Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany. In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum later became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is also said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Eduard Engelmann Jr.
Eduard Engelmann Jr. was an Austrian figure skater, engineer, and cyclist. He was a gold medallist at the European Figure Skating Championships. He had three children, all of whom became figure skaters, Edi, Helene and Christine, who married Karl Schäfer, the Olympic Games and World Championships were not yet established in Engelmanns time. Engelmann studied at the Vienna University of Technology, specializing in railway engineering and he built the Kraftwerk Wienerbruck power station, the Landessiechenanstalt Oberhollabrunn hospital, and was manager of the Niederösterreichischen Eisenbahnamtes of the Mariazellerbahn. In 1909, he built the first ever artificial ice rink on land, in 1912, he built, in Viennas Heumarkt district, what was at the time the largest artificial ice rink in Europe. The rink was improved on in years, in 1932. He built another rink in Budapest in 1922, in 1944, shortly after his death, the rink he built in Vienna-Hernals was bombed and totally destroyed. It was rebuilt after World War II and reopened in 1946, today, the location holds a supermarket, as a cyclist, Engelmann was one of the founders of the Wiener Cyclisten-Clubs. He won the championships for unicyclists three times in the German cyclists union. Family history Engelmann and the Wiener Cyclisten Club
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice. It was the first winter sport included in the Olympics, in 1908, the four Olympic disciplines are mens singles, ladies singles, pair skating and ice dancing. Non-Olympic disciplines include synchronized skating and four skating, the blade has a groove on the bottom creating two distinct edges — inside and outside. Judges prefer that skaters glide on one edge of the blade, during a spin, skaters use the sweet spot of the blade, which is the roundest portion of the blade, just behind the pick and near the middle of the blade. Skates used in single and pair skating have a set of large, toe picks are mainly used for the take-off on jumps. Ice dancing blades are an inch shorter in the rear and have smaller toe picks, Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level at local, regional, national, and international competitions. The International Skating Union regulates international figure skating judging and competitions and these include the Winter Olympics, the World Championships, the World Junior Championships, the European Championships, the Four Continents Championships, and the Grand Prix series. The sport is also associated with show business, major competitions generally conclude with exhibition galas, in which the top skaters from each discipline perform non-competitive programs. Many skaters, both during and after their careers, also skate in ice shows which run during the competitive season. The term professional in skating refers not to level but competitive status. Figure skaters competing at the highest levels of competition are not professional skaters. They are sometimes referred to as amateurs, though some earn money, professional skaters include those who have lost their ISU eligibility and those who perform only in shows. They may include former Olympic and World champions who have ended their career as well as skaters with little or no international competitive experience. In languages other than English, Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Italian, Polish and Russian, the most visible difference in relation to ice hockey skates is that figure skates have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front part of the blade. The toe picks are used primarily in jumping and should not be used for stroking or spins, if used during a spin, the toe pick will cause the skater to lose momentum, or move away from the center of his/her spin. Blades are mounted to the sole and heel of the boot with screws, typically, high-level figure skaters are professionally fitted for their boots and blades at a reputable skate shop. Professionals are also employed to sharpen blades to individual requirements, Blades are about 3/16 inch thick. When viewed from the side, the blade of a figure skate is not flat and this curvature is referred to as the rocker of the blade
Single skating is a discipline of figure skating in which male and female skaters compete individually. Single skaters perform jumps, spins, step sequences, spirals, single skating competitions consist of a short program and free skating, usually performed within a day or two of each other. Skaters are separated into groups, and generally there is a draw to decide the skating order. For the long program, the groups are organized according to a skaters placement after the short program. Short programs at the senior and junior levels are two minutes and fifty seconds long, skaters are penalized if they skate over that time limit. Skaters must perform certain required elements as part of the program and these elements have varied over the years. The short program is the more exacting of the programs because all the elements must be completed. The free skating programs are 4 1⁄2 minutes for men,4 minutes for ladies, skaters are allowed a time margin of +/-10 seconds, and are penalized for going outside that range. Figure skaters competing in an ISU-sanctioned event are judged under the ISU Judging System, competitors often choose music in consultation with their coach and choreographer. For long programs, skaters generally search for music with different moods, in competitive programs, vocal music is allowed only if it contains no lyrics or words, however, judges do not always penalize violations. At the 2011 World Championships, Florent Amodios long program music included words, in June 2012, the International Skating Union voted to allow music with words in competitive programs beginning in the 2014–15 season. Figure skates for single skaters possess a set of jagged teeth called toe picks on the front of the blade than skates used by ice dancers. The toe picks are used primarily in jumping and footwork, the inside edge of the blade is on the side closest to the skater, the outside edge of the blade is on the side farthest from the skater. In figure skating it is desirable to skate on only one edge of the blade. The apparently effortless power and glide across the ice exhibited by elite figure skaters fundamentally derives from efficient use of the edges to generate speed, skaters and family members may design their own costumes or turn to professional designers. International Skating Union The history of figure skating, photos and autographs Washington Post
Compulsory figures or school figures were formerly an aspect of the sport of figure skating, from which the sport derives its name. Carving specific patterns or figures into the ice was the focus of the sport. The patterns of compulsory figures all derive from the figure eight. They have mostly disappeared from competitions but retain some influence, having evolved into moves in the field, until 1947, competitors at figure skating events were required to skate a total of twelve figures which were worth 60% of the total score. With the increasing number of entrants, figures competitions began to take a long time. This competition format continued until 1968, pressure to reduce the weight of compulsory figures began when the Olympic Games and other skating competitions began to be widely shown on television. Figures were not considered appealing or exciting to television audiences, completion of the figures and their analysis by the judges could last eight hours at the World Championships. Such results would often leave general viewers stunned because they had watched only the free skating and had little or no knowledge of the compulsory figures, a reform was undertaken to put more emphasis on the free skating. The first step was taken in 1968, when figures were reduced to 50% of the total score, in 1973, the number of figures was reduced from six to three, and a new segment, the short program, was added to competitions. Despite the reduction, figures often began at 8 am at ISU Championships, in 1983, skaters would often spend almost twice as much time practicing figures, up to five hours a day, as they did practicing their free skating. From 1973 to 1975, the weights of compulsory figures, short program, and free skating were 40%, 20%, from 1976 to 1988, this changed to 30%, 20%, and 50%. In June 1988, the proportions were changed to 20%, 30%, in addition, ISU member nations voted 27–4 to eliminate compulsories entirely from international competition after July 1990. Less practice ice being available in Europe meant that most European nations voted in favor of abolition, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand voted to retain figures. Opponents of figures said they held back talented skaters such as Janet Lynn and Midori Ito, while supporters said they instilled discipline, in 1980, ISU president Jacques Favart stated that figures are a waste of time and they prevent ice skaters from being more creative. With less coaching and ice time required, Hugh Graham, president of U. S, Figure Skating, estimated that skaters expenses would be reduced by at least 50% after abolition. In the summer of 1997, U. S, Figure Skating voted to end domestic competitions in figures after the 1997–98 season. Compulsory figures are no longer a major event and few competitive skaters have the interest to learn how to do them. Compulsory figures also remain a part of roller skating