Oscar II of Sweden
Oscar II was King of Sweden from 1872 until his death and King of Norway from 1872 until his dethronement in 1905. He was the third of four sons of King Oscar I, as his eldest brother Charles XV was without heirs and his brother Prince Gustaf died in 1852, it was he who succeeded his brother as king. Oscar II was king during a period when Sweden was undergoing a period of industrialization, the declining Union of Sweden and Norway was finally dissolved in 1905 and Oscar became the last Bernadotte king of Norway. He died in 1907 and was succeed as King of Sweden by his son, at his birth in Stockholm, Oscar Fredrik was created Duke of Östergötland. He entered the navy at the age of eleven, and was appointed lieutenant in July 1845. Later he studied at Uppsala University, where he distinguished himself in mathematics, on 13 December 1848, he was made an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. On 6 June 1857 he married in Wiesbaden-Biebrich, Princess Sophia Wilhelmina, from 1859, when his father died, he was first in line to the Swedish throne after his oldest brother King Charles, who had no male heirs.
His middle brother Gustaf had died in 1852 and he succeeded his brother Charles XV / IV on 18 September 1872. At the accession he adopted as his motto Brödrafolkens väl / Broderfolkenes Vel, the political events which led up to the peaceful dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905 could hardly have been attained but for the tact and patience of the king himself. He was dethroned on 7 June 1905 by the Norwegian Parliament and he declined, indeed, to permit any prince of his house to become king of Norway, but better relations between the two countries were restored before his death. He died in Stockholm on 8 December 1907 at 9,10 AM and his acute intelligence and his aloofness from the dynastic considerations affecting most European sovereigns gave the king considerable weight as an arbitrator in international questions. At the request of Great Britain and the United States in 1889 he appointed the justice of Samoa. He was the 1, 027th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain, the office of prime minister was instituted in 1876.
Louis De Geer became the first head of government in Sweden to use this title, the most known and powerful first minister of the Crown during the reign of Oscar was the conservative estate owner Erik Gustaf Boström. Boström served as Prime Minister in 1891-1900 and 1902-1905 and he was trusted and respected by the king, who had much difficulty approving someone else as prime minister. Over a period of time, the king gave Boström a free hand to select his own ministers without much royal involvement and it was an arrangement that furthered the road to parliamentarism. Himself a distinguished writer and musical amateur, King Oscar proved a friend of learning. In 1858 a collection of his lyrical and narrative poems, Memorials of the Swedish Fleet, published anonymously, obtained the second prize of the Swedish Academy
1896 in Sweden
Events from the year 1896 in Sweden Monarch – Oscar II Prime Minister – Erik Gustaf Boström. Svenska Mästerskapet Broxvik Drama, a cause célèbre, takes place, the Swedish National Council of Women is founded by Ellen Fries. Nya smedjegården is closed and demolished,25 November – Tore Holm, sailor. 20 December – Arvid Andersson-Holtman, gymnast,19 October - Emmy Rappe, the first trained nurse in Sweden 24 September – Louis Gerhard De Geer, baron Kloka Anna i Vallåkra, divine visionary and natural healer 9 March - Hanna Winge, painter
The 1910s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1910, and ended on December 31,1919. The 1910s represented the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the half of the 19th century. The murder triggered a chain of events in which, within 33 days, the conflict dragged on until a truce was declared on November 11,1918, leading to the controversial, one-sided Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28,1919. However, each of these states had large German and Hungarian minorities, the decade was a period of revolution in a number of countries. Russia had a similar fate, since World War I led to a collapse in morale as well as to economic chaos and this atmosphere encouraged the establishment of Bolshevism, which was renamed as communism. Like the Mexican Revolution, the Russian Revolution of 1917, known as the October Revolution, much of the music in these years was ballroom-themed. Many of the restaurants were equipped with dance floors. Prohibition in the United States began January 16,1919, with the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U. S.
Constitution, armenian Genocide during and just after World War I. Wadai War Italo-Turkish War First Balkan Wars – two wars took place in South-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913. Saudi-Ottoman War Latvian War of Independence - a military conflict in Latvia between the Republic of Latvia and the Russian SFSR. The Russian Revolution is the term for the series of revolutions in Russia in 1917. April 13,1919 - The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, at Amritsar in the Punjab Province of British India, sows the seeds of discontent, xinhai Revolution causes the overthrow of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China. Madero proclaims the elections of 1910 null and void, and calls for a revolution at 6 p. m. against the illegitimate presidency/dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. The revolution lead to the ouster of Porfirio Díaz six months later, the Revolution progressively becomes a civil war with multiple factions and phases, culminating with the Mexican Constitution of 1917, but combat would persist for three more years.
