known as the Christy Ring Cup. There would be promotion-relegation play-offs between the three championship tiers, the HDC suggested that these games would be played as curtain raisers to All-Ireland quarter-finals and semi-finals. The proposal were accepted at the 2005 GAA Congress, the Christy Ring Cup and the Nicky Rackard Cup competitions were launched at Croke Park on 8 December 2004. The ten participating teams were divided into two groups of five and played in a round-robin format, each team was guaranteed at least four games each. The eventual group winners and runners-up qualified for the knock-out semi-finals of the competition, the bottom two teams of both groups were involved in a four-way relegation play-off with the eventual loser being relegated to the Nicky Rackard Cup.
In 2006 the relegation play-off was limited to just the teams in both groups, while in 2007 there was no relegation. The competition was expanded to twelve teams. The participating teams were divided into four groups of three and played in a format, thus limiting each team to just two games each. The eventual group winners and runners-up qualified for the knock-out quarter-finals of the competition, the bottom team in each group went into the relegation play-offs. The eventual losers were relegated to the Nicky Rackard Cup, however, in 2009 a double elimination format was introduced, thus guaranteeing each team at least two games before being eliminated from the competition
Hurling, is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The game has prehistoric origins, and has played for 3,000 years. One of Irelands native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, there is a similar game for women called camogie. It shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty, the sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurley. It can be kicked, or slapped with a hand for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, no protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, the game has been described as a bastion of humility, with player names absent from jerseys and a players number decided by his position on the field.
Hurling is played throughout the world, and is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina, in many parts of Ireland, hurling is a fixture of life. It has featured regularly in art such as film, music. A team comprises 15 players, or hurlers, the hurley is generally 24 to 36 inches in length. The ball, known as a sliotar, has a cork centre, the goalkeepers hurley usually has a bas twice the size of other players hurleys to provide some advantage against the fast moving sliotar. A good strike with a hurley can propel the ball over 150 km/h in speed and 110 metres in distance, a ball hit over the bar is worth one point. A ball that is hit under the bar is called a goal and is three points. As of 2010, all players must wear a helmet, a hurling pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. The grass pitch is rectangular, stretching 130–145 metres long and 80–90 m wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6–7 metres high, set 6.5 m apart, a net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts.
The same pitch is used for Gaelic football, the GAA, lines are marked at distances of 14 yards,21 yards and 65 yards from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams, teams consist of fifteen players, a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards
The Kerry County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Kerry. The county board is responsible for the Kerry inter-county teams. The Kerry branch of the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in the year 1888, Gaelic football is the dominant sport in the county, with both the mens and womens teams among the strongest in the country at senior level. In hurling, the mens side compete in the sports premier inter-county competition, Kerry have been the most successful team in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, topping the list of counties for All-Irelands won. They have won the competition on 37 occasions, including two four-in-a-rows and two three-in-a-rows, the teams current crest, which came into use in 2012, features design elements that represent the county, Kerry’s people, flora and artistry. These animals are believed to have had a presence in Ireland since the end of the last Ice Age and are steeped in folklore.
The previous crest, shown on the right, which was used from 1988 to 2011 was based more on Irish and Celtic symbolism, featuring a church, an Irish Wolfhound. Kerry traditional colours are gold and green and the county team kits are composed by a shirt with a single golden hoop, white shorts and green. In the early days of the All-Ireland Football Championship, counties were represented by the county champions, Kerrys first represpentatives were from Laune Rangers, and the blue of Laune Rangers was worn in Kerrys first championship outing in 1889. The royal blue of Laune Rangers were worn in the 1892 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final, between 1889 and 1895 inclusive, the teams that went forward to represent Kerry were Laune Rangers and Ballymacelligott, who both wore blue. One account says that it was a red jersey with green neck and cuffs, another account says that it was an entirely red jersey with no green in it. The reason that Kerry wore this red or mainly red jersey was that a new set of green, for the games in the 1903 series of games, Kerry wore green jerseys with gold on the cuffs and over the shoulders.
These were the colours of the Tralee Mitchels senior team, the classic style is green with a gold hoop. The colours have changed only rarely, most of all in the 80s finals against Offaly to avoid again colour clashes. In the 1939 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final Kerry were to play Meath, to avoid a colour clash, Kerry wore the red and white of Dingle, the county champions at the time. The change kit is blue, reflecting the Munster GAA colours. Kerrys inter-county teams are sponsored by the Kerry Group, in one of the longest standing sponsorship arrangements in the GAA, the teams have been connected with the Kerry Group since sponsorship became more open in the GAA in the early 1990s. Kerrys jerseys are provided by ONeills sportswear
Gaelic Athletic Association
The Association promotes Irish music and dance, and the Irish language. It has more than 500,000 members worldwide, assets in excess of €2.6 billion, Gaelic football and hurling are the most popular activities promoted by the organisation, and the most popular sports in the Republic of Ireland in terms of attendances. Gaelic football is the largest participation sport in Northern Ireland, GAA Handball is the Irish governing body for the sport of handball, while the other Gaelic sport, rounders, is managed by the GAA Rounders National Council. And so, the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded, the architects and founding members were Michael Cusack of County Clare, Maurice Davin, Joseph K. Bracken, Thomas St George McCarthy, P. J. Ryan of Tipperary, John Wise-Power, and John McKay. Up to the century most of the members were farm labourers, small farmers. But from 1900 onwards a new type of person – those who were now being influenced by the Gaelic League — joined the movement and they tended to be clerks, school teachers or civil servants.
In 1922 it passed over the job of promoting athletics to the National Athletic, while some units of the Association outside Ireland participate in Irish competitions, the Association does not hold internationals played according to the rules of either Gaelic football or hurling. Compromise rules have been reached with two related sports, hurlers play an annual fixture against a national shinty team from Scotland. The venue alternates between Ireland and Australia, the Irish welcomed the All Australian team at the headquarters of the GAA on 21 November 2015. It was single one-off test match, which led the Irish to reclaim the Cormac McAnallen cup by a score of 56-52, the association has had a long history of promoting Irish culture. Through a division of the known as Scór, the Association promotes Irish cultural activities, running competitions in music. Rule 4 of the GAAs Official Guide states, The Association shall actively support the Irish language, traditional Irish dancing, music and other aspects of Irish culture.
It shall foster an awareness and love of the ideals in the people of Ireland. The group was founded in 1969, and is promoted through various Association clubs throughout Ireland. The Association has many stadiums scattered throughout Ireland and beyond, every county, and nearly all clubs, have grounds on which to play their home games, with varying capacities and utilities. The hierarchical structure of the GAA is applied to the use of grounds, the provincial championship finals are usually played at the same venue every year. Croke Park is the Associations flagship venue and is colloquially as Croker or Headquarters. With a capacity of 82,300, it ranks among the top five stadiums in Europe by capacity, having undergone extensive renovations for most of the 1990s, every September, Croke Park hosts the All-Ireland inter-county Hurling and Football Finals as the conclusion to the summer championships
All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship
Where five Sundays occur in September, the final is held on the second Sunday in September. The Championship was initially a straight knockout competition open only to the champions of each of the four provinces of Ireland, during the 1990s the competition was expanded, firstly incorporating a back-door system and a round-robin group phase involving more games. The Championship currently consists of several stages, in the present format, it begins in late May with provincial championships held in Leinster and Munster. Once a team is defeated in the stage they are granted one more chance to compete for the title. Thirteen teams currently participate in the Championship, the most dominant teams coming from the provinces of Leinster and Munster, Kilkenny and Tipperary are considered the big three of hurling. Between them, these teams have won 93 out of 129 championships completed during its history, the title has been won by 13 different teams,10 of which have won the title more than once. The all-time record-holders are Kilkenny, who have won the competition 36 times, the current All-Ireland champions are Tipperary.
At the third meeting of the new organisation in January 1885, in 1886 county boards were created to run the affairs of the various counties that participated in the competition. By 1887 the first All-Ireland Hurling Championship took place with five teams participating, for the first few years of the championship the various counties were represented by the team who won the county club championship. For instance, the 1887 championship saw Thurles representing Tipperary and Meelick representing Galway, dedicated inter-county teams were only introduced in 1895 when Cork put forward a mixture of all the best players from that countys best local clubs. Over the early years various changes were made in the rules of hurling, teams were reduced from 21 players to 17 and eventually to the current number of 15, and the rules regarding the value of a goal were tweaked in the first few years of the competition. The provincial championships were introduced in 1888 in Munster, Connacht, the winners of the provincial finals participated in the All-Ireland semi-finals.
Over time the Leinster and Munster teams grew to become the superpowers of the game, as Gaelic football was the dominant sport in Ulster. After some time Galway became the only team in Connacht and was essentially given an automatic pass to the All-Ireland semi-final every year. This knock-out system persisted for over 100 years and was considered to be the fairest system as the All-Ireland champions would always be the only undefeated team of the year. In the mid-1990s the Gaelic Athletic Association looked at developing a new system whereby a defeat in the championship for teams would not mean an immediate exit from the Championship. In the 1997 championship the first major change in format arrived when the system was introduced. This new structure allowed the defeated Munster and Leinster finalists another chance to regain a place in the All-Ireland semi-finals and Kilkenny were the first two teams to benefit from the new system when they defeated Down and Galway respectively in the quarter-finals