Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. He was the son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan. Abdur Rahman Khan re-established the writ of the Afghan government after the disarray that followed the second Anglo-Afghan war and he became known as The Iron Amir after defeating a number of rebellions by various tribes who were led by his relatives. At first, the new Amir was quietly recognized, but after a few months, Afzal Khan raised an insurrection in the north of the country, where he had been governing when his father died. This began a fierce internecine conflict for power between Dost Mohammads sons, which lasted for five years. The Musahiban are descendants of Dost Mohammad Khans older brother, Sultan Mohammad Khan Telai, Abdur Rahman distinguished himself for his ability and energetic daring. Sher Ali threw Afzal Khan into prison, and a serious revolt followed in southern Afghanistan, after some delay and desultory fighting, he and his uncle, Azam Khan, occupied Kabul in March 1866.
Notwithstanding the new Amirs incapacity, and some jealousy between the leaders, Abdur Rahman and his uncle, they again routed Sher Alis forces. When Afzal Khan died at the end of the year, Azam Khan became the new ruler, with Abdur Rahman installed as Governor in the northern province. But towards the end of 1868 Sher Alis return, and a rising in his favour, resulted in Abdur Rahman. Both sought refuge to the east in Central Asia, whence Abdur Rahman placed himself under Russian protection at Samarkand, Azam died eventually in Kabul in October 1869. Abdur Rahman lived in exile in Tashkent, the governor-general of Tashkent sent for Abdur Rahman and motivated him by bringing up the blessing of Jacob, Abdurs patriarch. He was being told to cross the Oxus and claim throne for Amir, after some negotiations, and an interview with Lepel Griffin, the diplomatic representative at Kabul of the Indian government. Griffin described Abdur Rahman as a man of middle height, with an exceedingly intelligent face and frank and courteous manners, the British evacuation of Afghanistan was settled on the terms proposed, and in 1881, the British troops handed over Kandahar to the new Amir.
However, Ayub Khan, one of Sher Ali Khans sons, marched upon that city from Herat, defeated Abdur Rahmans troops and this serious reverse roused the Amir, who had not at first displayed much activity. He led a force from Kabul, met Ayubs army close to Kandahar, the powerful Ghilzai tribe revolted against the severity of his measures several times. In that same year, Ayub Khan made a fruitless inroad from Persia, Abdur Rahmans attitude at this critical juncture is a good example of his political sagacity. He published his autobiography in 1885, which served more as a guide for princes than anything else
Richard Carnac Temple
Sir Richard Carnac Temple, 2nd Baronet CB, CIE was the British Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and an anthropological writer. Richard Carnac Temple was born in Allahabad, India, on 15 October 1850 and he was the eldest son of Sir Richard Temple, a baronet, and his first wife, Charlotte Frances. His father was from The Nash in Kempsey and was at that time working as a servant in India. His father eventually served as Governor of Bombay Presidency, a position that had held by Richard Carnac Temples great-grandfather. After education at Harrow School and, from 1868, at Trinity Hall, Cambridge and he was transferred to the British Indian Army in 1877, being mentioned in despatches while serving with the 38th Dogras in the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1878-79. By this time, he had risen from his rank of Ensign to that of Lieutenant in the Bengal Staff Corps. Temple was transferred to the 1st Gurkha Regiment and appointed a cantonment magistrate in 1879 in Punjab Province and it was now that he began to take what became his abiding interest in the folklore and ethnology of India.
Promoted to Captain in 1881, he served in the Third Burmese War from 1885 and as a consequence, Temple became a Major in 1891 and was appointed President of the Rangoon municipality and its Port-Commissioner. While based there he established various volunteer forces, including the Rangoon Naval Volunteers, from 1895 until his retirement in 1904, he was Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. He was Superintendent of the settlement at Port Blair. His final promotion was in 1897, when he attained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, Temple had succeeded to the Temple Baronetcy of the Nash on 15 March 1902 upon the death of his father. It was after this and during his retirement that he dedicated himself to writing, the lavish lifestyle of his son and the high taxation introduced during the First World War caused him such financial difficulties that he sold The Nash in 1926. Elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1925, he was appointed a Bailiff Grand Cross of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in 1927.
He served as a Justice of the Peace and as a Deputy-Lieutenant of Worcestershire, John Ambulance Association, and Chairman of the Worcester County Association under the new Territorial Forces Act. He assembled collections for the British Museum and the Pitt Rivers Museum and established a museum in his home in Kempsey. He was a member of the Council of the Royal Asiatic Society, the Asiatic Society of Bengal, the Philological Society, the Folklore Society and he was a Silver Medalist of the Royal Society of Arts. He was sometime President of the Bombay Anthropological Society, Temple joined the Folklore Society in 1885 and among the papers he published in its journal was The science of folk-lore. He wrote various works often dealing with the religions and geography of India and he believed that a knowledge of local folklore was useful both to ruler and ruled
Thomas Salter Pyne
Sir Thomas Salter Pyne, CSI was a British engineer based in Afghanistan. He was born in Broseley, the son of John Pyne and he wss apprenticed to an engineer at the age of 15, becoming manager of a foundry and engineering works by 1879. In 1883 he went out to India, where he worked for the merchant Thomas Acquin Martin for a few years. In 1887, when Martin was appointed Agent by Abdur Rahman Khan, there, as the first European to live in Afghanistan since the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1879–81, he trained the local people to make guns, ammunition, soap, etc. On behalf of Martins firm, he built an arsenal, a mint and various factories and workshops and he was a vital contact with the Durand Mission who were defining the borders of Afghanistan. He left the Amirs service in 1899 because of failing health and was replaced by Thomas Martins younger brother Frank and he received a diamond inlaid watch from the Amir as a token of thanks. Sir Mortimer Durand said of him Pyne has gained a position in Afghanistan.
The more I have to do with him, the more respect I feel for his sagacity, the West Australian Wednesday 16 January 1901 AFFAIRS IN AFGHANISTAN. Media related to Thomas Salter Pyne at Wikimedia Commons
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, GCMG KCSI KCIE was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India. Born at Sehore, India, he was the son of Sir Henry Marion Durand, the Resident of Baroda and he was educated at Blackheath Proprietary School, Durand entered the Indian Civil Service in 1873. During the Second Anglo-Afghan War he was Political Secretary at Kabul, from 1884 to 1894, he was Foreign Secretary of India. He left in 1900 by which time owing to the illness of his wife Ella he had withdrawn from social life, from 1900 to 1903 he served as British Ambassador to Spain, and from 1903-1906 as Ambassador to the United States of America. He was appointed a CSI in 1881 knighted a KCIE in 1888, from 1906, after his return to England, he devoted his time to writing. He published the biography of his father, General Henry Marion Durand, some of his publications are, An Autumn Tour in Western Persia Nadir Shah, An Historical Novel The Life of Field-Marshal Sir George White, V. C. Tensions at home in British newspapers heightened the urgency of the incident, threatening war in Central Asia, a telephone line was kept open between Lord Granville and Count Giers in St Petersburg.
The British made it clear that any further extension towards Herat would be amoun to a declaration of war, Rahman showed his usual ability in diplomatic argument, his tenacity where his own views or claims were in debate, with a sure underlying insight into the real situation. A Royal Commission was established to demarcate the boundary between Afghanistan and the British-governed India, the two parties camped at Parachinar, now part of FATA Pakistan, near Khost Afghanistan. From the British side the camp was attended by Mortimer Durand and Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum, the Afghans were represented by Sahibzada Abdul Latif and Governor Sardar Shireendil Khan representing Amir Abdur Rahman Khan. The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon, the relations between the British Indian and Afghan governments, as arranged, were confirmed. The Durand Road in Lahore is named after him, Durand died at Quetta, Emirate of Quetta, Sultanate of Balochistan, British Balochistan, British India, in 1924. His grave yet to be discovered however his father is buried in a Church at Dera Ismail Khan, Durand Cup - a football tournament started by Mortimer Durand at Simla in 1888.
