San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populated city in the United States and the second-most populous city in the state of Texas, with a population of 1,409,019. It was the fastest growing of the top 10 largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the city straddles South Texas and Central Texas and is on the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion known as the Texas Triangle. San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County, recent annexations have extended the citys boundaries into Medina County and, though for only a very tiny area near the city of Garden Ridge, into Comal County. Due to its placement, the city has characteristics of other urban centers in which there are sparsely populated areas. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area, growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it likely that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is on June 13, the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2015.
Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, the Alamo Bowl, the city is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs and hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the country. The U. S. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, the remaining portions of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, at the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, calling the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning refreshing waters. In 1691, a group of Spanish Catholic explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13 and they named the place and river San Antonio in his honor. It was years before any Spanish settlement took place, father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, and he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there.
He directed Martin de Alarcón, the governor of Coahuila and Texas, differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, and construction did not start until 1718. The families who clustered around the presidio and mission formed the beginnings of Villa de Béjar, on May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5,1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14,1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas. By June 1730,25 families had reached Cuba, and 10 families had sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, due to marriages along the way, the party now included 15 families, a total of 56 persons.
They joined the community established in 1718
2005 Texas vs. Ohio State football game
Texas vs. Ohio State football game, played September 10,2005, was the first-ever meeting between The University of Texas at Austin and The Ohio State University in a college football game. The two teams came into the game ranked No.2 and No and it was the second game of the 2005 season for both teams. Schools have become increasingly conservative in scheduling non-conference opponents of a high caliber, for either team, winning the game would boost their chances of ultimately playing in the BCS National Championship Game while the loser likely faced the end of their national championship hopes. According to observers such as USA Today, the game between the Texas Longhorns and Ohio State Buckeyes was one of the games of the 2005 season. Due to the level of anticipation, ESPN chose the game for the location of its weekly College GameDay broadcast. The 2005 Texas Longhorn football team was coached by football coach Mack Brown. The 2005 Ohio State Buckeyes football team was coached by Jim Tressel, Justin Zwick and Troy Smith shared time as quarterback due to disciplinary measures enforced against Smith.
The game was an affair which was ultimately won by Texas. The games attendance was 105,565, which set the all-time attendance record for Ohio Stadium, the game was televised nationally on ABC and drew 9.9 million viewers. ESPN and College Football Rivals, were among the observers who named the one of the best football games of the season. Texas win kept them near the front of the championship picture. They ultimately finished the season unbeaten, snaring the Big 12 Conference, Ohio State finished the season with ten wins and two losses and ranked No.4 in the nation. The Ohio State Buckeyes and Texas Longhorns are two of the most storied programs in college football, before 2005 each school had participated in college football for more than 100 years. They are home to nationally known traditions from the Buckeye leaf stickers and the O-H-I-O chant at Ohio State to Bevo, from 1936 to 2004, the team finished the season in the top ten 23 times, or one-third of the time, according to the Associated Press.
The team that coach Mack Brown fielded in 2005 has been called one of the most memorable in college football history by College Football News, like the Longhorns, the Buckeyes are an elite football program. The Buckeyes program has produced 164 first-team All-American players, including seven Heisman Trophy winners, with the exception of Cedric Benson, Derrick Johnson, and Bo Scaife, Texas returned most of their key players from 2004–2005, including redshirt junior quarterback Vince Young. Texas was given a pre-season No.2 ranking by Sports Illustrated magazine and was ranked second in the pre-season Associated Press Poll. Ohio State had similarly high pre-season expectations with their No.4 ranking, there was preseason speculation they might win the Big Ten Conference and possibly even to have a chance at the national championship
University of Texas at Austin
Founded in 1881 as The University of Texas, its campus is in Austin, Texas—approximately 1 mile from the Texas State Capitol. The institution has the nations seventh-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty, UT Austin was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. It is a center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $550 million for the 2014–2015 school year. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory, among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Emmy Award, the Turing Award, and the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards. UT Austin student athletes compete as the Texas Longhorns and are members of the Big 12 Conference and its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The first mention of a university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas.
Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish education in the arts and sciences. On April 18,1838, An Act to Establish the University of Texas was referred to a committee of the Texas Congress. On January 26,1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land towards the establishment of a publicly funded university, in addition,40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated College Hill. In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States, the states Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11,1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B,102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the states first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the universitys endowment, Texas secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants, the more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general education in the state. The legislature additionally appropriated $256,272.57 to repay the funds taken from the university in 1860 to pay for frontier defense, the 1883 grant of land increased the land in the Permanent University Fund to almost 2.2 million acres. Under the Act of 1858, the university was entitled to just over 1,000 acres of land for every mile of railroad built in the state. On March 30,1881, the legislature set forth the structure and organization. By popular election on September 6,1881, Austin was chosen as the site, having come in second in the election was designated the location of the medical department. On November 17,1882, on the original College Hill, smite the earth, smite the rocks with the rod of knowledge and fountains of unstinted wealth will gush forth
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. It is the 11th-most populous city in the U. S. and it is the fastest growing large city in the United States and the second most populous capital city after Phoenix, Arizona. As of the U. S. Census Bureaus July 1,2015 estimate and it is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 2,056,405 as of July 1,2016. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River, in 1839, the site was officially chosen to replace Houston as the new capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name Waterloo. Shortly thereafter, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the Father of Texas and the republics first secretary of state. The city subsequently grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin.
After a lull in growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its development into a city and, by the 1980s, it emerged as a center for technology. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including Amazon. com, cisco, eBay, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, Texas Instruments, 3M, and Whole Foods Market. Dells worldwide headquarters is located in nearby Round Rock, a suburb of Austin, residents of Austin are known as Austinites. They include a mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers. The city adopted Silicon Hills as a nickname in the 1990s due to an influx of technology. In the late 1800s, Austin was known as the City of the Violet Crown because of the glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Even today, many Austin businesses use the term Violet Crown in their name, Austin is known as a clean-air city for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars.
The FBI ranked Austin as the second-safest major city in the U. S. for the year 2012, U. S. News & World Report named Austin the best place to live in the U. S. in 2017. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of habitation since at least 9200 BC. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area, the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, in 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The mission was in area for only about seven months
Clark Field (1887)
Clark Field, originally known as Varsity Athletic Field, was a stadium on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin. Clark Field hosted the Texas Longhorns football and track teams until they moved to the newly constructed Memorial Stadium in 1924. It hosted the Texas baseball team until it moved to the second Clark Field in 1928 and the Texas Longhorns mens basketball team until it moved next door to the new Mens Gym in 1917. The stadium opened in 1887 on part of the land at the southeast corner of 24th Street and Speedway At its peak of activity, in 1904 it was named after former University of Texas regent, James Benjamin Clark. Memorial Stadium, completed the year, was built a short distance to the southeast of Clark Field
Bevo is the mascot of the athletic programs at the University of Texas at Austin. Bevo is a Texas longhorn steer with burnt orange coloring, the shape of the Longhorns head and horns gives rise to the schools hand symbol and saying, Hook em Horns. The most recent Bevo, Bevo XV, was introduced to Texas football fans on September 4,2016 and his predecessor, Bevo XIV, died of cancer on October 16,2015. Bevo XV is owned by Betty and John Bakers Sunrise Ranch in Liberty Hill, Sunrise Ranch owned Bevo XVs predecessors Bevo XIII, a Longhorn steer was not the original mascot of the University of Texas. The original mascot was actually an American Pit Bull Terrier named Pig, the idea to use a live longhorn as the universitys mascot is attributed to UT alumnus Stephen Pinckney in 1916. Pinckney gathered $124 from other alumni to purchase a steer in the Texas Panhandle, there have been fifteen Bevos to date. Bevo was originally named Bo but came to be called Bevo soon after his first appearance at Texas 1916 Thanksgiving Day game, after the game, Ben Dyer the campus magazine editor declared, His name is Bevo, and long may he reign.
Ben Dyer died before stating why he chose the name Bevo, the first is that Bevo was named after an amber colored drink named Bevo, and the other is that he added an o to the plural form of beef, beev. Bevo II once charged an SMU cheerleader, who had to himself with his megaphone. Bevo III escaped from his enclosure and ran amok across campus for 2 days, Bevo IV once attacked a parked car, while Bevo V broke loose and scattered the Baylor band. More recent Bevos have had a more peaceful tenure, the longest reigning Bevo was Bevo XIII, which like the most recent Bevo was supplied to the university by John T. Baker, owner of the Sunrise Ranch in Liberty Hill, Texas. Baker is past president of the Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America, Bevo XIII, originally named Sunrise Express, was a champion steer at the age of 3, before becoming the UT mascot. Bevo XIII became the mascot in 1988 and served 16 seasons on the sideline and he presided over 191 UT football games and attended President George W.