Germany abolishes its monarchy and becomes under the rule of a new elected government called the Weimar Republic, federal Reserve Act is passed by United States Congress, establishing a Central Bank in the US. George V becomes king in Britain, fourteen Points as designed by United States President Woodrow Wilson advocates the right of all nations to self-determination. Rise to power of the Bolsheviks in Russia under Vladimir Lenin, creating the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, easter Rising against the British in Ireland, eventually leads to Irish independence. Several nations in Eastern Europe get their own state, thereby replacing major multiethnic empires
History of Monaco
Part of Ligurias history since the fall of the Roman Empire, from the 14th to the early 15th century the area was contested for primarily political reasons. Since that point, excepting a period of French occupation. The Rock of Monaco served as a shelter for the early humans from the end of the Paleolithic period, approximately 400,000 BC. Phocaeans from Massalia founded the colony of Monoikos, the Roman emperor Julian wrote of Herculess construction of Monacos port and a coastal road. The road was dotted with altars to Hercules, and a dedicated to him was established on the Rock of Monaco. The name Port Hercules was subsequently used for the ancient port, monoeci meaning Single One or Monoikos meaning Single House could be a reference to Hercules or his temple, or the isolated community inhabiting the area around the rock. According to the travels of Hercules theme, documented by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, after the Gallic Wars, which served as a stopping-point for Julius Caesar on his way to campaign in Greece, fell under Roman control as part of the Maritime Alps province.
The Roman poet Virgil called it that castled cliff, Monoecus by the sea, either because Hercules drove off everyone else and lived there alone, or because in his temple no other of the gods is worshipped at the same time. No temple to Hercules has been found at Monaco, although the rocky ground, the port is mentioned in Pliny the Elders Natural History and in Tacitus Histories, when Fabius Valens was forced to put into the port. Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the city was under the domain of Odoacer until his fall at the hands of the Ostrogoths in the late 5th century. Monaco was recaptured by the Romans during the reign of Justinian in the century and was held until its capture by the Lombards in the 7th century. Monaco passed hands between the Lombards and Franks, though these raids left the area almost entirely depopulated, the Saracens were expelled in 975, and by the 11th century the area was again populated by Ligurians. In 1191, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI granted suzerainty over the area to the city of Genoa, on June 10,1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco.
This date is cited as the beginning of Monacos modern history. The Grimaldis, descended from Otto Canella and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family, francesco Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dynasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Menton in 1346 and Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions, in 1338 Monegasque ships under the command of Carlo Grimaldi participated, along with those of France and Genoa, in the English Channel naval campaign. Plunder from the sack of Southampton was brought back to Monaco, honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, and from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne. The principality was re-established in 1814, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice
History of Greece
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Greece, as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages, and, as a result, at its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Greece to Egypt and to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since then, Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories, nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Greece and Cyprus. The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000–6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. The first Greek-speaking tribes, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, little specific information is known about the Minoans, including their language, which was recorded on the undeciphered Linear A script). They were primarily a people engaged in extensive overseas trade throughout the Mediterranean region.
Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the eruption at Thera. In 1425 BC, the Minoan palaces were devastated by fire, the Minoan civilization which preceded the Mycenaean civilization on Crete was revealed to the modern world by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900, when he purchased and began excavating a site at Knossos. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and it emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c.1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology. The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid, Pylos and Tiryns are important Mycenaean sites. Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a warrior aristocracy, around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete, center of the Minoan civilization, and adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek.
The Mycenaean-era script is called Linear B, which was deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris, the Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs, large circular burial chambers with a high-vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone. They often buried daggers or some form of military equipment with the deceased. The nobility were buried with gold masks, armor. Mycenaeans were buried in a position, and some of the nobility underwent mummification. Around 1100–1050 BC, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed, numerous cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a dark age. During this period, Greece experienced a decline in population and literacy, the Greeks themselves have traditionally blamed this decline on an invasion by another wave of Greek people, the Dorians, although there is scant archaeological evidence for this view
History of Bulgaria
The history of Bulgaria can be traced from the first settlements on the lands of modern Bulgaria to its formation as a nation-state and includes the history of the Bulgarian people and their origin. The earliest evidence of human occupation discovered on what is today Bulgaria date from at least 1.4 million years ago, around 5000 BC, a sophisticated civilization already existed and produced some of the first pottery and jewelry in the world. After 3000 BC, the Thracians appeared on the Balkan peninsula, in the late 6th century BC, most of what is nowadays Bulgaria came under the Persian Empire. This mixture of ancient peoples was assimilated by the Slavs, who settled on the peninsula after 500 AD. Meanwhile, in 632 the Bulgars formed an independent state north of the Black sea that became known as Great Bulgaria under the leadership of Kubrat, pressure from the Khazars led to the disintegration of Great Bulgaria in the second half of the 7th century. A peace treaty with Byzantium in 681 and the establishment of a permanent Bulgarian capital at Pliska south of the Danube mark the beginning of the First Bulgarian Empire, the new state brought together Thracian remnants and Slavs under Bulgar rule, and a slow process of mutual assimilation began.
In the following centuries Bulgaria established itself as an empire, dominating the Balkans through its aggressive military traditions. In the 11th century, the First Bulgarian Empire collapsed under Rus and Byzantine attacks, then, a major uprising led by two brothers - Asen and Peter of the Asen dynasty, restored the Bulgarian state to form the Second Bulgarian Empire. A peasant rebellion, one of the few such in history. His short reign was essential in recovering - at least partially - the integrity of the Bulgarian state, a relatively thriving period followed after 1300, but ended in 1371, when factional divisions caused Bulgaria to split into three small Tsardoms. By 1396, they were subjugated by the Ottoman Empire, the Turks eliminated the Bulgarian system of nobility and ruling clergy, and Bulgaria remained an integral Turkish territory for the next 500 years. With the decline of the Ottoman Empire after 1700, signs of revival started to emerge, the Bulgarian nobility had vanished, leaving an egalitarian peasant society with a small but growing urban middle class.
The initial Treaty of San Stefano was rejected by the Western Great Powers, and the following Treaty of Berlin limited Bulgarias territories to Moesia and the region of Sofia. This left many ethnic Bulgarians out of the borders of the new state, after World War II, Bulgaria became a Communist state, dominated by Todor Zhivkov for a period of 35 years. Bulgarias economic advancement during the era came to an end in the 1980s, Bulgaria joined NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007. The earliest human remains found in Bulgaria have been excavated in the Kozarnika cave and this cave probably keeps the earliest evidence of human symbolic behaviour ever found. Human remains found in Bacho Kiro cave that are 44,000 years old consist of a pair of fragmented human jaws, the earliest dwellings in Bulgaria - the Stara Zagora Neolithic dwellings - date from 6,000 BC and are amongst the oldest man-made structures yet discovered. By the end of the neolithic, the Hamangia and Vinča culture developed on what is today Bulgaria, southern Romania, the earliest known town in Europe, was located in present-day Bulgaria
Prime Minister of Sweden
The Prime Minister is the head of government in Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested. Louis Gerhard De Geer, the architect behind the new bicameral Riksdag of 1866 that replaced the centuries-old Riksdag of the Estates, the current Prime Minister of Sweden is Stefan Löfven, leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. Before 1876, when the office of a prime minister was created. Historically though, the most senior member of the Privy Council had certain similarities to the office of a head of government. When the office of the Prime Minister was created in 1876, unlike the Minister for Justice, the Minister for Foreign Affairs did however continue to be styled as Excellency, an honour shared only with the Prime Minister. From that time onward, the Prime Minister depended on the support of a majority in the Riksdag, over time, the Prime Minister came to de facto exercise the Royal prerogatives.
However, the Swedish term used for the Government during this period, maj, t, an abbreviation of Kunglig Majestät. Until 1974, the authority in Sweden had been exercised through the King in Council. The Speaker holds consultations with the party leaders and appoints a Prime Minister-designate, if the Prime Minister-designate is approved he or she chooses which and how many members are to be included in his or her government. With the exception of the Prime Minister, cabinet ministers do not need the approval of the Riksdag, if the Prime Minister is forced by a vote of no confidence to resign, the entire cabinet falls, and the process of electing a Prime minister starts over. The Prime Minister can dissolve the Riksdag, even receiving a vote of no confidence. The Instrument of Government requires that the Prime Minister appoint a member of the cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister, however, if a Deputy Prime Minister is absent or has not been appointed, the senior minister in the cabinet becomes acting head of government.
If more than one minister has equal tenure, the eldest assumes the position, on paper, the Prime Ministers position is stronger than that of his counterparts in Denmark and Norway. This is because the Swedish prime minister is an office with duties specifically enumerated in the Instrument of Government. In the two neighboring Scandinavian monarchies, the monarch is the chief executive, but is bound by convention to act on the advice of the ministers. The government offices, including the Prime Ministers office, is located at Rosenbad in central Stockholm, in 1991 Sager House was acquired, and since 1995 it has served as the private residence of the Prime Minister. Harpsund, a house in Flen Municipality, Södermanland County, has served as a country residence for the Prime Minister since 1953
History of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I. As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire, the empire came to an end in the aftermath of its defeat by the ] in World War I. The empire was dismantled by the Allies after the war ended in 1918, with the demise of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent states, the so-called Anatolian Beyliks. By 1300, a weakened Byzantine Empire had lost most of its Anatolian provinces to these Turkish principalities, one of the beyliks was led by Osman I, from which the name Ottoman is derived, son of Ertuğrul, around Eskişehir in western Anatolia. In the foundation myth expressed in the known as Osmans Dream. According to his dream the tree, which was Osmans Empire, issued four rivers from its roots, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Nile, the tree shaded four mountain ranges, the Caucasus, the Taurus, the Atlas and the Balkan ranges. During his reign as Sultan, Osman I extended the frontiers of Turkish settlement toward the edge of the Byzantine Empire, in this period, a formal Ottoman government was created whose institutions would change drastically over the life of the empire.
In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean, Osmans son, captured the city of Bursa in 1326 and made it the new capital of the Ottoman state. The fall of Bursa meant the loss of Byzantine control over Northwestern Anatolia, the important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387. The Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottoman Turks. With the extension of Turkish dominion into the Balkans, the strategic conquest of Constantinople became a crucial objective, the Empire controlled nearly all former Byzantine lands surrounding the city, but the Byzantines were temporarily relieved when Timur invaded Anatolia in the Battle of Ankara in 1402. He took Sultan Bayezid I as a prisoner, the capture of Bayezid I threw the Turks into disorder.
The state fell into a war that lasted from 1402 to 1413. It ended when Mehmed I emerged as the sultan and restored Ottoman power, part of the Ottoman territories in the Balkans were temporarily lost after 1402, but were recovered by Murad II between the 1430s and 1450s. Four years later, János Hunyadi prepared another army to attack the Turks, the son of Murad II, Mehmed the Conqueror, reorganized the state and the military, and demonstrated his martial prowess by capturing Constantinople on 29 May 1453, at the age of 21. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II cemented the status of the Empire as the preeminent power in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. To this aim he spent many years securing positions on the Adriatic Sea, such as in Albania Veneta, during this period in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion, extending its borders deep into Europe and North Africa. Conquests on land were driven by the discipline and innovation of the Ottoman military, and on the sea, the state flourished economically due to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia
The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War, germany unified in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the part of the decade. The Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness, franco-Prussian War resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire. The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from 11 January 1879 to 4 July 1879, the Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire, the Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains. Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand, the German Empire and Alliance System emerged. Racial and economic politics in Americas Reconstruction were bitter, the Gilded Age began in 1874, lasting until 1896.
The prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, the first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison, the steam drill is invented in 1879. Ludwig Boltzmann statistically defined thermodynamic entropy,1873 Weltausstellung in Vienna,1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and 1878 Exposition universelle in Paris. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar, the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122 and she still holds the record as of 2016. Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass
1974 in Sweden
Events from the year 1974 in Sweden Monarch – Carl XVI Gustaf Prime Minister – Olof Palme Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson are awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. The two laureates were members of the Swedish Academy at the time, the decision was criticized by the media,26 May – Lars Frölander, swimmer. 19 December – Minna Telde, horse rider,7 May – Gustaf Dyrsch, horse rider. 29 October – Axel Cadier, Olympic champion in 1936
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories