1892 in sports
1892 in sports describes the years events in world sport. 12 November – William Pudge Heffelfinger is paid $500 by the Allegheny Athletic Association to play in a game against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club and he is considered the first professional football player of all time. 13 March — Liverpool Football Club is founded after Everton is split by a fight at board level over the proposed purchase of the freehold at Anfield. One faction, retaining the name and players, quits Anfield. The other faction, which owns Anfield, decides to establish a new club there, the new club joins the Lancashire League prior to the 1892–1893 season. With the demise of the rival Football Alliance, the Football League is able to expand by inviting former Alliance members to join it, membership doubles from 14 to 28 clubs with divisions introduced for the first time in the 1892–93 season. The original Football League becomes the new First Division, expanded to 16 teams, darwen is relegated from the First Division, Newton Heath, Nottingham Forest and Sheffield Wednesday are elected to the First Division for 1892–93. Fry equals the record for the long jump of 23 ft. 5in – the record stands for 18 months. The National League plays a season, Boston Beaneaters winning the first half. At the end of the season, Boston defeats Cleveland 5–0 in a championship series, the experiment will not be repeated but it will be adapted after two-month interruption of the 1981 season. Events January 15 – James Naismiths rules for basketball are published for the first time in the Springfield YMCA International Training Schools newspaper and they said it was called Basketball. March 11 – First basketball game played in public, between students and faculty at the Springfield YMCA, the final score was 5–1 in favor of the students, with the only goal for the faculty being scored by Amos Alonzo Stagg. A crowd of 200 spectators watched the game, events 7 September — James J. Corbett wins the World Heavyweight Championship with a 21st round knockout of John L. Sullivan at the Olympic Club in New Orleans. Sullivan is gradually worn down by Corbetts combination of elusive footwork, Corbett holds the title until 1897. Lineal world champions World Heavyweight Championship – John L. Sullivan → James J, the team, captained by W G Grace, is organised by Lord Sheffield who later subscribes his Sheffield Shield to Australian domestic first-class cricket. 29 matches are played in total, of which 12 are won, eight of the games are first–class including three Tests versus Australia. Australia win the Test series 2–1 to claim The Ashes, beginning of first-class cricket in India as the annual Bombay Presidency Matches between the Europeans and the Parsees are recognised as the inaugural first-class fixtures. Soon afterwards, the inaugural tour of India by an overseas team takes place when Lord Hawke organises his 1892–93 English touring team
The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French, philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, however, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England. 1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and then commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, Almira, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century also saw the creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat. 1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States
The 1860s were an extremely different decade with numerous cultural, social, and political upheavals in Europe and America. Revolutions were prevalent in Germany and the Ottoman Empire, the abolition of slavery in America led to the breakdown of the Atlantic Slave Trade, which was already suffering from the abolition of slavery in most of Europe in the late 1820s and ’30s. After the Civil War, turmoil continued in Reconstruction, with the rise of white supremacist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan, replacement of President of Mexico Benito Juárez at first with Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and then by Emperor Maximilian of Mexico with the establishment of the Second Mexican Empire. Juárez eventually manages to recover his position, on 18 October 1860, the first Convention of Peking formally ended the Second Opium War. The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865, the Paraguayan War starts in South America, with the invasion of Paraguay by the Triple Alliance. It will kill almost 60% of the country’s population, the main phase of the New Zealand Wars between British colonials and the Māori population begins with the First Taranaki War in 1860. The most significant campaign is the Invasion of Waikato in 1863, the Kingdom of Prussia under Bismarck invaded Denmark in 1864, which ended in the division of Schleswig, the location of a pro-German revolt, between Prussia and the Austrian Empire. Though Prussia and Austria had both fought side by side in war, Prussia later attacked Austria in the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. The technological and logistical superiority of Prussias armed forces obliterated Austria and its allies, by the end of these conflicts, Prussia was seen as the most powerful state in Germany, and had total hegemony over the other German states. The NGF was formed after the Austro-Prussian war, uniting the states of north Germany, the Bhutan War between the British Empire and Bhutan lasted from 1864 to 1865. It ended in a British victory and the loss of some Bhutanese territory to British India, beginning of the Reconstruction era under President Andrew Johnson. 1863–64 January Uprising in the Russian Empire, on 19 July 1864 the fall of Nanjing formally ended the 14-year Taiping Rebellion. Italian Unification under King Victor Emmanuel II, Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, 15th and last of the Tokugawa shoguns loses control to the Meiji Emperor, the samurai class fails to survive while the daimyōs turn to politics. The Dominion of Canada is created by the British North America Act on July 1,1867, President of the United States Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, April 14,1865. King of Madagascar Radama II is captured by soldiers and strangled to death, manuel Isidoro Belzu, President of Bolivia is assassinated. Father of Canadian Confederation, Thomas DArcy McGee is assassinated by Patrick J. Whelan, sakamoto Ryōma, a prominent figure in the Bakumatsu era in Japan and part of the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate, is assassinated along with Nakaoka Shintarō at a Kyoto inn in 1867. The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is completed in 1869, the Suez Canal in Egypt is opened in 1869
The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires, imperialism and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War, germany unified in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the part of the decade. The Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness, franco-Prussian War resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire. The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from 11 January 1879 to 4 July 1879, the Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire, the Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains. Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand, the German Empire and Alliance System emerged. Racial and economic politics in Americas Reconstruction were bitter, pessimistic, the Gilded Age began in 1874, lasting until 1896. The prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, the first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison, the steam drill is invented in 1879. Ludwig Boltzmann statistically defined thermodynamic entropy,1873 Weltausstellung in Vienna,1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and 1878 Exposition universelle in Paris. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar, the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122 and she still holds the record as of 2016. Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass
The 1880s was a decade that began on January 1,1880, and ended on December 31,1889. They occurred at the period of the Second Industrial Revolution. Most Western countries experienced an economic boom, due to the mass production of railroads. The modern city as well as the rose to prominence in this decade as well. The 1880s were also part of the Gilded Age, which lasted from 1874 to 1907, aceh War War of the Pacific Mahdist War 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War 13 September 1882 — British troops occupy Cairo, and Egypt becomes a British protectorate. American Indian Wars 20 July 1881 — Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana. Frequent lynchings of African Americans in Southern United States during the years 1880–1890 and this would be followed over the next few decades by conquest of almost the entirety of the remaining uncolonised parts of the continent, broadly along the lines determined. 3 August 1881, The Pretoria Convention peace treaty is signed,1884, International Meridian Conference in Washington D. C. held to determine the Prime Meridian of the world. 1884–1885, Berlin Conference, when the western powers divided Africa, the United States had five Presidents during the decade, the most since the 1840s. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, may to August,1883, Krakatoa, a volcano in Indonesia, erupted cataclysmically,36,000 people were killed, the majority being killed by the resulting tsunami. September 1887, The Yellow river flooded and killed about 900,000 people, the 1880s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts,13 March 1881 — Assassination of the Tsar of the Russian Empire Alexander II of Russia. 19 September 1881 — James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States 2 March 1882 — Roderick Maclean fails to assassinate Queen Victoria,3 April 1882 — Bob Ford assassinates Jesse James, legendary outlaw. 6 May 1882 - Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief Secretary for Ireland,1880, Oliver Heaviside of Camden Town, London, England receives a patent for the coaxial cable. In 1887, Heaviside introduced the concept of loading coils, in the 1890s, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin would both create the loading coils and receive a patent of them, failing to credit Heavisides work. 1880–1882, Development and commercial production of lighting was underway. Thomas Edison of Milan, Ohio, established Edison Illuminating Company on December 17,1880, based at New York City, it was the pioneer company of the electrical power industry. Edisons system was based on creating a power plant equipped with electrical generators. Copper electrical wires would then connect the station with other buildings, Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States