The Making of a Frontier Five Years Experence and Adventure in Gilgit, Nagar, the Russians at the Gate of Herat
Muhammad of Negeri Sembilan
Paduka Sri Tuanku Sir Muhammad Shah ibn al-Marhum Tuanku Antah GCMG KCVO was the first Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, who ruled from 1888 to 1933. During his reign, Negeri Sembilan came under British protection in 1889, three years later, Sir Tuanku Muhammad Shah was duly elected the first Yang-di-Pertuan Besar of Negri Sembilan. He died in 1933 after a reign of 45 years, aged 68 and he was buried at the Seri Menanti Royal Mausoleum at Seri Menanti. Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order -1925 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George -1931
Robert Hunter (National Trust)
Sir Robert Hunter, KCB was a solicitor, civil servant and co-founder of the National Trust. From the 1860s Hunter was interested in conservation of open spaces. After acting as adviser to Hill in her campaigns to save Hampstead Heath and other open spaces, in 1893 the three campaigners agreed to set up a national body to acquire vulnerable properties and preserve them for the nation. At Hunters suggestion it was entitled the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, Hunter was the founding chairman of the trusts executive board. From 1882 until the year of his death Hunter was solicitor to the General Post Office and his negotiations in that capacity were estimated to have saved the British taxpayer many millions of pounds. Hunter was born in the south London suburb of Camberwell, the child and only son of Robert Lachlan Hunter, a master mariner and shipowner. He was educated privately until 1861 when he was admitted to University College, in the same year his family left London for Dorking, which was his first contact with the commons and hills of Surrey which he would come to love in life.
Hunter was awarded a degree in logic and moral philosophy in 1863. At his fathers suggestion he took up a post as a clerk in a firm of solicitors in London. Finding the work uninteresting he read for a Masters degree in his spare time, in 1866 the philanthropist and politician Henry Peek ran a contest offering prizes of £400 for essays on the best means of preserving common land for the public. Hunters entry, The Preservation of Commons in the Neighbourbood of the Metropolis, was one of six winning essays and he traced the history and legal standing of the rights of common, substantial privileges which were maintainable at law. The six essays were published in one volume in 1867, in the same year Hunter was admitted solicitor. He became a partner in Fawcett and Hunter, Hunter worked with the society to save common land from enclosure. He instituted legal actions that ensured protection of Hampstead Heath, and Berkhamsted, Plumstead and Tooting commons, most of the principles of public interest expounded in his 1866 essay were incorporated into English law in 1875.
From the latter year onwards, Hunter was Octavia Hills adviser on the protection of open spaces in London, one of Hunters most celebrated successes was the rescue from enclosure of 3,000 acres of Epping Forest, with the support of the corporation of the City of London. The case was bitterly contested across three years, Hunter acted with the corporations solicitor, Sir Thomas Nelson, in the conduct of the legal proceedings. In 1882 Queen Victoria went to the forest and formally declared it available for her peoples enjoyment, a leading member of the Commons Preservation Society during this period was the Liberal politician Henry Fawcett. He was appointed Postmaster General by Gladstone in 1880, when the post of solicitor to the General Post Office became vacant in 1881 Fawcett decided that Hunter would be the best choice for the position
Karauli State was a princely state in India from 1348 to 1949. It was located in the Braj region, the main village in Karauli district is Mandrayal or Mandrail. The state had an area of 3,178 km2, in 1901, the population of the state was 156,786, and that of the town was 23,482. Millets, the food of the people, was the main agricultural produce. As of the early 20th century, there were no major industries, most goods, as salt, cotton and bullocks, were imported and goats comprised the main exports. The predecessor state of the state of Karauli, the Kingdom of Mathura, was founded about 995 by Raja Bijai Pal a Yaduvanshi Rajput ruler. Historical data point to Arjun Deo as the founder of the Karauli State in 1348, the capital was successively in the towns of Mathura, Bayana, Timan Garh, Andher Kotla, Mandrayal and Bahadurpur. In 1535 Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged the fort of Chittor, rani Karnawati, the widow of Rana Sanga, was ruling Chittor as regent. She tried to be friendly with the Mughals and sent a Rakhi to Humayun, if he would have arrived in time and helped Karnawati, perhaps it would have been Sisodias as their close allies.
However, Kachwahas became the first allies of Mughals in Rajputana, bharmals policy towards Mughals was merely an extension of his brothers policy. Bharmals eldest brother Raja Puranmal died at the Battle of Mandrail in 1534 and he had a son named Surajmal or Sooja. But he was not recognized as king and his younger brother Raja Bhim Singh ascended to the throne of Amber, Bhim Singh was succeeded by his son Raja Ratan Singh and Raja Bharmal succeeded him in 1548. During the 18th century Karauli was under the Maratha Empire until the Marathas were defeated by the British, in 1817, Karaulis ruler signed a treaty with the East India Company and became a British protectorate, the status was maintained till the independence of India in 1947. The rulers of the state bore the title Maharaja, Karauli was ruled by Jadubansi Rajputs
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the medieval ceremony for appointing a knight. The knights so created were known as Knights of the Bath, George I erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order. Prior to 1815, the order had only a class, Knight Companion. Recipients of the Order are now usually senior officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members, in the Middle Ages, knighthood was often conferred with elaborate ceremonies. These usually involved the taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry, clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel where he spent the night in a vigil. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass, retired to his bed to sleep until it was fully daylight, in the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families.
Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the form of ceremony. The last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, and possibly from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria iuncta in uno, and wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval. These were both adopted by the Order of the Bath, a similar design of badge is still worn by members of the Civil Division. Their symbolism however is not entirely clear, the three joined in one may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and, British monarchs. This would correspond to the three crowns in the badge, another explanation of the motto is that it refers to the Holy Trinity. The prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, the Court remained the centre of the political world. The King was limited in that he had to choose Ministers who could command a majority in Parliament, the leader of an administration still had to command the Kings personal confidence and approval.
A strong following in Parliament depended on being able to supply places, the attraction of the new Order for Walpole was that it would provide a source of such favours to strengthen his political position
William Patrick Manning
Sir William Patrick Manning was an Australian politician. Born at Darlinghurst, New South Wales, to baker John Manning and Margaret Harrocks, around 1867 he married Honorah Torpy in Sydney, with whom he had eight children. He was a Sydney City alderman from 1887 to 1900 and mayor from 1891 to 1894, from 1893 to 1894 he was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, representing South Sydney. Manning died at Rose Bay in 1915 and his son Frederic Manning was a writer
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
The Victoria Cross is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry in the face of the enemy to members of the British armed forces and it was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857 and these investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War, since then, the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals,11 to members of the British Army, the traditional explanation of the source of the metal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol. Some research has suggested a variety of origins for the material, research has established that the metal for most of the medals made since December 1914 came from two Chinese cannons that were captured from the Russians in 1855.
Owing to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction, a number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross. The private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded, following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museums Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010. These are unique awards of honours system, assessed and presented by each country. In 1854, after 39 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a war against Russia. The Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. This structure was limited, in practice awards of the Order of the Bath were confined to officers of field rank. Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were largely confined to those who were under the notice of the commanders in the field.
Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against class or rank, France awarded the Légion dhonneur and The Netherlands gave the Order of William. There was a feeling among the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with a mans lengthy or meritorious service. Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that officially constituted the VC, the order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War. Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class, the medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be highly prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services