Bushs inauguration in 2001. During his tenure, he presided over four conference football championships and it was the only time that two Bevos have ever appeared at the same football game. Bevo XIII was returned to Bakers ranch where he lived out the rest of his days in peace, Bevo XIII died on October 9,2006 due to heart failure. Bevo XIV attended George W. Bushs second inauguration in January 2005 and he attended the 2005 Rose Bowl win over Michigan as well as the 2006 Rose Bowl game in which the Longhorns won the 2005–2006 National Championship over USC. As of May 6,2008, Bevo XIV weighed 1,800 pounds, stood 5 feet 8 inches, at the 2008 Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, he took home the honors of Reserve Grand Champion. On October 13,2015, it was announced that Bevo XIV retired after contracting bovine leukemia virus and he died on October 16,2015
Hex Rally was a pep rally at The University of Texas at Austin that occurred in the week before the annual football game between the Texas Longhorns and their in-state rivals, the Texas A&M Aggies. In an effort to prevent the tradition from dying, in 2012, despite having no traditional basis, before the 1941 game, a group attempted to hex the Aggies with a bonfire, similar in structure to the Aggie Bonfire. However, there was not sufficient lumber to build one as large, UT Bonfire eventually died out in the mid-1980s. The physics department at the university decided to build an iron candle-like torch as a replacement, instead of red candles, participants lit white candles in memory of the fallen Aggies. The Texas Exes Student Chapter, sponsored by the Texas Exes alumni organization, the Longhorn Band, cheerleading squad, Smokey the Cannon, the Worlds Largest Texas Flag, and football team all appeared at the event, where red candles were burned. The 2008 rally, held November 24,2008, featured Longhorn football head coach Mack Brown and conditioning coach, Jeff Mad Dog Madden, and the Longhorn Football Team
Red River Showdown
The participants are the Oklahoma Sooners football team of the University of Oklahoma and the Texas Longhorns football team of the University of Texas at Austin. The game is played the following the State Fair Classic featuring Prairie View A&M University. The series is one of the rivalries in NCAA football. There are three Red River Shootout trophies exchanged based on the outcome of the game, the best known of these is the Golden Hat, which is a gold ten-gallon hat, formerly of bronze. The trophy is kept by the schools athletic department until the next year. A newer trophy, the Red River Rivalry trophy, has been exchanged between the two student governments since 2003, another annual tradition is the running of game balls by the schools Reserve Officers Training Corps programs. Each schools ROTC program uses a relay running system to run one game all the way from their respective campus to Dallas. Once there, they participate against each other in a scrimmage, with the winner taking home a rivalry trophy.
For both teams, the rivalry is bitterly emotional and territorial in nature relating to the two states proximity, past border disputes and economic and cultural differences. The game originated in 1900, while Oklahoma was still a United States territory, until the 2005 meeting, the 100th meeting between the schools, the game was called the Red River Shootout. In 2006, with SBCs merger with AT&T Corporation, the game was renamed the AT&T Red River Rivalry, in 2014, the name changed again and is now the AT&T Red River Showdown. The term Red River Shootout or Red River Showdown is applied to meetings between the two schools in other than football. During a Q&A session with DeLoss Dodds during the Big 12 restructuring and chaos that ensued thereafter, Dodds stated in an interview, the A&M games been a great game and all of that. But its not something that we have to do, I think the Oklahoma game is something we have to do. Oklahoma and Texas are tied in the post World War II series 34–34–3, since 1936, the first year of the AP Poll, at least one of the teams has come into the game ranked 68 times, including every one of the last 17 meetings.
However, in the last 33 meetings, Oklahoma leads the series 18-13-2, in 2005, the The Dallas Morning News asked the 119 Division 1A football coaches to identify the top rivalry game in college football. The Red River Rivalry ranked third, behind only Michigan–Ohio State, the first meeting between Texas and Oklahomas football teams occurred in 1900, before either team had acquired their current nickname. At that time, the Texas team was typically called Varsity, the write-up in the Austin American-Statesman article referred to the game as a practice game