The phrase, The Gay Nineties, was not coined until the 1920s. This decade was also part of the Gilded Age, a phrase coined by Mark Twain, alluding to the seemingly profitable era that was riddled with crime and poverty. In the United States, the 1890s were marked by an economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893. As of January 23,2017, there is only 1 verified living person who was born in the 1890s. On December 29,1890,365 troops of the US 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns, surrounded an encampment of Miniconjou and Hunkpapa Sioux near Wounded Knee Creek, the Army had orders to escort the Sioux to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. One day earlier, the Sioux had been cornered and agreed to themselves in at the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. They were the very last of the Sioux to do. the process of disarming the Sioux, the 7th Cavalry quickly suppressed the Sioux fire, and the surviving Sioux fled, but US cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed. By the time it was over, about 146 men, women, twenty-five troopers also died, some believed to have been the victims of friendly fire as the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions. Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, with a number later dying from hypothermia. The incident is noteworthy as the engagement in history in which the most Medals of Honor have been awarded in the military history of the United States. This was the last tribe to be invaded which broke the backbone of the American Indian Wars,1891, Chilean Civil War fought from January to September. José Manuel Balmaceda, President of Chile, and the Chilean Army loyal to him face Jorge Montts Junta, the latter was formed by an alliance between the National Congress of Chile and the Chilean Navy. 1891, Tobacco Protest in Qajar dynasty Persia, on March 20,1890, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Shah of Iran granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a full monopoly over the production, sale, and export of tobacco for fifty years. In exchange, Talbot paid the shah an annual sum of £15,000 in addition to a quarter of the profits after the payment of all expenses. Now they were forced to seek permits from the Tobacco Régie as well as required to inform the concessionaires of the amount of tobacco produced, during the spring of 1891 mass protests against the Régie began to emerge in major Iranian cities. Initially it was the bazaaris who led the opposition under the conviction that it was their income, the reference to the Hidden Imam, a critical person in Shia Islam, meant that Shirazi was using the strongest possible language to oppose the Régie. Initially there was skepticism over the legitimacy of the fatwa, however Shirazi would later confirm the declaration,1892, The Johnson County War in Wyoming. Actually this range war took place in April 1892 in Johnson County, Natrona County, the combatants were the Wyoming Stock Growers Association and the Northern Wyoming Farmers and Stock Growers Association
The 1900s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1900, and ended on December 31,1909. The term nineteen-hundreds can also equally be used for the years 1900–1999, the Edwardian era covers a similar span of time. There are several varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in English. Using 1906 as an example, they are nineteen-oh-six, nineteen-six, which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, nineteen-oh-six is the most common, nineteen-six is less common, nineteen-ought-six is recognized, the strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an ohs or aughts decade. Russo-Japanese War establishes the Empire of Japan as a world power, battle of Riyadh was a minor battle of the Unification of Saudi Arabia. Battle of Dilam was a battle of the Unification War between Rashidi and Saudi rebels. First Saudi–Rashidi War was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh versus the Emirate of Hail, demand for Home Rule for Ireland Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa. January 1,1901, British colonies in Australia federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia May 20,1902 — Cuba gains independence from the United States, june 7,1905 — The Norwegian Parliament declares the union with Sweden dissolved, and Norway achieves full independence. October 5,1908 — Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire, April 19,1902 — A magnitude 7.5 earthquake rocks Guatemala, killing 2,000. May 8,1902 — In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre, April 7,1906 — Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. September 18,1906 — A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong, January 14,1907 — An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000. December 28,1908 — An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina, Sicily and Calabria, April 26,1900 — The Great Lumber Fire of Ottawa–Hull kills 7 and leaves 15,000 homeless. The fire began on a wharf and spread to the adjacent piers, warehouses, may 3,1901 — The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL, USA. July 10,1902 – The Rolling Mill Mine disaster in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, August 10,1903 — Paris Métro train fire. December 30,1903 — A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, February 7,1904 — The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, USA destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. June 15,1904 — A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York Citys East River kills 1,021, june 28,1904 — The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants. January 22,1906 — The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, Canada, the 1900s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts, July 29,1900 — King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci
The 1910s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1910, and ended on December 31,1919. The 1910s represented the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the half of the 19th century. The murder triggered a chain of events in which, within 33 days, the conflict dragged on until a truce was declared on November 11,1918, leading to the controversial, one-sided Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28,1919. However, each of these states had large German and Hungarian minorities, the decade was also a period of revolution in a number of countries. Russia also had a similar fate, since World War I led to a collapse in morale as well as to economic chaos and this atmosphere encouraged the establishment of Bolshevism, which was later renamed as communism. Like the Mexican Revolution, the Russian Revolution of 1917, known as the October Revolution, much of the music in these years was ballroom-themed. Many of the restaurants were equipped with dance floors. Prohibition in the United States began January 16,1919, with the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, armenian Genocide during and just after World War I. Wadai War Italo-Turkish War First Balkan Wars – two wars took place in South-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913. Saudi-Ottoman War Latvian War of Independence - a military conflict in Latvia between the Republic of Latvia and the Russian SFSR. The Russian Revolution is the term for the series of revolutions in Russia in 1917. April 13,1919 - The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, at Amritsar in the Punjab Province of British India, sows the seeds of discontent, xinhai Revolution causes the overthrow of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China. Madero proclaims the elections of 1910 null and void, and calls for a revolution at 6 p. m. against the illegitimate presidency/dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. The revolution lead to the ouster of Porfirio Díaz six months later, the Revolution progressively becomes a civil war with multiple factions and phases, culminating with the Mexican Constitution of 1917, but combat would persist for three more years. Germany abolishes its monarchy and becomes under the rule of a new elected government called the Weimar Republic, federal Reserve Act is passed by United States Congress, establishing a Central Bank in the US. George V becomes king in Britain, fourteen Points as designed by United States President Woodrow Wilson advocates the right of all nations to self-determination. Rise to power of the Bolsheviks in Russia under Vladimir Lenin, creating the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, easter Rising against the British in Ireland, eventually leads to Irish independence. Several nations in Eastern Europe get their own state, thereby replacing major multiethnic empires
The 1920s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1920, and ended on December 31,1929. French speakers refer to the period as the Années folles, emphasizing the social, artistic. The economic prosperity experienced by many countries during the 1920s was similar in nature to that experienced in the 1950s and 1990s, each period of prosperity was the result of a paradigm shift in global affairs. These shifts in the 1920s, 1950s, and 1990s, occurred in part as the result of the conclusion of World War I and Spanish flu, World War II, the 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout South America. Venezuela became the second largest oil producing nation. In some countries the 1920s saw the rise of political movements. Communism spread as a consequence of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks’ victory in the Russian Civil War, fear of the spread of Communism led to the emergence of far right political movements and fascism in Europe. The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America, the Roaring Twenties brought about several novel and highly visible social and cultural trends. These trends, made possible by sustained economic prosperity, were most visible in major cities like New York, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, “Normalcy” returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism during World War I, jazz blossomed, and Art Deco peaked. For women, knee-length skirts and dresses became socially acceptable, as did bobbed hair with a marcel wave, the women who pioneered these trends were frequently referred to as flappers. The media began to focus on celebrities, especially sports heroes, large baseball stadiums were built in major U. S. cities, in addition to palatial cinemas. Most independent countries passed womens suffrage after 1918, especially as a reward for support of the war effort and endurance of its deaths. Egypt officially becomes an independent country through the Declaration of 1922, though it remains under the military. Prohibition was finally repealed in 1933, organized crime turns to smuggling and bootlegging of liquor, led by figures such as Al Capone, boss of the Chicago Outfit. The Immigration Act of 1924 places restrictions on immigration, the major sport was baseball and the most famous player was Babe Ruth. The Lost Generation, was the name Gertrude Stein gave to American writers, poets, and artists living in Europe during the 1920s. A peak in the early 1920s in the membership of the Ku Klux Klan of four to five million members, followed by a rapid decline down to an estimated 30,000 members by 1930. The Scopes Trial, which declared that John T. Scopes had violated the law by teaching evolution in schools, major armed conflict in Ireland including Irish War of Independence resulting in Ireland becoming an independent country in 1922 followed by the Irish Civil War
As of the start of 1891, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Paying of old age pensions begins in Germany, january 5 – Beginning of the Australian shearers strike that leads indirectly to the foundation of the Australian Labor Party. January 16 – The Chilean Civil War of 1891 breaks out, january 20 – Jim Hogg becomes the first native Texan to be governor of that state. January 27–May 2 – Jamaica International Exhibition, january 29 – Liliuokalani is proclaimed Queen of Hawaii. January 31 – The Portuguese republican revolution breaks out in the city of Porto. February – Beginning of the Tobacco Protest in Iran, february 14 – In the FA Cup quarter final in English Association football, a goal is deliberately stopped by handball on the goal line. An indirect free kick is awarded, since the penalty kick and this event probably changes public opinion on the penalty kick, seen previously as an Irishmans motion. February 15 – Allmänna Idrottsklubben sports club is founded in Stockholm, february 21 – Springhill, Nova Scotia, suffers a serious mining disaster. March 3 – The International Copyright Act of 1891 is passed by the 51st United States Congress, march 12 – Djurgårdens IF sports club is founded in Stockholm. March 14 – In New Orleans, a lynch mob storms the Old Parish Prison and lynches 11 Italians arrested, march 15 – Jesse W. Reno patents the first escalator at Coney Beach. March 17 – The British steamship SS Utopia, carrying Italian migrants to New York, sinks in the harbor of Gibraltar after collision with the battleship HMS Anson. March 18 – Official opening of the London–Paris telephone system, april 1 The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago. The London–Paris telephone system is opened to the general public. April 5 – Census in the United Kingdom,15.6 million people live in cities of 20,000 or more in England, may – Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claims to be the Promised Messiah and the Mahdi awaited in Islam. May 1 Troops fire on a workers May Day demonstration in support of the 8-hour workday in Fourmies, France, killing 9, the first Fascio dei lavoratori is founded by Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida in Catania, Sicily. May 5 – The Music Hall in New York has its opening and first public performance. May 11 – Ōtsu incident, Tsesarevich Nikolay Alexandrovich of Russia survives an assassination attempt while visiting Japan, may 15 – Pope Leo XIII issues the encyclical Rerum novarum on the rights and duties of capital and labor, resulting in the creation of many Christian Democrat parties throughout Europe. May 20 – Thomas Edisons prototype kinetoscope is first displayed at Edisons Laboratory, june 1 – The Johnstown Inclined Plane opens in Johnstown, Pennsylvania
As of the start of 1892, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Ellis Island begins accommodating immigrants to the United States, January 15 –James Naismiths rules for basketball are published for the first time in the Springfield YMCA International Training Schools newspaper, in an article titled A New Game. February 18 – Pennsauken Township, New Jersey is incorporated, February 27 – Rudolf Diesel applies for a patent on his compression ignition engine. February 29 – St. Petersburg, Florida is incorporated, march 1 – Theodoros Deligiannis ends his term as Prime Minister of Greece and Konstantinos Konstantopoulos takes office. March 6–8 – Exclusive Agreement, Rulers of the Trucial States sign an agreement by which they become de facto British protectorates, march 11 – First basketball game ever played in public, between students and faculty at the Springfield YMCA. The final score is 5–1 in favor of the students, with the goal for the faculty being scored by Amos Alonzo Stagg. A crowd of 200 spectators watches the game, march 13 – Ernest Louis, a grandson of Queen Victoria, becomes Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine on the death of his father, Grand Duke Louis IV. March 15 – The Liverpool Football Club is founded by John Houlding, Houlding decides to form his own team after Everton leaves Anfield in an argument over rent. March 18 – Sir Frederick Stanley announces his intention to donate the Stanley Cup, march 20 – The first ever French rugby championship final takes place in Paris. Pierre de Coubertin referees the match, which Racing Club de France wins 4–3 over Stade Français, march 31 – The worlds first fingerprinting bureau is formally opened by the Buenos Aires Chief of Police, it has been operating unofficially since the previous year. April – The Johnson County War breaks out between small farmers and large ranchers in Wyoming, April 15 – The General Electric Company is established through the merger of the Thomson-Houston Company and the Edison General Electric Company. April 29 – Redondo Beach, California, USA is founded, may 7 – The Cook Islands issue their first postage stamps. May 19 – Battle of Yemoja River, British troops defeat Ijebu infantry in modern-day Nigeria, may 20 – Last broad gauge Down train from Paddington on Great Western Railway. May 22 – The British conquest of Ijebu Ode marks a major extension of power into the Nigerian interior. May 24 – Prince George becomes Duke of York, may 28 – In San Francisco, John Muir organizes the Sierra Club. June 4 – Abercrombie & Fitch is established by David T. Abercrombie, june 5 – An oil fire in Oil City, Pennsylvania, kills 130 people. June 7 – Homer Plessy is arrested for sitting on the car in Louisiana. June 11 – The Limelight Department, later one of the worlds first film studios, is established in Melbourne
As of the start of 1893, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 2 – Webb C. Ball introduces railroad chronometers, which become the general railroad timepiece standards in North America, january 13 – The Independent Labour Party of the United Kingdom has its first meeting. January 15 – The Telefon Hírmondó service starts with around 60 subscribers in Budapest, january 21 – The Cherry Sisters first perform in Marion, Iowa. February 1 – Thomas Edison finishes construction of the first motion picture studio in West Orange, february 19 – The SS Naronic is believed to have sunk due to a storm. February 23 – Rudolf Diesel receives a patent for the diesel engine, february 24 – American University is established by an Act of Congress in Washington, D. C. February 28 – USS Indiana, the first battleship in the United States Navy comparable to other battleships of this time, is launched. March 4 – Grover Cleveland is sworn in as President of the United States, march 10 – Ivory Coast becomes a French colony. March 20 – In Belgium, Adam Worth is sentenced to 7 years for robbery, april 1 – The rank of Chief Petty Officer is established in the United States Navy. April 6 – The iconic Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is dedicated after 40 years of construction, april 8 – The first recorded college basketball game occurs in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania between the Geneva College Covenanters and the New Brighton YMCA. April 17 – Riots of Mons during the Belgian general strike of 1893, The day after, april 17 – The sorority Alpha Xi Delta is founded at Lombard College in Galesburg, Illinois. May – The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland is formed, may 1 – The 1893 Worlds Fair, also known as the Worlds Columbian Exposition, opens to the public in Chicago, USA. The first United States commemorative postage stamps are issued for the Exposition, may 5 – Panic of 1893, A crash on the New York Stock Exchange starts a depression. May 9 – Edisons 1½ inch system of Kinetoscope is first demonstrated in public at the Brooklyn Institute, may 10 – Nix v. Hedden, the United States Supreme Court legally declares the tomato to be a vegetable. June 6 – Prince George, Duke of York marries Mary of Teck, june 7 – Gandhi commits his first act of civil disobedience in India. June 17 – Gold is found in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, june 20 – The Wengernalpbahn railway in Wengen, Switzerland is opened. June 20 – Lizzie Borden acquitted of murdering her parents in Fall River, june 22 – The flagship HMS Victoria of the British Mediterranean Fleet collides with HMS Camperdown and sinks in 10 minutes, Vice-admiral Sir George Tryon goes down with his ship. July 1 – U. S. President Grover Cleveland is operated on in secret, July 6 – The small town of Pomeroy, Iowa, is nearly destroyed by a tornado,71 people are killed and 200 injured. July 11 A revolution led by general and politician José Santos Zelaya takes over power in Nicaragua
As of the start of 1894, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. February – In Korea, peasant unrest erupts in the Donghak Peasant Revolution, both China and Japan send military forces, claiming to come to the ruling Joseon dynasty governments aid. January 7 – William Kennedy Dickson receives a patent for motion picture film, january 9 – New England Telephone and Telegraph installs the first battery-operated telephone switchboard in Lexington, Massachusetts. February 17 – American outlaw John Wesley Hardin is released from prison, march 12 – For the first time, Coca-Cola is sold in bottles. March 21 – A syzygy of planets occurs as Mercury transits the Sun as seen from Venus, march 25 – Coxeys Army, the first significant protest march in the United States, departs from Massillon, Ohio, for Washington, D. C. January 4 – A military alliance is established between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire, february 12 French anarchist Émile Henry sets off a bomb in a Paris café, killing one person and wounding twenty. The barque Elisabeth Rickmers of Bremerhaven is wrecked at Haurvig, Denmark, february 15 – At 04,51 GMT, French anarchist Martial Bourdin attempts to destroy the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London, England, with a bomb, killing himself instead. April 11 – Britain establishes a Protectorate over Uganda, April 16 – Manchester City Football Club is formed in England. April 21 A bituminous coal miners strike closes mines across the central United States, April 23 – St. April 27 – Canadas largest known landslide occurred in Saint-Alban, Quebec. Displacing 185 million cubic metres of rock and dirt, leaving a 40 metres scar, may – Bubonic plague breaks out in the Tai Ping Shan area of Hong Kong. May 1 Coxeys Army arrives in Washington, Coxey is arrested, the May Day Riots break out in Cleveland, Ohio. May 11 – Pullman Strike, Three thousand Pullman Palace Car Company factory workers go on a strike in Illinois. May 14 A meteor shower is seen in southern France, Blackpool Tower is opened in Blackpool, England. May 21 – The Manchester Ship Canal and Docks are opened by Queen Victoria, june 22 – Dahomey becomes a French colony. June 23 – The International Olympic Committee is founded at the Sorbonne, Paris, june 24 – Sadi Carnot, president of France, is assassinated. June 30 – The Tower Bridge in London opens for traffic, july – A fire at the site of the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago destroys most of the remaining buildings. July 4 The Republic of Hawaii is proclaimed by Sanford B, the football club FC La Chaux-de-Fonds is founded in Switzerland. July 22 – Paris–Rouen Competition for Horseless Carriages, the first automobile competition, august 1 – War is declared between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, over their rival claims of influence on their common ally, the Joseon dynasty of Korea
As of the start of 1895, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 5 – Dreyfus affair, French officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his army rank, january 17 – Félix Faure is elected President of French Republic after the resignation of Jean Casimir-Perier. January 21 – The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty is founded in England by Octavia Hill, Robert Hunter, february 9 – Mintonette, later known as volleyball, is created by William G. Morgan at Holyoke, Massachusetts. February 11 – The lowest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C is recorded at Braemar in Aberdeenshire and this record is equalled in 1982 and again in 1995. February 14 – Oscar Wildes last play, the comedy The Importance of Being Earnest, is first shown at St Jamess Theatre in London, february 20 – Venezuelan crisis of 1895, U. S. The bill recommends Venezuela and Great Britain settle their dispute by arbitration, february 25 – The first rebellions take place marking the start of the Cuban War of Independence. March 1 – William Lyne Wilson is appointed United States Postmaster General, March 3 – In Munich, bicyclists have to pass a test and display license plates. March 4 – Japanese troops capture Liaoyang and land in Taiwan, March 18 – First worldwide gasoline bus started in Germany between Siegen and Netphen March 30 – Rudolf Diesel patents the Diesel engine in Germany. April 6 – Oscar Wilde is arrested in London for gross indecency after losing a libel case against the Marquess of Queensberry. April 7 – Nansens Fram expedition to the Arctic reaches 86°13. 6N, april 14 – A major earthquake severely damages Ljubljana, the capital of Carniola. April 16 – The town of Sturgeon Falls, Ontario, is incorporated, april 17 – The Treaty of Shimonoseki is signed between China and Japan. The huge indemnity exacted from China is used to establish the Yawata Iron, april 22 – Gongche Shangshu movement,603 candidates sign a 10, 000-word petition against the Treaty of Shimonoseki. April 27 – The historic Spiral Bridge was constructed to carry U. S.61 over the Mississippi River at Hastings, the picturesque Spiral Bridge was a one-of-a-kind and served the citizens of Hastings for 56 years until it was demolished in 1951 Hastings, Minnesota. May 1 – Dundela Football, Sports & Association Club formed in Belfast, may 2 – Gongche Shangshu movement, Thousands of Beijing scholars and citizens protest against the Treaty of Shimonoseki. May 24 – Anti-Japanese officials led by Tang Ching-sung in Taiwan declare independence from the Qing dynasty, may 25 – R. v. June 5 Liberal Revolution begins in Ecuador, being the civil war more intense in this country. June 11 Britain annexes Tongaland, between Zululand and Mozambique, paris–Bordeaux–Paris is sometimes called the first automobile race in history or the first motor race. June 20 The Kiel Canal, connecting the North Sea to the Baltic across the base of the Jutland peninsula in Germany, is officially opened, Treaty of Amapala establishes union of Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador begins. June 28 – The United States Court of Private Land Claims rules that James Reaviss claim to Barony of Arizona is wholly fictitious, night of July 10–July 11 – The Doukhobors pacifist protests culminate in the Burning of the ass in the South Caucasus
As of the start of 1896, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January – Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War, British redcoats enter the Ashanti capital, Kumasi, January 2 – The Jameson Raid comes to an end, as Jameson surrenders to the Boers. January 4 – Utah is admitted as the 45th U. S. state, January 5 – An Austrian newspaper reports that Wilhelm Röntgen has discovered a type of radiation later known as X-rays. January 6 – Cecil Rhodes is forced to resign as Prime Minister of the Cape of Good Hope for his involvement in the Jameson Raid, January 7 – Fannie Farmer publishes her first cookbook. January 12 – H. L. Smith takes the first X-ray photograph, January 18 – The X-ray machine is exhibited for the first time. January 28 – Walter Arnold, of East Peckham, Kent, England, is fined 1 shilling for speeding at 8 mph, february 1 – Puccinis opera La bohème premieres in Turin, Italy. February 4 – International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers is established in Pittsburgh, february 11 – Oscar Wildes play Salomé premieres in Paris. February 19 – Braamfontein Explosion, A train carrying 56 tons of dynamite explodes at Braamfontein, Johannesburg, march 1 – Battle of Adwa, Ethiopia defends its independence from Italy, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War. March 3 – Publication begins of the worlds first magazine with an orientation to male homosexuality, Der Eigene, march 9 – Responding to national outrage at the defeat at Adwa, Italian Prime Minister Francesco Crispi resigns. March 23 – The New York State Legislature passes the Raines law, april – The first study of the sensitivity of global climate to atmospheric carbon dioxide is published. April 3 – The first edition of the Italian sports newspaper La Gazzetta dello Sport is published, april 4 – The first known womens basketball game between two colleges is played between Stanford and California. April 6 – The opening ceremonies of the 1896 Summer Olympics, april 9 – The National Farm School is chartered in Doylestown, PA. May 8 – Cricket, Against Warwickshire, Yorkshire sets a still-standing County Championship record when they accumulate a total of 887. May 13 – The Franchise Bill is passed by the Colony of Natals Legislative Assembly, may 18 – Plessy v. Ferguson, The U. S. Supreme Court introduces the separate but equal doctrine and upholds racial segregation. May 26 – Eleven years after its foundation, a group of 12 purely industrial stocks were chosen to form the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the index was composed entirely of industrial shares for the first time. June 4 – The Ford Quadricycle, the first Ford vehicle ever developed, is completed, june 7 – Mahdist War, British and Egyptian victory at the Battle of Ferkeh. June 12 – J. T. Hearne sets a record for the earliest date of taking 100 wickets in cricket, june 15 – The 1896 Sanriku earthquake and tsunami in Japan kills 27,000. June 18 – The New York Telephone Company is formed, succeeding the Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, june 23 – Liberal leader Wilfrid Laurier defeats Charles Tupper during Canadian federal elections for the 8th Canadian Parliament to become the first francophone Prime Minister of Canada
As of the start of 1897, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 2 – The International Alpha Omicron Pi sorority is founded, january 4 – A British force is ambushed by Chief Ologbosere, son-in-law of the Oba of Benin. This leads to an expedition against Benin. January 7 – Cyclone destroys Darwin, Australia, january 22 – In this dates issue of the journal Engineering, the word computer, is first used to refer to a mechanical calculation device, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. January 23 – Elva Zona Heaster is found dead in Greenbrier County, the resulting murder trial of her husband is perhaps the only capital case in United States history where spectral evidence helps secure a conviction. January 31 – Czechoslav Trade Union Association is founded in Prague, February 10 – Freedom of religion is proclaimed in Madagascar. February 16 – The French conquer the island of Raiatea and capture the rebel chief Teraupoo, ending the Leeward Islands War, February 18 – Benin is put to the torch by the British Armys Benin Expedition. February 24 – Foundation of Čekan Mekenroff 1897 association football club in Pozsony in the Kingdom of Hungary, February 26 – The Sigma Pi fraternity is founded. February 27 – The French military governor of Madagascar, Joseph Gallieni, exiles Queen Ranavalona III to Réunion, march 4 – William McKinley is sworn in as President of the United States. March 13 – San Diego State University is founded, march 22 – Emilio Aguinaldo unseats Andrés Bonifacio at the Tejeros Convention, becoming the new head of the Filipino revolutionary group Katipunan. April 15 – Drillers near Bartlesville, Oklahoma, strike oil for the first time in the designated Indian Territory, the gusher, at the Nellie Johnstone Number One well, leads to rapid population growth. April 19 – The first Boston Marathon is held, with fifteen men competing, may 14 The Stars and Stripes Forever, the American patriotic march by John Philip Sousa, is performed for the first time. – The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee is founded in Berlin as an LGBT campaigning organization, may 19 – Oscar Wilde is released from prison in England and goes into exile on the continent. May 26 – Irish-born theatrical manager Bram Stokers contemporary Gothic horror novel Dracula is first published, June 22 – Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria celebrated in the United Kingdom. No other British monarch celebrated such a jubilee until Elizabeth II in 2012, July 11 – S. A. Andrées Arctic Balloon Expedition of 1897 begins. The ill-fated expedition to fly over the Arctic results in the death of the team within months. July 17 – The Klondike Gold Rush begins when the first successful prospectors arrive in Seattle, July 25 – Writer Jack London sails to join the Klondike Gold Rush where he will write his first successful stories. July 26–August 2 – Siege of Malakand, British troops are besieged by Pashtun tribesmen in Malakand on the North-West frontier of the British Raj, July 31 – Mount Saint Elias, the second highest peak in the United States and Canada, is first ascended
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football. The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia, Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard, Yale and Columbia then agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
The Yale Bulldogs are the athletic teams of Yale University. The school sponsors 35 varsity sports, the school has won two NCAA national championships in womens fencing, four in mens swimming and diving,21 in mens golf and one in mens hockey. Major leaguers pitcher Craig Breslow and catcher Ryan Lavarnway, among others, Breslow led the Ivy League with a 2.56 ERA in 2002. Lavarnway led the NCAA in batting average and slugging percentage in 2007, set the Ivy League hitting-streak record, in August 2012, Breslow and Lavarnway, playing for the Red Sox, became the first Yale grads to be Major League teammates since 1949. The football team has competed since 1876 and they have won nineteen national championships when the school competed in what is now known as the FBS. They are perhaps best known for their rivalry with Harvard, known as The Game, twenty one former players have been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. The mens golf team has won 21 collegiate team championships,1897,1898,1902, 1905–13,1915, 1924–26 and they have won nine Ivy League championships since the League championship was started in 1975, 1984–85,1988, 1990–91, 1996–97,2003,2011. The Yale Mens Ice Hockey team is the oldest existing intercollegiate hockey program, the team competes in the ECAC Hockey League, in addition the Ivy League also crowns a champion for its members that field varsity ice hockey. The Bulldogs won the 2013 NCAA National Championship in Pittsburgh with a 4–0 shutout of Quinnipiac University, from 1911 to 1958, Yale won four national championships. As of July 2,2015, Yale has 28 NCAA team national championships, see also, Ivy League NCAA team championships List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I championships Yale rugby plays college rugby in Division 1 in the Ivy Rugby Conference. Yale Rugby was founded in 1875, making it one of the oldest rugby teams in North America, president George W. Bush played rugby for Yale during his student days. List of NCAA schools with the most Division I national championships Official website
Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit
The Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit was a loose association of American football clubs that operated from 1890 to approximately 1940. Originally amateur, professionalism was introduced to the circuit in 1892, existing in some form for 48 years, it was one of the longest-lived paying football loops to operate outside the auspices of the National Football League. The football clubs of the 1880s and 1890s were amateur teams and they were under the membership of an athletic club, which provided both sports and the ability to wager money on the sports. However the prestige and increased membership that could come from a successful team, the amateur athletics that these clubs engaged in were policed by the Amateur Athletic Union. By the mid-1890s allegations of professionalism became known to the AAU, the Allegheny Athletic Association was found guilty of paying cash to players and was permanently barred from any kind of competition with other AAU members. This punishment would end a team, because their opponents, whether other pros, amateur associations, or colleges, Allegheny then defied the AAU in 1896 and created an entirely open professional team. A year later, the Latrobe Athletic Association, went entirely professional, the misconception that these were amateur athletic club were held to in public, even when newspapers wrote openly of players being under contract. To get around this, the teams played for local or regional championships. However the winner of the circuit was able to lay claim to a national. By 1904, the exodus of pro football talent to the Ohio League, diminished the level of play. In 1922 the APFA became the National Football League, the circuit did not immediately die out and in fact experienced a slight renaissance in the 1920s as the Western Pennsylvania Senior Independent Football Conference. P. Rooneys were founded in 1921, it joined the NFL in 1933 as the Pittsburgh Pirates. Erie Veterans Glassport Odds Jeannette Athletic Club J. P and these accomplishments include, William Pudge Heffelfinger became the first known professional football player on November 12,1892. Sport Donnelly became the first known professional football coach in 1893, a player assumed to be Grant Dibert signed the first known pro football contract, which covered all of the clubs games for the 1893 season. John Brallier became the first openly professional player on September 3,1895 Allegheny Athletic Association fielded the first entirely openly professional team in 1896. Latrobe Athletic Association became the first football team to play a season with only professionals in 1897. William Chase Temple became the first individual owner of a football team in c.1898. The first ever professional football game held between the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club and players from Western Pennsylvania All-Stars
Allegheny Athletic Association
The Allegheny Athletic Association was an athletic club that fielded the first ever professional American football player and later the first fully professional football team. The organization was founded in 1890 as an athletic club in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. The Allegheny team was assembled in 1890, in most sports, Allegheny provided very little competition for the more established East End Gymnasium Club, which in 1892 became the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. Allegheny soon took up football largely when the club discovered that it could give them an edge over the East Enders. Many Allegheny club members had gone to colleges and played football. Members O. D. Thompson and John Moorehead, were teammates of Walter Camp, the inventor of the modern game. The team also immediately gave Allegheny a strong following since the East Enders did not have a team at the time. Alleghenys backfield during that year had A. S. Valentine, at quarterback. Allegheny won the game easily, 38-0, but the contest was significant since it marked the start of Pitts football program. Prior to the game, Allegheny was to play Shady Side Academy, Allegheny went on to defeat Shady Side Academy a week later, 32–0. Although the eleven players styled themselves the All-Pittsburghs, they were really a collection of local athletes masquerading as a team, significantly, several of the pick-ups were members of the East End Gym such as William Kirschner and Grant Dibert. This game foreshadowed the start of the upcoming rivailry between Allegheny and the Pittsburgh Athletic Club, Allegheny would go on to defeat the inexperienced team by a score of 22–6. November 1,1890 Allegheny scheduled a game against the Princeton University Preparatory team, the prep team was a far cry from the Princetons varsity team. Allegheny would end up losing to the touring Princeton team, 44–6, the season concluded with a 6–6 tie with the Detroit Athletic Club and a 6–4 loss to the Cleveland Athletic Club, both amateur club squads. However the Allegheny Athletic Association was regarded as the champions that season. Allegheny began their 1891 season recognized as the football team in western Pennsylvania. However, by early October, the Pittsburgh club emerged onto the football scene, at this time, Harry Fry, who was in the line-up for Allegheny a year earlier, jumped to East End team. Allegheny finally began their 1891 season on October 24 and their line-up included veteran players A. S
A flying wedge is a configuration created from a body moving forward in a triangular formation. This V-shaped arrangement began as a military strategy in ancient times when infantry units would move forward in wedge formations to smash through an enemys lines. This principle was used by Medieval European armies, as well as modern armed forces. In modern times the effectiveness of flying wedge means it is employed by civilian police services for riot control. It has also used in some sports, although the use of wedges is sometimes banned due to the danger it poses to defenders. The wedge, was used by infantry and cavalry. The men deployed in a triangular or trapezoid formation with the tip leading the way, according to Arrian and Asclepiodotus, the wedge was first used by the Scythians, and then the Thracians. Philip II of Macedon adopted it from them as the formation of his Companion cavalry and Alexander the Great faced Persian cavalry arrayed thus. As an infantry formation it is attested by Frontinus to have used by the Romans in Pydna against the Macedonian line of Perseus. In the Late Roman army, several units were designated as cuneus. Keilerkopf or Keil is a German phrase to describe the formation of the prehistoric infantry of the Celts. It is generally believed that the Germanic tribes were successful with this tactic than the Celts. It was used to force the Roman forces to split and was applied specifically to the weakest units. Here the individual warrior tried to gain fame and glory in the battle, the most distinguished princes and their acolytes stood at the head of the Keil. However, this was also the most dangerous point, whence the need to be heavily armoured, but an army leader who survived a lost battle often forfeited his life. Warriors who had fled were hanged or slain, according to the Roman historian Tacitus, the Keil was a tightly packed crowd, strong on all sides, not only in front and back, but also on the flanks. The formation was not like a wedge but more like a rectangle with forty warriors in the first line and 1,600 men strong, in this formation, the wingmen are at most risk. It was therefore possible that the wing marched with some caution and held back a bit, so that the center stormed further
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
First Vienna FC
First Vienna FC is an Austrian association football club based in the Döbling district of Vienna. Established on 22 August 1894, it is the countrys oldest team and has played a role in the history of the game there. It is familiarly known to Austrians by the English name Vienna, in the early 1890s English and Austrian gardeners working for Nathaniel Anselm von Rothschild began to play football on his estates. To avoid further damage to his flowers Nathaniel ceded them a nearby and also granted the teams blue-yellow kits. The Manx player William Beale designed the logo, also in the Rothschild colours blue and yellow. The city of Vienna quickly became the centre of Austrian football and by the end of 1896 there were seven clubs playing there, cricket won the first cup competition in 1897, but First Vienna followed with consecutive cup titles in 1899 and 1900. The club also made a appearance in the 1907 final of the Wiener Cup which emerged when the Challenge Cup competition fell into disarray between 1903 and 1905. That same year the team won the Mitropa Cup, one of Europes first international club competitions. The cup title was unique in the history of the competition as they swept their opposition, Vienna captured a second national title in 1933 with a third Austrian Cup following in 1937. They later successfully played the countrys first match under floodlights on 3 November 1956, after Austria was united with Germany in the Anschluss in 1938 the football competitions of the two countries were also merged. First division Austrian teams played in the newly formed Gauliga Ostmark as part of the structure established under the Third Reich in the re-organization of German football in 1933. This led to the appearance of Austrian sides in the finals of Germany and in competition for the Tschammerpokal. Vienna repeated as champions the following season, but this time advanced only as far as the semi-finals before being put out 1,2 by FV Saarbrücken. A third Gauliga title in 1944 again put the club into Germanys national playoffs where this time went out 2,3 in the quarterfinals to eventual champions Dresdner SC. As World War II drew to a close and Allied armies advanced into Germany league play collapsed with Vienna still in a race again looking to repeat as division champions. Occupied by Allied forces after the end of the war, Austria was once again independent of Germany, in league play in the 1946 season Vienna earned only a fifth-place finish but did go on to capture the Liberation Cup donated by the Soviets. Through the late 40s and on into the early 50s the clubs performance was uneven as they earned only mid-table results. Goal difference was not yet implemented, a 1,0 was better than a 10,1 win, the lower the quotient the better, the ideal one being zero
English Football League
The English Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888 as the Football League, the league is the oldest such competition in world football and it was the top-level football league in England from its foundation in the 19th century until 1992, when the top 22 clubs split away to form the Premier League. The league has 72 clubs evenly divided into three divisions, which are known as the Championship, League One and League Two, with 24 clubs in each division, the Football League has been associated with a title sponsor between 1983 and 2016. As this sponsor changed over the years the league too has been known by various names, the English Football League is also the name of the governing body of the league competition, and this body also organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The operations centre of the Football League is in Preston, while its commercial office is in London, the commercial office was formerly based in Lytham St Annes, after its original spell in Preston. The Football League consists of 70 professional association football clubs in England and 2 in Wales and it runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. It also organises two knockout cup competitions, the Football League Cup and Football League Trophy, the Football League was founded in 1888 by then Aston Villa director William McGregor, originally with 12 member clubs. Steady growth and the addition of more divisions meant that by 1950 the League had 92 clubs, the Football League therefore no longer includes the top 20 clubs who belong to this group, although promotion and relegation between the Football League and the Premier League continues. In total,136 teams have played in the Football League up to 2013, the Football Leagues 72 member clubs are grouped into three divisions, the Football League Championship, Football League One, and Football League Two. Each division has 24 clubs, and in any season a club plays each of the others in the same division twice, once at their home stadium. This makes for a total of 46 games played each season, clubs gain three points for a win, one for a draw, and none for a defeat. At the end of the season, clubs at the top of their division may win promotion to the higher division. At the top end of the competition, three Championship clubs win promotion from the Football League to the Premier League, with the bottom three Premier League clubs taking their places, reserve teams of Football League clubs usually play in the Central League or the Football Combination. Since the 2004–05 season, penalties have existed for clubs entering financial administration during the season and it is also required that a club exiting administration agree a Creditors Voluntary Agreement, and pay in full any other footballing creditors. Failure to do either of these result in a second. The other main situation in which is a club may lose points is by fielding an improperly registered or otherwise ineligible player. If a club is found to have done this, then any points earned from any match that player participated in will be deducted, the EFL organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The EFL Cup was established in 1960 and is open to all EFL and Premier League clubs, the EFL Trophy is for clubs belonging to EFL League One and EFL League Two
Aston Villa Football Club is a professional association football club based in Aston, Birmingham, that plays in the Championship, the second level of English football. Founded in 1874, they have played at their current home ground, Villa Park, Aston Villa were one of the founder members of the Football League in 1888. They were also one of the members of the Premier League in 1992. Aston Villa are one of only five English clubs to be crowned champions of Europe and they have also won the First Division Championship seven times, the FA Cup seven times, the Football League Cup five times, and the UEFA Super Cup once. They have a local rivalry with Birmingham City and the Second City derby between the sides has been played since 1879. The clubs traditional kit colours are claret shirts with sky blue sleeves, white shorts and their traditional badge is of a rampant lion, which was introduced by the clubs Scottish chairman William McGregor in honour of the Royal Standard of Scotland. The club is owned by Recon Group Limited, a company chaired by Chinese businessman Tony Xia. Aston Villa Football Club were formed in March 1874, by members of the Villa Cross Wesleyan Chapel in Handsworth which is now part of Birmingham, the four founders of Aston Villa were Jack Hughes, Frederick Matthews, Walter Price and William Scattergood. Aston Villas first match was against the local Aston Brook St Marys Rugby team, as a condition of the match, the Villa side had to agree to play the first half under Rugby rules and the second half under Association rules. The club won their first FA Cup in 1887 with captain Archie Hunter becoming one of the games first household names. Aston Villa were one of the teams that competed in the inaugural Football League in 1888 with one of the clubs directors. Aston Villa emerged as the most successful English club of the Victorian era, winning no fewer than five League titles, in 1897, the year Villa won The Double, they moved into their present home, the Aston Lower Grounds. Supporters coined the name Villa Park, no official declaration listed the ground as Villa Park. This was largely the result of a defensive record, they conceded 110 goals in 42 games,7 of them coming from Arsenals Ted Drake in an infamous 1–7 defeat at Villa Park. Like all English clubs, Villa lost seven seasons to the Second World War, the team was rebuilt under the guidance of former player Alex Massie for the remainder of the 1940s. The team struggled in the league though and were relegated two seasons later, due in part to complacency. However, under the stewardship of manager Joe Mercer Villa returned to the top-flight in 1960 as Second Division Champions, the following season Aston Villa became the first team to win the Football League Cup. Mercers forced retirement from the club in 1964 signalled a period of deep turmoil, the most successful club in England was struggling to keep pace with changes in the modern game, with Villa being relegated for the third time, under manager Dick Taylor in 1967
Sunderland Association Football Club is a professional football club based in the North East city of Sunderland in the larger metropolitan area of Tyne and Wear. The club is playing in the Premier League, the top league of English football. Since its formation in 1879, the club has won six top-flight First Division titles, a total bettered by five other clubs. The club has won the FA Cup twice and been runners-up twice, as well as winning the FA Community Shield in 1936. Sunderland have also been Football League Cup finalists in 1985 and 2014, Sunderland won their first FA Cup in 1937 with a 3–1 victory over Preston North End, and remained in the top league for 68 successive seasons until they were relegated for the first time in 1958. Sunderlands most notable trophy after the Second World War was their second FA Cup in 1973, the team has won the second tier title five times in that period and the third tier title once. Sunderland play their games at the 49, 000-capacity all-seater Stadium of Light having moved from Roker Park in 1997. The original ground capacity was 42,000 which was increased to 49,000 following expansion in 2000, Sunderland have a long-standing rivalry with their neighbouring club Newcastle United, with whom they have contested the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898. Founded 17 October 1879 as Sunderland and District Teachers A. F. C. by schoolmaster James Allan and they replaced Stoke, who had failed to be re-elected, becoming the first new club to join the league since its inauguration in 1888. During the late 19th century, they were declared the Team of All Talents by William McGregor, Sunderland won the league championship in the 1891–92 season, one season after joining The Football League. The clubs 42 points were five clear of nearest rivals Preston North End, Sunderland successfully defended the title the following season, aided by centre forward Johnny Campbell, who broke the 30-goal mark for the second time in consecutive seasons. In the process, they became the first team to score 100 goals in a season, a feat not matched until 1919–20, Sunderland came close to winning a third successive league championship in the 1893–94 season, finishing second behind Aston Villa. However, they regained the title in the 1894–95 season, ending the five points ahead of Everton. After winning the English League Championship, Sunderland played against Heart of Midlothian, Sunderland won the game 5–3 and were announced Champions of the world. Sunderland came close to winning another title in the 1897–98 season. That season was their last at Newcastle Road, as moved to Roker Park the following season. After coming second in 1900–01, the club won their league title in the 1901–02 season. In 1904, Sunderlands management was embroiled in a payment scandal involving player Andrew McCombie, the club was said to have given the player £100 to help him start his own business, on the understanding that he would repay the money after his benefit game
Derby County F.C.
Derby County Football Club is a professional association football club based in Derby, Derbyshire, England. Their home matches are played at Pride Park Stadium, where the club moved in 1997. Derby County F. C. was founded in 1884, by William Morley, as an offshoot of Derbyshire County Cricket Club, it has spent all, additionally, the club was a strong force in the interwar years and won the 1945–46 FA Cup. Derby County F. C. was formed in 1884 as an offshoot of Derbyshire County Cricket Club in an attempt to give players and supporters a winter interest as well as secure the cricket club extra revenue. The original intention was to name the club Derbyshire County F. C. The opening day of the first ever season was 8 September 1888. They absorbed another Derby club, Derby Midland F. C. who had members of the Midland League, in 1891. Steve Bloomer, generally considered to be Derby Countys best-ever player, in 1895 the club moved to a new stadium, the Baseball Ground, which became their home for the next 102 years and adopted their traditional colours of black and white. Although Derby were inconsistent in the league, they did finish runners-up to Aston Villa in 1896 as well as achieving a number of third-place finishes. They were a force in the FA Cup, appearing in three finals in six years around the turn of the 20th century, though lost all three, in 1898,1899 and 1903. In 1914 they were relegated again, but instantly won the Second Division to get promoted, after two seasons, they were relegated yet again in 1921. Derby were one of clubs to close down after the outbreak of World War II but restarted in the early 1940s, in part due to the persistence of Jack Nicholas. In 1967, Brian Clough and Peter Taylor took over and led them to their greatest glory, though Derby did not retain their title the following season, they did reach the semi-finals of the European Cup, where they lost to Juventus. Cloughs frequent outspoken comments against footballs establishment eventually led to him falling out with the board of directors at the club, and Clough and Taylor left in October 1973. Such was their impact on the club that,37 years later, though they challenged well in their first season, Derby were soon hit hard by rising debts, falling attendances and dismal performances. However, Derby did manage to avoid going out of business, after relegation to the Third Division in May 1984, the club appointed Arthur Cox as manager. A lack of any investment from Maxwell quickly led to a decline. At this time, local newspaper businessman Lionel Pickering became the majority shareholder of the club, in 1992, Derby County paid £2
The club was established in 1875, becoming a founding member of The Football League in 1888. It is one of three clubs to have been both a founder member of the Football League and the Premier League. In 1890, Rovers moved to Ewood Park, Blackburn Rovers have been English champions three times, and have won six FA Cups and one Football League Cup. Blackburn are the only extant club to have won three consecutive FA Cups, the club has spent the majority of its existence in the top flight of English football. In 1992, Rovers gained promotion to the new Premier League a year after being taken over by local entrepreneur Jack Walker, in 1995, Rovers became Premier League champions. In the 1998–99 season, the club was relegated and it was promoted back to the Premier League two years later, in the 2000–01 season. It has qualified for the UEFA Cup four times, once as League Cup winners, twice as the Premier Leagues sixth-placed team, the 2011–12 season marked the clubs 72nd, non-consecutive, year in the top flight. Rovers are currently one of six clubs to have won the Premier League, along with Arsenal, Chelsea, Manchester United, Manchester City. The clubs motto is Arte et Labore, By Skill and Hard Work in Latin, the club was founded following a meeting, at the Leger Hotel, Blackburn, on 5 November 1875. The meeting was organised by two men, namely John Lewis and Arthur Constantine. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the possibility of forming a club to play under Association rules. The first match played by Blackburn Rovers took place in Church, on 28 September 1878, Blackburn Rovers became one of 23 clubs to form the Lancashire Football Association. On 1 November 1879 the club played in the F. A, Cup for the first time, beating the Tyne Association Football Club 5–1. Rovers were eventually put out of the competition in the round after suffering a heavy 6–0 defeat by Nottingham Forest. On 25 March 1882 the club won through to the final of the F. A, Blackburn Rovers was the first provincial team to reach the final, but the result was a 1–0 defeat by the Old Etonians. Cup on 29 March 1884 with a 2–1 victory over the Scottish team Queens Park, the same teams played the F. A. Cup final again the season, with Blackburn Rovers again emerging victorious. Rovers repeated this success yet again the season, winning the final replay 2–0 against West Bromwich Albion
Burnley Football Club is a professional association football club based in Burnley, Lancashire. Nicknamed The Clarets, due to the dominant colour of their home shirts, Burnley have been Football League Champions twice, in 1920–21 and 1959–60, have won the FA Cup once, in 1914, and have won the Community Shield twice, in 1960 and 1973. The Clarets also reached the 1961 quarter-finals of the European Cup and they are one of only three teams to have won all top four professional divisions of English football, along with Wolverhampton Wanderers and Preston North End. The club colours of claret and blue were adopted in 1910 in tribute to the dominant club of English football at the time and their home ground since 1883 has been Turf Moor and their current manager is Sean Dyche. During May 1882, Burnley Rovers Football Club decided to shift their allegiance from rugby union to football, in 1883 the club moved to Turf Moor and remain there, only their Lancashire rivals Preston North End having occupied the same ground continuously for longer. Burnley first appeared in the FA Cup in 1885–86 but were ignominiously beaten 11–0 when eligibility restrictions meant that their side had to be fielded against Darwen. On 13 October 1886, Turf Moor became the first ground to be visited by a member of a Royal Family, when it was decided to found the Football League for the 1888–89 season, Burnley were among the 12 founders of that competition. William Tait of Burnley scored the first ever hat-trick in League football and that season did, however, present Burnley with their first honours, winning the Lancashire Cup with a 2–0 final victory over Blackburn Rovers. Before Burnley won a trophy again, they were relegated to the Second Division in 1896–97 and they responded to this by winning promotion the next season, losing only 2 of their 30 matches along the way before gaining promotion through a play-off series then known as Test Matches. Burnley and Stoke City both entered the last match, to be played between the two teams, needing a draw for promotion. A 0–0 draw ensued, reportedly The Match without a shot at goal, Burnley needed a win against Forest in the last match of the season to escape relegation. This is the earliest recorded case of match fixing in football, Burnley changed their colours from green to the claret and sky blue of Aston Villa, the most successful club in England at the time, for the 1910–11 season. The 1912–13 season saw them win promotion to the First Division once more, as well as reaching the FA Cup semi-final, only to lose to Sunderland. The next season was one of consolidation in the top flight, but more importantly their first major honour and this cup final was historic in that King George V became the first reigning monarch to present the cup to the winning captain. The winning Burnley team also got special medals with English Cup Winners written on it instead of the usual FA Cup Winners inscription. World War I impacted the 1914–15 season, in which Burnley finished 4th in the First Division, before English football reorganised itself, Burnley struggled in English footballs second tier, narrowly avoiding a further relegation in 1931–32 by only two points. The years through to the outbreak of the Second World War were characterised by uninspiring league finishes, broken only by an FA Cup semi-final appearance in 1934–35 and the arrival of Tommy Lawton. Burnley participated in the football leagues that continued throughout the war
Everton F. C. /ˈɛvərtən/ is a football club in Liverpool, England, that currently competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club have competed in the top division for a record 114 seasons and won the League Championship nine times, formed in 1878, Everton were founding members of The Football League in 1888 and won their first League Championship two seasons later. The mid-1980s represented their most recent period of sustained success, with two League Championships, an FA Cup, and the 1985 European Cup Winners Cup, the clubs most recent major trophy was the 1995 FA Cup. The clubs supporters are known as Evertonians, Everton have a rivalry with neighbours Liverpool, and the two sides contest the Merseyside derby. The club have been based at Goodison Park in Walton, Liverpool, since 1892, the clubs home colours are royal blue shirts with white shorts and socks. Everton were founded as St Domingos in 1878 so that people from the parish of St Domingos Methodist Church Everton could play year round — cricket was played in summer. The clubs first game was a 1–0 victory over Everton Church Club, the club was renamed Everton in November 1879 after the local area, as people outside the parish wished to participate. The club was a member of the Football League in 1888–89. Everton won the FA Cup for the first time in 1906, the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 interrupted the football programme while Everton were champions, which was something that would again occur in 1939. It was not until 1927 that Evertons first sustained period of success began, in 1925 the club signed Dixie Dean from Tranmere Rovers. In 1927–28, Dean set the record for league goals in a single season with 60 goals in 39 league games. He helped Everton win their third League Championship that season, however, Everton were relegated to the Second Division two years later during internal turmoil at the club. The club quickly rebounded and was promoted at the first attempt, on return to the top flight in 1931–32, Everton wasted no time in reaffirming their status and won a fourth League Championship at the first opportunity. Everton also won their second FA Cup in 1933 with a 3–0 win against Manchester City in the final, the era ended in 1938–39 with a fifth League Championship. Everton were relegated for the time in 1950–51 and did not earn promotion until 1953–54. The club have been a top-flight presence ever since, Evertons second successful era started when Harry Catterick was made manager in 1961. In 1962–63, his season in charge, Everton won the League Championship. In 1966 the club won the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday, Everton again reached the final in 1968, but this time were unable to overcome West Bromwich Albion at Wembley
Notts County F.C.
Notts County Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England. With records of games as early as 28 November 1862, Notts County is recognised as the oldest association football team in the world now playing at a professional level. Between 1888–89 and 2013–14 they played a total of 4,756 Football League matches – more than any other English team, the team plays in League Two, the fourth tier of the English football league system. County play their games at Meadow Lane in black and white striped shirts. The club has had spells in the top division of English football, most recently in 1991–92. Notable former managers of Notts County include Jimmy Sirrel, Howard Wilkinson, Neil Warnock, Howard Kendall, the club has had several owners. In the 21st century, a series of problems has seen the club owned by a supporters trust. Notts County are the oldest professional club in the world having been formed in 1862. Notts pre-dated The Football Association and initially played a game of its own devising, at the time of its formation, Notts County, like most sports teams, were considered to be a gentlemen-only club. Notts County are considered to be one of the pioneers of the game and are the oldest of the worlds professional association football clubs. In November 1872, the Notts County full-back Ernest Greenhalgh played for England against Scotland in the international match. In 1888, Notts County, along with 11 other football clubs and they finished their first league season in 11th place, but avoided the dubious honour of the wooden spoon, which went to Midlands rivals Stoke. However, Notts County did achieve their highest ever finish of third in 1890–91. On 25 March 1891, Notts County reached the FA Cup final for the first time, the Magpies were defeated 3–1 by Blackburn Rovers at The Oval, despite having beaten the same side 7–1 in the league only a week earlier. This achievement is also memorable for Notts County becoming the first club outside the top division to win the FA Cup, in 1910 they moved to Meadow Lane. Notts County were relegated in 1926 in what was to be their last season in the English top flight for half a century. The 1925–26 season was the last season that famed giant goalkeeper Albert Iremonger played for the club, in the 1946–47 season, the ground was used temporarily by Nottingham Forest after the River Trent flooded both Meadow Lane and the City Ground. Forest again used Meadow Lane in 1968, after fire destroyed the main stand at the City Ground, the golden age of the club came just after the end of World War II
Bolton Wanderers F.C.
Bolton Wanderers Football Club is a professional association football club based in Bolton, Greater Manchester. The club currently competes in League One, the tier of the English football league system. The club was formed as Christ Church Football Club in 1874, founder members of the Football League in 1888, Bolton have spent the highest number of seasons of any club in the top flight without winning the title. The closest they have come to the title is third in the First Division on three occasions, as of 2015, the club has spent more seasons in the top division than any other club outside the current Premier League. Bolton were a successful cup side in the 1920s, winning the FA Cup three times, the club won the cup a fourth time in 1958. A leaner spell followed, reaching a nadir in 1987 when the club spent a season in the Fourth Division, the club regained top-flight status in 1995 after a 15-year absence. In a period of success, the club qualified for the UEFA Cup twice, reaching the last 32 in 2005–06. The club played at Burnden Park for 102 years from 1895, on 9 March 1946, The Burnden Park disaster occurred, which was a human crush in which 33 Bolton fans lost their lives. In 1997 it moved out of town to the Reebok Stadium, the stadium was renamed the Macron Stadium in July 2014, to reflect the clubs new deal with Italian sportswear company Macron. The club was founded by the Reverend Joseph Farrall Wright, Perpetual curate of Christ Church Bolton and Thomas Ogden, the schoolmaster at the adjacent church school in 1874 as Christ Church F. C. It was initially run from the church of the name on Deane Road. The club left the following a dispute with the vicar. The name was chosen as the club initially had a lot of difficulty finding a permanent ground to play on, Bolton were one of the 12 founder members of the Football League, which formed in 1888. At the time Lancashire was one of the strongest footballing regions in the country, having remained in the Football League since its formation, Bolton have spent more time in the top flight than out of it. In 1894 Bolton reached the final of the FA Cup for the first time, a decade later they were runners-up a second time, losing 1–0 to local rivals Manchester City at Crystal Palace on 23 April 1904. In this period Bolton equalled their record finish of third twice, in 1920–21 and 1924–25, on 28 April 1923, Bolton won their first major trophy in their third final, beating West Ham United 2–0 in the first ever Wembley FA Cup final. The match, famously known as The White Horse Final was played in front of over 127,000 supporters, boltons centre-forward, David Jack scored the first ever goal at Wembley Stadium. Driven by long-term players Joe Smith in attack, Ted Vizard and Billy Butler on the wings, in 1928 the club faced financial difficulties and so was forced to sell David Jack to Arsenal to raise funds
Goodison Park is a football stadium located in Walton, Liverpool, England. The stadium has been home to Premier League club Everton since its completion in 1892 and is one of the worlds oldest purpose-built football grounds, the stadium is built in a residential area served by regular rail and bus services two miles from Liverpool city centre. Goodison has undergone changes over the years and it presently has an all-seated capacity of 39,572. Everton fans refer to the stadium as The Grand Old Lady and it has hosted more top-flight games than any other stadium in England. Goodison has hosted the number of league games since the Premier League was formed in 1992. The club has only been outside the top division for four seasons, as well as hosting Everton games, the stadium has been the venue for an FA Cup Final and numerous international fixtures, including several in the 1966 FIFA World Cup. The record for the highest attendance in womens football in England was set at Goodison Park in 1920, which stood for 92 years until 31 July 2012. Everton originally played on a pitch in the south-east corner of the newly laid out Stanley Park. The first official match took place in 1879, in 1882, a Mr J. Cruit donated land at Priory Road with the necessary facilities required for professional clubs. Cruit asked the club to leave his land two years because the crowds became far too large and noisy. Everton moved to nearby Anfield Road, a site where proper covered stands were built, Everton played at the Anfield ground from 1884 until 1892. During this time the club turned professional and entered teams in the FA Cup and they became founding members of the Football League and won their first championship at the ground in 1890–91. Anfields capacity grew to over 20,000 and the club hosted a match between England and Ireland. During their time at Anfield, Everton became the first club to introduce goalnets to professional football, in the 1890s, a dispute about how the club was to be owned and run emerged with John Houlding, Anfields majority owner and Evertons Chairman, at the forefront. Houlding and the committee initially disagreed about the full purchase of the land at Anfield from minor land owner Mr Orrell escalating into a principled disagreement of how the club was run. Two such disagreements included Houlding wanting Everton to sell only his brewery produce during an event, the most famous of the disagreements concerns the level of increased rent Everton were asked to pay. In 1889, Everton paid £100 to Houlding in rent and by the 1889–90 season he was charging Everton £250, Everton had to pay for all work and stands. The dispute escalated to a rent of £370 per year being demanded, in the complicated lead up to the split in the club, the rent dispute is too simplistic to be singled out as the prime cause
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
Liverpool Football Club is a professional association football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside, England. They compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football, the club has won 5 European Cups,3 UEFA Cups,3 UEFA Super Cups,18 League titles,7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, and 15 FA Community Shields. The club was founded in 1892 and joined the Football League the following year, the club has played at Anfield since its formation. The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably the North West Derby against Manchester United, the clubs supporters have been involved in two major tragedies. The second was the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing, the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964 which has been used ever since. The clubs anthem is Youll Never Walk Alone, Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892, the team won the Lancashire League in its début season, and joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, losing 1–0 to Burnley. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950, playing against Arsenal, the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years. In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup, in 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, and the FA Cup again a year later, Shankly retired soon afterwards and was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisleys second season as manager, the club won another League, the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979, Paisley retired in 1983 and was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagans first season, Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium. Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence separated the two groups of supporters, and charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a wall to collapse, killing 39 fans. The incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster, the match was played in spite of protests by both managers, and Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus
Birmingham City F.C.
Birmingham City Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Birmingham, England. Formed in 1875 as Small Heath Alliance, they became Small Heath in 1888, then Birmingham in 1905, the team compete in the EFL Championship, the second tier of the English football league system. As Small Heath, they played in the Football Alliance before becoming founder members, the most successful period in their history was in the 1950s and early 1960s. They won the competition for the second time in 2011. St Andrews has been their ground since 1906. They have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with Aston Villa, their nearest neighbours, the clubs nickname is Blues, due to the colour of their kit, and their fans are known as Bluenoses. Birmingham City were founded as Small Heath Alliance in 1875, the club turned professional in 1885, and three years later became the first football club to become a limited company with a board of directors, under the name of Small Heath F. C. Ltd. From the 1889–90 season they played in the Football Alliance, which ran alongside the Football League, in 1892, Small Heath, along with the other Alliance teams, were invited to join the newly formed Football League Second Division. The club adopted the name Birmingham Football Club in 1905, and moved into their new home, St Andrews Ground, matters on the field failed to live up to their surroundings. Birmingham were relegated in 1908, obliged to apply for two years later, and remained in the Second Division until after the First World War. Frank Womacks captaincy and the creativity of Scottish international playmaker Johnny Crosbie contributed much to Birmingham winning their second Division Two title in 1920–21, Womack went on to make 515 appearances, a club record for an outfielder, over a twenty-year career. 1920 also saw the debut of the 19-year-old Joe Bradford, who went on to score a club record 267 goals in 445 games, and won 12 caps for England. In 1931, manager Leslie Knighton led the club to their first FA Cup Final and they were finally relegated in 1939, the last full season before the Football League was abandoned for the duration of the Second World War. The name Birmingham City F. C. was adopted in 1943, under Harry Storer, appointed manager in 1945, the club won the Football League South wartime league and reached the semifinal of the first post-war FA Cup. Two years later won their third Second Division title, conceding only 24 goals in the 42-game season. Storers successor Bob Brocklebank, though unable to stave off relegation in 1950, when Arthur Turner took over as manager in November 1954, he made them play closer to their potential, and a 5–1 win on the last day of the 1954–55 season confirmed them as champions. In their first season back in the First Division, Birmingham achieved their highest league finish of sixth place. They also reached the FA Cup final, losing 3–1 to Manchester City in the game notable for Citys goalkeeper Bert Trautmann playing the last 20 minutes with a bone in his neck
Middlesbrough Ironopolis F.C.
Middlesbrough Ironopolis Football Club was a football club based in Middlesbrough, England. Although it was only in existence for five years, the club won three Northern League titles, two cup competitions and once reached the FA Cup quarter-finals and they were based at the Paradise Ground. The club was formed in 1889 by some members of Middlesbrough F. C. – an amateur club at the time – who wanted Middlesbrough to have a professional club, the team played its first ever non-competitive game against Gainsborough Trinity on 14 December 1889 at home. The match ended in a 1–1 draw, Middlesbrough Ironopolis played in the Northern League from 1890 to 1893, winning three consecutive titles. In their first season, they reached the Fourth Qualifying Round of the FA Cup, during the 1892–93 season, the team reached the quarter-finals of the FA Cup before losing to Preston North End in a replay, after drawing the first game. Competing in the league alongside them were Liverpool, Newcastle United, Ironopolis finished 11th out of 15 clubs, recording impressive wins against Small Heath, 3–0, and over Ardwick 2–0. They played in total 28 games, won 8, draw 4, lost 16, scored 37 goals, conceded 72, and finished with 20 points. The squad that season was, G. Watts, J. Ellliott, Philip Bach, Thomas Seymour, Robert Chatt, R. Nicholson, J. Hill, Archibald M Hughes, Thomas McCairns, P. Coupar, Wallace McReddie. The club lost its stadium, the Paradise Ground, which was adjacent to Middlesbrough F. C. s Ayresome Park, at the end of the season. Its financial position was poor, as gate receipts did not cover the cost of players wages, in February 1894 all the professional players were served notice of the plans to liquidate the team. The clubs final game was a 1–1 draw against South Bank on 30 April 1894, Ironopolis resigned from the Football League the following month and was disbanded. Ironopolis and Bootle are the two clubs to have spent a single season in the Football League. The club was formed during the late Victorian industrial boom and adopted the name Ironopolis partly to emphasise this and also to itself from the other local club. Northern League Division One Champions, 1890–91, 1891–92, 1892–93 FA Cup Quarter-finalists, 1892–93 Cleveland Charity Cup Winners, 1889–90, 1892–93 Middlesbrough, archived from the original on 2008-07-25
Northwich Victoria F.C.
Northwich Victoria Football Club is an English football club based in Northwich, Cheshire, playing their home games at Wincham Park, Northwich, the home of Witton Albion. The new club was a member of several leagues including the Football League Second Division. They played at the same Drill Field ground for over 125 years, at the time Drill Field was believed to be the oldest ground in the world on which football had been continuously played. The generally accepted year for the original Northwich Victoria Football Clubs founding is 1874 by Charles James Hughes and James Heyworth, however, according to club historian Ken Edwards book A Team for All Seasons, the organisation itself could have been in existence earlier in the 1870s. Northwich played their first challenge matches in the 1874 season and originally accepted both association football and rugby rules. This was shown in 1876 when they contested a match under Rugby rules at Farnworth and Appleton F. C. and then at home under association rules. The first time the club entered a competition was the 1877 Welsh Cup. Its best achievement in the competition was in the 1881–82 and 1888–89 seasons, when they reached the final in 1882, they were the first English club to do so. In 1880, the club entered the competition for the new Cheshire Football Association Challenge Cup. They went on to win the cup for the five seasons, defeating in the finals, Birkenhead, Northwich Novelty, Crewe Alexandra. In 1890, the became a founding member of the second incarnation of The Combination. In their second season in the league they finished as runners-up, a great leap forward was taken in 1892, when Northwich became one of the founding members of the English Second Division, which saw the team turn professional. In the leagues inaugural season, Northwich finished 7th, the highest finish in the clubs history and it was during the latter stages of this season that Northwich acquired the services of Billy Meredith, the Welsh International, who is widely regarded as the first football superstar. It was said by many that Finnerhan made Meredith, another notable result was holding Woolwich Arsenal to a 2–2 draw at the Drill Field. However, as a result of their position at the bottom of the league. Up to the middle of decade, Northwich played in red. However a major change in the clubs livery occurred when they adopted the colours they wear today, green. Lured by the chance of increased revenues, the joined the Manchester League in the 1900–01 season