George Neill was an English association footballer who played as a defender. Born in Poplar, London, Neill spent three seasons with Millwall Athletic playing mostly in their team before signing for West Norwood in 1894. For two of his seasons, Neill was club captain and he was described as a very accomplished full-back, who could play on either flank. Whilst still with West Norwood he played as a guest player for Thames Ironworks, the first occasion was one of the first ever games played under electric light, at Hermit Road against West Bromwich Albion in March 1896. In October 1896 he played in the London League for West Norwood losing to Thames Ironworks, a press report of the time noted his performance as being of worthy of special mention. The following week, on 24 October 1896, he made his Ironworks debut, fixtures were infrequent for the side and by 1899 he had played only 18 games and scored one goal. In 1899 he took over as secretary from Francis Payne and arranged the important signings of Tom Bradshaw, Bill Joyce and Kenny McKay. Concerned about costs, club owner Arnold Hills initially refused to approve the transfers, Hills had decided to raise capital for the parent company, Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company, and to make the company a limited company. Part of this involved reorganizing the company football club, with the need now for Hills to satisfy shareholders, partly to save costs, Thames Ironworks folded to later become West Ham United. Neill was replaced as secretary by Lew Bowen and would play only one more game for West Ham, on 13 October 1900 in a 2–0 home win against Watford. Neill died, at the age of 30, in 1905
Henry Hird was an English association footballer who played as a winger. Born in West Hartlepool, Hird moved south to work for the Thames Ironworks and he was a fast and tricky player renowned for his accurate crosses and described as an out and out right winger. He joined Thames Ironworks for season 1897–98, his high quality crosses contributed towards the Ironworks winning the 1897–98 London League, Hird is thought to be the first Ironworks player to have been sent off. In his third game, a London League game against Leyton on 30 October 1897 and he made just one appearance in the Southern Football League Division One and played for Ironworks until his last game on 14 October 1899. With this game, his career ended abruptly for an unknown reason
Thames Ironworks F.C.
Thames Ironworks Football Club, the club that later became West Ham United, was founded by Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd owner Arnold Hills and foreman Dave Taylor in 1895, Thames Ironworks took over the tenancy of The Old Castle Swifts Hermit Road ground in Canning Town until their eventual eviction in October 1896. They would briefly play at Browning Road in East Ham, before moving to the Memorial Grounds, the ground was built at Arnold Hills own expense, costing £20,000. Thames Ironworks were West Ham Charity Cup winners in 1895–96 and London League runners up and champions in 1896–97 and they were promoted to Southern League Division One in 1898–99 as Southern League Division Two Champions. They retained their Southern League status the following season by beating Fulham 5–1 in a Test Match, at the end of June 1900, Thames Ironworks F. C. resigned from the Southern League and were officially wound up. On 5 July 1900 they reformed under the new name of West Ham United F. C. there were platers and riveters in the Limited who had chased the big ball in the north country. There were men among them who had learned to give the subtle pass, no thought of professionalism, I may say, was ever contemplated by the founders. They meant to run their club on amateur lines and their first principal was to choose their team from men in the works, – Syd King, Thames Ironworks player and West Ham United manager 1902–1932. Thames Ironworks F. C. was founded by Dave Taylor, Taylor was a foreman at the Thames Iron Works and a local football referee. Fifty would-be players paid half-a-crown for a membership, and Taylor spent the summer arranging the fixtures for Thames Ironworks F. C. Before The Irons played their first game Taylor returned to refereeing, handing over duties to Ted Harsent. The birth of Thames Ironworks F. C. coincided with the demise of Old Castle Swifts, see also Old Castle Swifts F. C. The Ironworks played their first ever fixture against Royal Ordnance reserves on 7 September 1895, One of the players likely to have been involved in this first game was Iron Works employee Charlie Dove, who had played at full-back and centre forward during his time as a school player. Dove would be used as a right-half, but would play every position for The Irons during his time with them. In what would be their first competitive game, Thames Ironworks took on Chatham Town in a qualifying round of the FA Cup on 12 October. Their biggest defeat came on 14 December when they lost in a game away to Millwall Athletic 0–6. Millwall were also an Iron Works side, whose south London company competed with Thames Iron Works for contacts, the rivalry between the two clubs would continue into the present day. The Irons would soon bolster their strength, with the signing of Gainsborough Trinity inside forward George Gresham
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, publicly, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower. The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina, Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, George, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling also have called the pound. At various times, the sterling was commodity money or bank notes backed by silver or gold. The pound sterling is the worlds oldest currency still in use, the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey produce their own local issues of sterling, the Guernsey pound and the Jersey pound. The pound sterling is also used in the Isle of Man, Gibraltar, the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those three currencies it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights, Sterling is also the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves. The full, official name, pound sterling, is used mainly in formal contexts, otherwise the term pound is normally used. The abbreviations ster. or stg. are sometimes used, the term British pound is commonly used in less formal contexts, although it is not an official name of the currency. The pound sterling is also referred to as cable amongst forex traders, the origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the dollar/pound sterling exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex brokers are sometimes referred to as cable dealers, as another established source notes, the compound expression was then derived, silver coins known as sterlings were issued in the Saxon kingdoms,240 of them being minted from a pound of silver. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in pounds of sterlings, in 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection. And because the Leagues money was not frequently debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the Easterlings, and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was also called Easterlings Hall, or Esterlingeshalle. For further discussion of the etymology of sterling, see sterling silver, the currency sign for the pound sign is £, which is usually written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is also sometimes seen. The ISO4217 currency code is GBP, occasionally, the abbreviation UKP is used but this is non-standard because the ISO3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes, GGP, JEP, stocks are often traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices. A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, since decimalisation in 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence. The symbol for the penny is p, hence an amount such as 50p properly pronounced fifty pence is more colloquially, quite often, pronounced fifty pee /fɪfti, pi and this also helped to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system
Arnold Frank Hills was an English businessman, sportsman, philanthropist, and promoter of vegetarianism. Hills was born in Lambeth, London, son of a manufacturing chemist, Arnold Hills was also a keen sportsman who was the English mile and three mile champion, and in his youth had played football and cricket for his school team Harrow. After leaving Harrow he attended University College, Oxford, where he earned the degree of B. A. and he appeared as a forward for the University F. C. runner-up team in the 1877 FA Cup Final against Wanderers. Hills was the first President of the London Vegetarian Society serving alongside the young Mahatma Gandhi on the Executive Committee and he was also the first President of the Vegetarian Cycling and Athletic Club and also served as President of a London Vegetarian Rambling Club. He founded The Vegetarian, an independent magazine, as well as the Vegetarian Federal Union and he also had close ties with the Temperance League. He founded the Oriolet Fruitarian Hospital at Loughton, under the direction of Josiah Oldfield. In addition to his activism, Hills was Managing Director of the Thames Iron Works. He chose to live for five years among his workers in a house in the East India Dock Road in Canning Town. However, he caused some bitterness when there was a strike over poor pay, considering his philanthropy, it must have been a situation that troubled him greatly. In the summer of 1895 Hills, along with Dave Taylor and he rented the Memorial Grounds to the club at very favourable terms. The failing fortunes of the ironworks and his involvement in developing a new car engine pushed the club into the background and he died at Hammerfield, Penshurst, Kent, in 1927 aged 69, and was buried at St Lukes Church in Penshurt. His shareholding in West Ham of 1100 out of 4000 passed to his family, in 2014 as part of their preparation for their move to the Olympic Stadium, West Ham announced one of the corporate entertainment areas would be a private dining club, the Arnold Hills suite. The Essential History of West Ham United
West Ham station
On the London Underground it is a stop on the District, Hammersmith & City and Jubilee lines, on the National Rail network it is served by c2c services. The station was opened on 1 February 1901 by the London, Tilbury and it was known as West Ham from 11 February 1924 to 1 January 1969. The station was rebuilt and significantly expanded in 1999 with the addition of four platforms, the North London Line services were withdrawn in 2006 to make way for the Docklands Light Railway Stratford International branch, which opened on 31 August 2011. The London, Tilbury and Southend Railway direct line from Bow to Barking was constructed east to west through the middle of the Parish of West Ham in 1858, before this, trains took a longer route via Stratford and Forest Gate to the north. The new line opened with stations initially at Bromley, Plaistow, the station was completed in May 1900, but did not open until 1 February 1901. The station was known as West Ham. The North London Railway had run a service to Plaistow via the Bow-Bromley curve since 18 May 1869. In 1905 they switched to the platforms, with the opening of a new bay platform at Plaistow on the southern side. The Whitechapel and Bow Railway allowed through services of the Metropolitan District Railway to operate through West Ham to Upminster from 1902, the Metropolitan District converted to electric trains in 1905 and services were cut back to East Ham. Ownership of the passed to the Midland Railway in 1912. The station was renamed West Ham in 1924, when the North London Railway service to Plaistow ceased on 1 January 1916 the southern platforms were unused in normal service. The Metropolitan District Railway was incorporated into London Transport in 1933, Hammersmith & City line services started, as part of the Metropolitan line, in 1936. The southern platforms were removed after war damage in 1940 which had closed the station from 7 September 1940 until 11 August 1941. After nationalisation of the railways in 1948 management of the passed to British Railways. In 1969 ownership was transferred to the London Underground and the station was renamed back to West Ham, on 15 March 1976 nine people were injured here by an explosion caused on a train by a member of the Provisional IRA. Julius Stephen, the driver of the train, was dead at the scene when he attempted to pursue the fleeing bomber. In 1999 platforms were re-established on the line from Fenchurch Street, the Eastern Counties and Thames Junction Railway was constructed north to south through West Ham, linking Stratford with Canning Town in 1846. Platforms were constructed on the line at West Ham in 1979 when the North London Line service, at the known as the Crosstown Linkline
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Brentford Football Club is a professional association football club based in Brentford, Greater London, England. The team play in the Championship, the tier of English football. It was founded on 10 October 1889 and plays its games at Griffin Park, its home stadium since 1904. Brentfords most successful spell came during the 1930s, when it achieved consecutive top six finishes in the First Division, Brentford have been FA Cup quarter-finalists on four occasions, and have been runners-up of the Football League Trophy on three occasions. As a result of a vote, by eight votes to five, taken six days later, the very first fixture, between Brentford FC and Kew FC, was on 23 November 1889. Due to ownership of the land changing hands, Brentford FC was on the lookout for a new ground after only 30 months, in October 1892, Benns Field – land behind The Plough PH Little Ealing Lane – in Little Ealing, was the clubs new home. The football club decided to move nearer to Brentford and in December 1894 it moved to Shotters Field – what is now Gunnersbury School, The Ride – and stayed there until April 1898. As the club grew, therefore entertaining larger crowds, a move to a ground with the chance of improving better spectator facilities, with under cover enclosures and changing rooms, was looked for. Boston Park Cricket Ground, in York Road, Brentford – what is now land along the east side of Ealing Road, finally, in January 1904, the club agreed a 21-year lease on an orchard, once owned by Chiswick brewers Fuller, Smith and Turner. The clearance of the orchard, over 200 trees, and the levelling of the land took several months, in August 1904 trial matches were played on the pitch. Then the first competitive match was played, a team game in the Western League v Plymouth Argyle. On 7 September 1904, Brentford and West Ham United played out a 0–0 draw, in the Southern League First Division, in 1920 it was a founder member of the Football League Third Division. In 1921–22, the Football League Third Division was regionalised and Brentford FC was placed in the Southern section, during the late 1920s and 1930s, the club began to make real progress. In the 1929–30 season, the side won all 21 of its matches in the Third Division South. It is the last of six teams in English football to amass a perfect record. After several more near-misses, promotion to the Second Division was finally achieved in 1932–33, Two years later, Brentford reached the First Division and finished 5th in its debut season – which is still the clubs highest ever league position – to complete a remarkable rise for the club. Under manager Harry Curtis and captain Arthur Bateman, Brentford achieved more impressive placings in the league for the rest of the decade before the Second World War interrupted. During the war, Brentford competed in the London War Cup, the club was relegated in the first season after the war, and a downward spiral set in, which culminated in relegation to the Third Division in 1953–54 and the Fourth Division in 1961–62
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Redhill F. C. is an English football club based in Redhill, Surrey. The club are members of the Combined Counties League Division One. The club is affiliated to the Surrey County Football Association The club was formed in 1894, Redhill only played friendly matches for their first four seasons but in the 1898–99 season they competed in the South Suburban League, finishing 6th. Then followed another three seasons of playing in local leagues before they were admitted to the East & West Surrey League. Two seasons later they reached the final of the Surrey Senior Cup final, Redhill were accepted into the South Eastern League Division Two in 1906 and played in this division for three seasons, finishing fourth in 1908–09. They also finished 2nd in the Mid Surrey League during the same season, following that they were 3rd in Sectrion A of the Spartan League in 1909–10. They then finished 3rd in the South Suburban West League in 1910–11, Redhill F. C. became London League members from 1921 to 1923, and finished runners up in their division at the end of the 1922–23 season. For the 1923–24 season they joined the Athenian League, Redhill spent many years in the old Athenian League with such clubs as Barnet, Bromley, Sutton United and Grays Athletic. Fortunes were very mixed over the years, with Championships in 1924–25, however, they also finished bottom of the league on several occasions, 1945–46, 1952–53, 1958–59, 1962–63, 1964–65 and 1977–78. The club also won the Surrey Senior Cup in the 1928–29 season, during their time in the Athenian League, the club enjoyed its best performance in the FA Cup. They reached the First Round proper for the time in 1957. They lost 6–1 but the Redhill team won great praise in the press for a brave performance. A copy of the match day programme and a ticket are on display in the Clubhouse. They won the last ever Athenian League championship in 1983–84 and were due to gain promotion. However, after being given notice to vacate their Memorial Sports Ground in the centre of the town, they were moved to Kiln Brow, without the required facilities, the club actually moved sideways in the pyramid into the London Spartan League. At the start of the 1987–88 season, after resigning from the London Spartan League and they were relegated to Division Two after two seasons. In 1996–97 they won promotion to Division One again by finishing third and they finished fifth in their first season back in Division One, yet all subsequent positions have hovered around mid-table. In July 2007, Tommy Sampson was appointed manager with former Kingstonian, the clubs first top ten finish since 1997–98
Royal Engineers A.F.C.
The Royal Engineers Association Football Club is an association football team representing the Corps of Royal Engineers, the Sappers, of the British Army. The Engineers were pioneers of the game, where team-mates passed the ball to each other rather than kicking ahead. The club was founded in 1863, under the leadership of Major Francis Marindin. Sir Frederick Wall, who was the secretary of The Football Association 1895–1934, Wall states that the Sappers moved in unison and showed the advantages of combination over the old style of individualism. Contemporary match reports confirm that passing was a feature of the Engineers style. An 1869 report says they worked together and had learned the secret of football success – backing up. In February 1871 against Crystal Palace it is noted that Lieut, mitchell made a fine run down the left, passing the ball to Lieut. Rich, who had run up the centre, and who pinched another By early 1868, there is evidence that opponents sometimes adjusted their playing style to counteract the organisation and passing of the Engineers. This said that, very little dribbling was displayed The Engineers played in the first-ever FA Cup Final, losing 1–0 at Kennington Oval on 16 March 1872 and they also lost the 1874 Final, to Oxford University A. F. C. The Royal Engineers were the first football team to go on a tour, to Nottingham, Derby, walls memoirs state that this tour introduced the combination game to Sheffield and Nottingham. In 1875 the Engineers won the FA Cup, considered their greatest triumph, in the final against Old Etonians, they drew 1–1 with a goal from Renny-Tailyour and went on to win the replay 2–0 with a goal each from Renny-Tailyour and Stafford. The winning side was, Capt. W. Merriman, Lt. G. H, ruck, Lt. P. G. von Donop, Lt. C. K. Stafford, Lt. H. W. Renny-Tailyour, Lt. A. Mein and their last FA Cup Final appearance came in 1878, again losing to the Wanderers. They last participated in 1882–83 FA Cup, losing 6–2 in the round to Old Carthusians F. C. The evidence above contains detailed descriptions of passing that are lacking in reports of the 1872 Glasgow international, the Scotsman concludes that the difference in styles in the first half is the advantage the Queens Park players had through knowing each others play as all came from the same club. Unlike the 1872 Glasgow international, the evidence above shows that the Engineers team playing style benefited their team play by winning games. Similarly, the 5 March 1872 match between Wanderers and Queens park contains no evidence of ball passing, the early accounts all confirm that the Engineers were the first club to play a passing game of cooperation and organisation with both their forwards and their defence. Although they could also play rough – as would be expected for an army team – The Engineers are the first side to be considered to play the football beautifully, all of these developments occurred before and independent of the 1872 match between England and Scotland
Reading Football Club is a professional association football club based in Reading, Berkshire, England. The team play in the Championship, the tier of English football. The club played at Elm Park for 102 years between 1896 and 1998, in 1998 the club moved to the new Madejski Stadium, which is named after the clubs co-chairman Sir John Madejski. Reading then finished eighth in the 2006–07 Premier League, their first ever season as a top flight club, Reading were formed on 25 December 1871, following a public meeting at the Bridge Street Rooms organised by the future club secretary Joseph Edward Sydenham. The early matches were played at Reading Recreation Ground, and later the club held fixtures at Reading Cricket Ground, Coley Park and Caversham Cricket Ground. The switch to professionalism in 1895 resulted in the need for a ground and, to this end. In 1913, Reading had a tour of Italy, prompting the leading sports newspaper Corriere della Sera to write without doubt. Reading were elected to the Football League Third Division South of the Football League in 1920, Reading lost their place in Division Two in May 1931, and remained in Third Division South until the outbreak of World War II. When League football resumed after the war, Reading quickly came to prominence once again, the sides moment of cup glory came in 1988 when they won the Simod Cup, beating a number of top flight sides en route to their Wembley win over Luton Town. Reading were promoted to the Second Division as champions in 1986 under the management of Ian Branfoot, the appointment of Mark McGhee as player-manager, shortly after the takeover by John Madejski, in 1991 saw Reading move forward. They were crowned champions of the new Division Two in 1994, in 1995, Reading had eased past Tranmere Rovers in the play-off semi-finals and looked to have booked their place in the Premier League only to lose against Bolton Wanderers in the final. Quinn and Goodings contracts were not renewed two years later after Reading had slid into the half of Division One. Their successor, Terry Bullivant, lasted less than one season before being sacked in March 1998, the year 1998 also saw Reading move into the new 24,200 all-seater Madejski Stadium, named after Chairman John Madejski. Tommy Burns had taken over from Terry Bullivant but lasted just 18 months before being replaced by Alan Pardew, the club finished third in 2000–01 qualifying for the play-offs, losing 2–3 in the final against Walsall at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. Reading returned to Division One for 2002–03 after finishing runners-up in Division Two, the following season, they finished fourth in Division One and qualified for the play-offs, where they lost in the semi-final to Wolverhampton Wanderers. Alan Pardew moved to West Ham United the following October and was replaced by Steve Coppell, Reading won the 2005–06 Championship with a league record 106 points, scoring 99 goals and losing only twice. Reading were promoted to English footballs top division for the first time in their history, the 2006–07 season saw Reading make their first appearance in the top flight of English football. Reading defied pre-season predictions of relegation to finish the season in place with 55 points
Leyton Football Club was an English association football club based in Leyton, in the London Borough of Waltham Forest. The team withdrew from the Isthmian League Division One North in January 2011, the Lillies were unrelated to their Football League neighbours Leyton Orient. The club was founded in 1868, and disbanded several times in its history, in 1975 the club merged with Wingate F. C. to become Leyton-Wingate F. C. until 1992 when the two clubs parted company and the name reverted to Leyton. Costas Sophocleous, the chairman, was once the manager. Having managed the team for the 2003/04 and 2004/05 seasons, Sophocleous decided to back from management to concentrate on his role as chairman. Following a bad start to the season, however, two managers were sacked in quick succession and the took over the managerial role again. Leyton F. C then appointed Troy Townsend as manager for the English 2005/06 season and he continued to manage the first team squad, the reserves side and the Eastern Junior Alliance U18s squad. In 2006/07 Leyton completed the season in 15th position and this led Troy Townsend to step aside as manager of the first team to concentrate on the reserves and U18s sides. The following season, under manager Rowley Cray, the club suffered an 11–1 home defeat to Hendon, steve Newing and Del Deanus were appointed as joint managers for the 2008/09 season, but resigned in November citing financial difficulties at the club. Tony Ievoli then took the reins but he resigned at the start of September 2009, before being replaced by former Grays Athletic manager, in November 2009 Edwards was replaced by Ivan Persaud. In October 2009, following an investigation by HMRC, chairman Costas Sophocleous, in January 2010 Sophocleous was sentenced to 8 years 3 months and Foster to 5 years 3 months. Sophocleous son, former Leyton player Mark, and his wife, accountant Stewart Collins was found guilty and sentenced to 6 years. Sophocleous stood down as chairman and was replaced by former vice-chairman Tony Hardy, following Costas Sophocleous conviction, Ivan Persaud left the club and was replaced as manager by former player Malcolm Dannie for the beginning of February 2010. However, because several clubs higher in the pyramid were dissolved or demoted, Leyton were awarded a reprieve, in January 2011, and after a short suspension from the league for not paying its subscription, the club was forced to withdraw from the league due to debt. Following this, the chairman, secretary, management and players all left the club, Leyton F. C. played at the Leyton Stadium. The club had ten teams, ranging in age from under nines to under eighteens. Players that have played/managed in the Football League or any equivalent to this level. Players that hold a record or have captained the club
St Albans City F.C.
St Albans City Football Club is a football club based in St Albans, Hertfordshire, England. It was founded in 1908 and plays its matches at Clarence Park. The club is in the National League South, citys most famous match was on 22 November 1922 in a fourth round qualifying FA Cup match. Having been held by Dulwich Hamlet to a 1–1 draw at Clarence Park on 18 November, citys New Zealand-born goalkeeper W. Tennant did not appear, his place taken by Alf Fearn who was usually a half-back with the reserves. Dulwich put eight goals past him, the goal coming in near darkness at the end of extra time. What put the game in the books was that City scored seven times. His feat remains the highest tally by a player on the side of an FA Cup tie. Founded in April 1908, the period in the history of St Albans City Football Club came during the 1920s. In February 2002, with the club having made one visit to the High Court in London. Since that time the Saints have existed very successfully within their financial means although the rise into the Nationwide Conference has been far from smooth, midway through the following campaign City were rooted to the foot of the table and facing an immediate return to the Isthmian League. Football had been played at the Saints Clarence Park home for 14 years prior to the formation of the present day club. The original St Albans, which played home matches at three other venues within the old Roman stronghold, met its demise in 1904 having come into existence back in 1881. After a four-year lapse a senior club bearing the name of the city again in 1908 and during its formative years competed in the Herts County. A move to the Athenian League heralded the start of the Saints halcyon days as that championship was won twice in three years paving the way for election to the Isthmian League. St Albans City won the Isthmian at the first attempt and followed it with two further successes before the decade was out, City remained in the Isthmian League until 2003 but never again did the title return to Clarence Park. When an extra Division was added in 1973 St Albans, along with Corinthian Casuals, had the honour of being the first club to be relegated within the Isthmian League. When a second relegation followed 12 years later the club turned to its former player John Mitchell, whose semi-final goals took Fulham to the 1975 FA Cup final, Mitchell duly obliged with two promotions in three years. In 1998 the diseased tree was felled, along with the Saints five championship successes in eight years during the 1920s the club also enjoyed its greatest days in the Amateur Cup
Lynn Road was a football ground in the Newbury Park area of Ilford, London. It was the ground of Ilford F. C. from 1904 until 1977. The ground was built in 1904 after Ilford were given notice to leave their Wellesley Road ground, the first match at the new ground was played against Clapton in September that year, and in November a new 400-seat stand was opened on the southern side of the pitch. They bought the freehold of the site in 1922, and built another stand on the side of the pitch. The original stand was demolished in 1928 and replaced by an 850-seat stand that included a paddock with a capacity of 950. The record attendance of 17,000 was set for an English Schools Trophy match between Ilford and Swansea in May 1952, by this time the ground had a capacity of 18,000. Floodlights were subsequently installed in 1962, in the 1970s plans were made to relocate to a new ground near Fairlop tube station and the club left in the summer of 1977, with the main stand dismantled in order to be moved to the new site. However, the new ground never materialised and Ilford subsequently merged with Leytonstone to form Leytonstone/Ilford
Bromley Football Club is a semi-professional football club based in Bromley, Greater London, England. They are currently members of the National League and plays at Hayes Lane, established in 1892, Bromley initially played in the South London League, before becoming founder members of the Southern League in 1894, joining Division Two. However, after finishing bottom of Division Two in 1895–96 they left to become members of the London League. They won the division at the first attempt, and were promoted to Division One and they switched to the Kent League for the 1898–99 season, but after finishing bottom of the league, they returned to Division One of the London League. During the 1899–1900 season the club withdrew from Division One, taking over their reserves fixtures in Division Two and they withdrew from Division Two at the end of the 1900–01 season. In 1907 the club were members of the Spartan League. They joined the Isthmian League for the season, and won back-to-back titles in 1908–09. In 1910–11 the club won the FA Amateur Cup, beating Bishop Auckland 1–0 in the final, the season also saw them finish seventh in 1910–11, the club returned to the Kent League and were placed in Division One. They remained in the league until World War I, but joined the Athenian League when football resumed in 1919, the club were Athenian League champions in 1922–23. In 1937–38 they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, after beating Kings Lynn in the first round, they lost 4–1 at Scarborough in the second. They also reached the final of the FA Amateur Cup again, the club repeated the feat the following season, this time playing Football League opposition for the first time as they lost 8–1 at Lincoln City in the second round. In 1945–46 another second round resulted in a 4–2 aggregate defeat to Watford. In 1947–48 they held Reading to a 1–1 draw in the first round, the club won another Athenian League title and the FA Amateur Cup in 1948–49, with the following season seeing another FA first round defeat, this time 2–1 to Watford. In 1950–51 the club won their third Athenian League title, the season saw them lose 1–0 to Aldershot in the FA Cup first round. Going straight into the first round the following season, they lost 3–2 at Torquay United, in 1952 they rejoined the Isthmian League, and after finishing as runners-up in their first season back in the league, they were champions in 1953–54. They won the league for a time in 1960–61. After finishing bottom of Division One in 1974–75 Bromley were relegated to Division Two, in 1976–77 the club appeared in the FA Cup first round for the first time in over twenty years, losing 7–0 at Swindon Town. Division Two became Division One in 1977, and the club were promoted to the Premier Division after finishing as runners-up in 1979–80 and they were relegated to Division One again in 1984–85, but returned to the Premier Division as Division One runners-up in 1985–86
Barking Football Club is a football club based in Barking, Greater London, England. They are currently members of the Essex Senior League and play at Mayesbrook Park in Dagenham, in 1912 Barking became founder members of the Athenian League, but withdrew after only two matches and their record was expunged. In 1919 the club changed its name to Barking Town, going on to win the Essex Senior Cup in the 1919–20 season, the following season they won the Premier Division of the London League and the London Senior Cup, before rejoining the Athenian League in 1923. The 1926–27 season saw them reach the first round of the FA Cup and they also reached the final of the FA Amateur Cup, where they lost 3–1 to Leyton, but did win the London Senior Cup for a third time. They reached the first round of the FA Cup again in 1928–29, in 1932 they reverted to the name Barking, and in 1934–35 won the Athenian League title. Following World War II, Barking won the 1945–46 Essex Senior Cup, in 1952 they switched to the Isthmian League, but had to wait until 1978–79 before winning the league again, during that period they won further Essex Senior Cup titles in 1962–63 and 1969–70. The following season reached the second round again, defeating Third Division Oxford United before losing 3–1 to Reading. In 1981–82 they took Gillingham to a replay in the second round and their last appearance in the second round came in 1983–84, when they lost 2–1 at Plymouth Argyle. A seventh Essex Senior Cup final win was achieved in 1989–90 and they remained in the Isthmian League Premier Division until relegation to Division One at the end of the 1990–91 season. After finishing bottom in 1995–96 the club was relegated to Division Two, in 2001 Barking ceased to exist when they merged with East Ham United to form Barking & East Ham United. However, when the new club folded in 2006, Barking were re-established and joined the Essex Senior League, Barking Institute originally played at the Recreation Ground in Barking Park, before moving to Vicarage Field, which had been in use by Barking Rovers since 1884. Floodlights were installed in 1958 and they were the first Isthmian League club to play a match under lights. In 1973 the club were forced to leave the ground by the council, players Barking F. C. managers Official website
Southern Football League
Together with the Isthmian League and the Northern Premier League it forms levels seven and eight of the English football league system. The structure of the Southern League has changed several times since its formation in 1894, the Premier Division is at step 3 of the National League System, and is a feeder division, mainly to the National League South but also to the National League North. Feeding the Premier Division are two divisions, Division One South & West and Division One Central, which are at step 4 of the NLS. These divisions are in turn fed by various regional leagues, professional football developed more slowly in Southern England than in Northern England. Additionally, a league, the Southern Alliance was founded in 1892, with seven clubs from the region. Nonetheless, another attempt was made to form the Southern League, a competition for both professional and amateur clubs was founded in 1894 under the initiative of Millwall Athletic. Initially only one division was envisaged, but such was the enthusiasm, the sixteen founder members were, 2nd Scots Guards withdrew before the first season started and were replaced by Southampton St Marys. Woolwich Arsenal attempted to add their reserve side to the second division, the Southern League soon became the dominant competition below The Football League in Southern and Central England. By the turn of the century a few of the Southern League sides began to rival the Football League in the FA Cup, Two Southern League clubs, Southampton and Tottenham Hotspur reached the final of the FA Cup around the turn of the century. Tottenham Hotspur are the club from below the 2nd level of English football to have won the FA Cup. The champions of the two leagues during this period met in the annual Charity Shield, in 1907, it accepted Bradford Park Avenue, a northern club, as a member, reflecting its senior position at the time. In 1920, virtually the top division of the Southern League was absorbed by the Football League to become that leagues new Third Division. A year later the Third Division was expanded and regionalised, the Third Division clubs from the previous season became the Third Division South, with the addition of the Third Division North. Of the original members, six – Gillingham, Luton Town, Millwall, Reading. For the next six decades, the Football League and Southern League would exchange a number of clubs as a result of the older leagues re-election process. From 1920 onward, the Southern Leagues status as a league was firmly established. In turn, the APL would eventually succeed in becoming a feeder to the Football League, the league lost more of its top clubs in 2004 when the Conference added two regional divisions below the existing National League, the Conference South and Conference North. The first sponsor of the Southern League was Beazer Homes who sponsored the league from 1987–96, the sponsors after Beazer Homes to the present day are, Dr Martens, British Gas, Zamaretto, Evo-Stik, Calor Gas, and Evo-Stik
Old Castle Swifts F.C.
Old Castle Swifts Football Club, the first professional football club in Essex, was formed by Scottish shipowner Donald Currie in September 1892 as Castle Swifts Football Club. Old Castle Swifts demise saw several players join the newly founded Thames Ironworks, the Castles first home ground, located in West Ham was named Dunottar Park, after the Castle Line companys ship Dunottar Castle. Old Castle Swifts Football Club was formed by Scottish shipowner Donald Currie in September 1892 as Castle Swifts Football Club and they were the works team of the ship repair yard of The Castle Shipping Line and initially the majority of the team were drawn from the mainly Scottish workforce. Players were paid extra wages when they played for the team, the Castles first home ground, a field located opposite the West Ham Police Station in West Ham Lane was named Dunottar Park, after the Castle Line companys ship Dunottar Castle. The ground had perimeter fencing and admission was charged at 3d, the Castles did not remain long at Dunottar Park, having to find a new ground after a dispute with the landlord. One was soon located in fields beside Wakefield Street in East Ham, known as Temple Meadows, the team would change into their kit in the nearby Denmark Inn (now the Denmark Arms, located on the Barking Road. The Denmark Arms is used today by many West Ham United fans, in March 1893 they faced Barking Woodville in the final of the West Ham Charity Cup held at Claptons Spotted Dog ground. The Castles were two goals down before coming back to win the tie 4–2, with the coming from outside-right Grundy, inside forwards Mitchell and Taylor. Comerford of the Cup Committee announced that ‘the medals had not yet come to hand, with that the captain was lifted on to the shoulders of several of his followers and carried from the ground. At the end of the 1893–94 season, the merged with Old St Lukes, and the newly formed team was renamed as Old Castle Swifts. Hermit Road had been described as a heap and barren waste. It was surrounded by a moat and had canvas sheeting for fencing and their demise came in March 1895 when the club became bankrupt, with chairman Donald Currie no longer willing to bankroll the club. Arnold Hills, the Chairman of Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Co, ltd, saw the opportunity to fund a works side, so provided the money, in order that he may take over the tenancy of the Hermit Road ground, and Thames Ironworks was born. The club later became West Ham United, many of Old Castle Swifts players were absorbed into the newly formed Ironworks team. Among them were half-backs William Morton, Walter Parks and John Woods, forwards Jamie Lindsay and George Sage, and full-back Robert Stevenson, goalkeeper David Furnell would also eventually join Thames Ironworks in 1897. West Ham Charity Cup Winners 1892–93 Thames Ironworks F. C. Thames Ironworks F. C. season 1895-96 West Ham United F. C. Belton, the Essential History of West Ham United
Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company
Its main activity was shipbuilding, but it also diversified into civil engineering, marine engines, cranes, electrical engineering and motor cars. The company notably produced iron work for Isambard Kingdom Brunels Royal Albert Bridge over the Tamar in the 1850s, the company originated in 1837 as the Ditchburn and Mare Shipbuilding Company, founded by shipwright Thomas J. Ditchburn and the engineer and naval architect Charles Mare. Originally located at Deptford, after a fire destroyed their yard the company moved to Orchard Place in 1838, there they took over the premises of the defunct shipbuilders William and Benjamin Wallis. The firm did well and within a few years occupied three sites covering an area of over 14 acres, in this period the company was also awarded several contracts by the Admiralty, including HMS Recruit which was one of the first iron warships built. They also constructed the P & O Companys steamers Ariel and Erin, Thomas Ditchburn retired in 1847 and the business was carried on by Charles Mare, under the name of C. J. Mare and Company. He was joined by naval architect James Ash, who began his own shipyard at Cubitt Town. From 1847 the company grew considerably and Mare purchased land on the Canning Town side of the River Lea, in 1853 the company launched the SS Himalaya for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, briefly the worlds largest passenger ship before becoming a naval troopship. In 1855, the company which by now had more than 3000 employees, was threatened with closure following Mares bankruptcy, the business did not lack orders, having in hand six contracts for gunboats and the contract for Westminster Bridge. The companys chief creditors moved to keep the company in operation, the main figure in saving the company was Peter Rolt, Mares father-in-law and Conservative MP for Greenwich. Rolt was also a merchant and a descendant of the Pett shipbuilding family. He was supported in the venture by another director, Lord Alan Spencer-Churchill. Rolt took control of the assets and in 1857 transferred them to a new limited company, named the Thames Ironworks. It had a capital of £100,000 in 20 shares of each, five of which were held by Rolt who was the main shareholder. The new company was the largest shipbuilder on the Thames, its premises described by the Mechanics Magazine in 1861 as Leviathan Workshops, the main yard had a quay 1,050 feet long. To the south-east the yard occupied the north bank of the Thames east of Bow Creek, today the site is crossed by the A1020 Lower Lea Crossing and the Docklands Light Railway south of Canning Town station. By 1863 the company had the capacity to build 25,000 tons of warships and 10,000 tons of mail steamers simultaneously. One of its first Admiralty contracts was for HMS Warrior, launched in 1860, at the time the worlds largest warship, HMS Minotaur followed in 1863,400 feet long and 10,690 tons displacement. Work on vessels such as Minotaur was performed on the Canning Town side of the Lea, and this is where the Thames Ironworks expanded from less than 10 acres in 1856 to 30 acres by 1891
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Inverness Thistle F.C.
Inverness Thistle Football Club was a football club playing in the city of Inverness in northern Scotland. They were members of the Highland Football League, winning the eight times, including its inaugural season. They set a record for the heaviest scoring in a Highland League season, with 124 goals in the 1969–70 season. They wore black and red stripes and played their games at Kingsmills Park. Like many clubs featuring the name Thistle, they were known as the Jags. Thistle applied for membership of the Scottish Football League for the 1973–74 season and it was felt that this was due to clubs in the Central Belt being unwilling to travel to Inverness. They occasionally qualified for the Scottish Cup, many regard their most famous result to be the defeat of Kilmarnock by a 3–0 scoreline in season 1984–85. When two vacancies were recorded in the Scottish League in time for season 1994–95 Thistle decided to apply for membership. This decision was not without controversy, fans of both clubs bitterly opposed the merger and many tried to stop it. In this they were unsuccessful, and the new entity, Caledonian Thistle were elected along with Ross County to membership of the Scottish Leagues Third Division for season 1994–95, the last game of Inverness Thistle Football Club was against Lossiemouth on Saturday,14 May 1994. The club was 110 years old. co. uk
Gainsborough Trinity F.C.
Gainsborough Trinity Football Club is a football club based in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England. They are currently members of the National League North and play at the Northolme, the club was established in 1873 as Trinity Recreationists by Reverend George Langton Hodgkinson, the vicar at the Holy Trinity Church. In 1889 the club were members of the Midland League. The club finished as runners-up the following season and again in 1895–96, in the vote they finished third, ahead of existing members Port Vale and Crewe Alexandra, and were elected into the Second Division. The clubs first season in Division Two of the League saw them finish seventh, in 1901–02 Trinity finished bottom of the division, but were re-elected. In 1904–05 the club finished sixth in Division Two, their best performance during their Football League membership. In 1911–12 Gainsborough finished bottom of the Second Division for a second time, the club returned to the Midland League, finishing third in 1912–13 and second in 1913–14, after which they unsuccessfully applied for readmission to the Football League. When the Football League created a new Third Division North in 1921, Trinity applied for membership, in 1931–32 they beat Crewe again in the first round, before losing 5–2 at home to Watford. In 1937–38 Trinity beat Port Vale in the first round, before losing to fellow non-League club Yeovil & Petters United, another Football League team was beaten the following season, when Trinity knocked out Gateshead in the first round, before losing to Doncaster Rovers. In 1948–49 they reached the round after defeating Witton Albion in the first round. They went on to win a third Midland League title that season and they reached the first round again the following season, before losing 4–1 at home to Chesterfield. The club failed to repeat the feat until 1959–60, when they lost to Doncaster Rovers in a replay, at the end of the 1959–60 season, the Midland League was disbanded. Gainsborough spent a season playing in both the Central Alliance and Division Two of the Yorkshire League, before returning to a reformed Midland League in 1961. Trinity won their fourth Midland League title in 1966–67, also reaching the first round of the FA Cup, the club applied to join the Football League again in 1975 and 1976, but received only a single vote on each occasion. The 1983–84 season saw them reach the first round of the FA Cup for over a decade, when the Northern Premier League added a second division in 1987, Gainsborough were placed in the Premier Division. In 1997–98 FA Cup saw them drawn against local rivals Lincoln City, another first round appearance in 2003–04 ended with a 7–1 defeat at Brentford. At the end of the season a tenth-place finish saw the club become members of the Conference North. FA Cup first round appearances followed in 2006–07 (a 3–1 defeat by Barnet, in 2011–12 the club finished fourth, qualifying for the promotion play-offs
West Ham United F.C.
West Ham United Football Club is a professional football club based in Stratford, East London, England. They compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football, in 2016 the club re-located to the London Stadium. The club was founded in 1895 as Thames Ironworks and reformed in 1900 as West Ham United and they moved to the Boleyn Ground in 1904, which remained their home ground for more than a century. The team initially competed in the Southern League and Western League before joining the Football League in 1919 and they were promoted to the top flight in 1923, when they also losing finalists in the first FA Cup Final held at Wembley. In 1940, the won the inaugural Football League War Cup. West Ham have been winners of the FA Cup three times, in 1964,1975, and 1980, and have also been runners-up twice, in 1923, and 2006. The club have reached two major European finals, winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1965 and finishing runners up in the competition in 1976. West Ham also won the Intertoto Cup in 1999 and they are one of eight clubs never to have fallen below the second tier of English football, spending 59 of 91 league seasons in the top flight, up to and including the 2016–17 season. The clubs highest league position to date came in 1985–86 when they achieved third place in the then First Division, three West Ham players were members of the 1966 World Cup final-winning England team, captain Bobby Moore and goalscorers Geoff Hurst and Martin Peters. The club, Thames Ironworks were the first ever winners of the West Ham Charity Cup in 1895 contested by clubs in the West Ham locality and they turned professional in 1898 upon entering the Southern League Second Division, and were promoted to the First Division at the first attempt. The following year they came second from bottom, but had established themselves as a fully fledged competitive team and they comfortably fended off the challenge of local rivals Fulham in a relegation play-off, 5–1 in late April 1900 and retained their First Division status. In 1899, they acquired their now-traditional home kit combination of claret shirts and sky blue sleeves in a wager involving Aston Villa players, because of the original works team roots and links, they are still known as the Irons or the Hammers amongst fans and the media. West Ham Utd joined the Western League for the 1901 season while continuing to play in the Southern Division 1. In 1907, West Ham were crowned the Western League Division 1B Champions, the reborn club continued to play their games at the Memorial Grounds in Plaistow but moved to a pitch in the Upton Park area in the guise of the Boleyn Ground stadium in 1904. The Cup Final match itself ended 2–0 to Bolton, the team enjoyed mixed success in Division 1 but retained their status for ten years and reached the FA Cup semi-final in 1933. In 1932, the club was relegated to Division Two and long term custodian Syd King was sacked after serving the club in the role of manager for 32 years, following relegation, King had mental health problems. He appeared drunk at a meeting and soon after committed suicide. The club spent most of the next 30 years in division, first under Paynter
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker