1897 in Norwegian music
The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1897 in Norwegian music.
The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1897 in Norwegian music.
1. 1897 in art – April 3 – Vienna Secession founded by artists including Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil. May 1 – Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek art museum opened in Copenhagen, may 27 – A Separate Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture is staged at Sukiennice Museum in Main Square, Kraków. August 4 – The Lady of Elche Iberian sculpture is found at LAlcúdia near Elche in Spain, september – Edvard Munch stages a major retrospective in Christiania. October 27 – First meeting of the Society of Polish Artists Sztuka in Kraków, at Giverny, Claude Monet begins painting his Water Lilies series, which will continue until the end of his life. Elbridge Ayer Burbank begins painting portraits of Native Americans in the United States from life, women photographers Zaida Ben-Yusuf and Gertrude Käsebier open portrait studios in New York City. A Book of Fifty Drawings by Aubrey Beardsley is published, bernard Berenson publishes Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. Ogata Gekkō – Ryu sho ten J. W. and Mrs. I
2. Polka – The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, local varieties of this dance are also found in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Latin America and the United States. The name polka possibly comes from the Czech word půlka, referring to the short half-steps featured in the dance. e, the absence of diacritics, both referring to the half-tempo 24 and the half-jump step of the dance. Zíbrt also ironically dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich that polka comes from the Czech word pole, on the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests that the etymology given by Fr. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the true Czech folk origin of Polka, Nejedlý also writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek also claims the Hradec Králové roots of a Polka. OED also suggests that the name may have derived from the Czech polka meaning Polish woman. The word was introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s. It should not be confused with the polska, a Swedish 34-beat dance with Polish roots, a related dance is the redowa. Polkas almost always have a 24 time signature, folk music of Polka style appeared in written music about 1800. She is said to have called the dance Maděra, because of its liveliness, the dance was further propagated by the music teacher Josef Neruda, who witnessed Anna dance in an unusual way, put the tune to paper, and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt notices that a claim that the events happened in Týnec nad Labem. Zibrt writes that when he published this story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper. In particular, he wrote according to further witness, the originating event actually happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem. Zíbrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia, from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zíbrt also wrote that simple Czech folk claimed that knew and danced Polka long before the nobles got hold of it. By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague, from there, it spread to Vienna by 1839, and in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor. It was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as polkamania, the dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular dance until the late 19th century
3. Accordion – Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist, the concertina and bandoneón are related, the harmonium and American reed organ are in the same family. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open and these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instruments reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block. The performer normally plays the melody on buttons or keys on the manual. The accordion is widely spread across the world, nevertheless, in Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, zydeco, jazz music. The piano accordion is the official city instrument of San Francisco, the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning harmonic, musical. Today, native versions of the accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, accordions have many configurations and types. Similar to a bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, and is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal. It is used to pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibration. These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals, each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, and to allow the sound to better project. The grille for the manual is usually larger and is often shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment. The manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it, the different types have varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format, the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, which is used for many musical genres
4. Music of Norway – Norway is a rather sparsely populated country in Europe, but even so its music and its musical life are as complex as those of most other countries. Much has been learned about music in Norway from physical artifacts found during archaeological digs. These include instruments such as the lur, viking and medieval sagas also describe musical activity, as do the accounts of priests and pilgrims from all over Europe coming to visit St Olafs grave in Trondheim. In the later part of the 19th century, Norway experienced economic growth leading to greater industrialization and urbanization, more music was established in the cities, and opera performances and symphony concerts were considered to be of high standards. In this era both prominent composers and performers combined the European traditions with Norwegian tones, the import of music and musicians for dance and entertainment increased, and this continued in the 20th century, even more so when gramophone records and radio became common. In the last half of the 20th century, Norway, like other countries in the world. Before 1840, there were limited sources of folk music in Norway. Originally these historical attainments were believed to have a distinct Christian influence, as research continued, there was also mythical and fairy tale connections to the folk music. Overall the purpose of music was for entertainment and dancing. Norwegian folk music may be divided into two categories, instrumental and vocal, as a rule instrumental folk music is dance music. Norwegian folk dances are dances and usually performed by couples, although there are a number of solo dances as well. Norway has very little of the ceremonial dance characteristic of other cultures, dance melodies may be broken down into two types, two-beat and three-beat dances. The former are called halling, gangar or rull, whereas the latter are springar or springleik, Traditional dances are normally referred to as bygdedans. These dances, sometimes called courting dances were often connected to the important events of life, weddings, funerals. Folk music in Norway falls in another 2 main categories based in the populations from which they spring, North Germanic. Traditional Sami music is centered around a vocal style called joik. Originally, joik referred to one of several Sami singing styles. Its sound is comparable to the chanting of some American Aboriginal cultures
5. Psalmodicon – The psalmodicon is typically a single-stringed musical instrument, developed in Scandinavia for simplifying music in churches and schools, and providing an alternative to the fiddle for sacred music. The instrument could be plucked or bowed, beginning in the early 19th century, it was adopted by many rural churches in Scandinavia, later, immigrants brought the instrument to the United States. At the time, many congregations could not afford organs, dance instruments were considered inappropriate for sacred settings, so violins were not allowed. The psalmodikon, on the hand, was inexpensive to build, was not used for dancing, took up little space. Its slow, melodic quality worked well with the hymns of the period, examples of older printed music from these churches often have numbers written over the words, corresponding to numbers painted on the fret board of the psalmodikon. This system, known as siffernotskrift, allowed players who could not read musical notation to accompany hymns. As churches saved money for organs, however, psalmodikons became less common, by the late 20th century, in later years, however, the instrument was reintroduced by multi-instrumentalist folk musicians. The instrument consists of a box, upon which is a chromatic fret board with up to around 25 semitone positions. It has one to three strings of metal or of gut, some earlier variants included metal strings that were not touched. The measure of one Swedish instrument from 1869 is 878 millimeter, over a sawtooth shaped fret board, it originally had three metal strings, of which two were removed to facilitate the learning process. Advanced models could be fitted with strings on both sides of the fret board, up to twelve strings that individually could be mechanically subdued. Though some books attribute the invention to the Swedish priest Johan Dillner from Medelpad, others note that he promoted, rather than invented. He published a book of siffernotskrift for hymns in 1830, there is some scholarly consensus that the instrument first developed in Denmark around 1820, and spread from there. In the 1830s and 1840s, the Norwegian music educator Lars Roverud traveled widely in Norway popularising the instrument for training students, the instrument is also known in Lithuania as manikarka, a two string variant developed within Latvian folk music, and became the ģīga. In Estonia it is known as the moldpill or mollpill, among its alternate spellings is the Norwegian salmodikon or salmedunken. In Finland the instrument is known as virsikantele, tromba marina Monochord Ole H. Bremnes. Forlaget Habet,1998 Ardith K. Melloh, grandfathers Songbooks, Or, The Psalmodikon in America
6. Waltz – The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in triple time, performed primarily in closed position. There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the waltz that date from 16th century Europe, the French philosopher Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so closely that their faces touched. Kunz Haas wrote, Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner, the peasants of Bavaria, Tyrol, and Styria began dancing a dance called Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler, also known as the Schleifer, a dance in 34 time, was popular in Bohemia, Austria, and Bavaria. While the eighteenth century upper classes continued to dance the minuet, describing life in Vienna, Don Curzio wrote, The people were dancing mad. The ladies of Vienna are particularly celebrated for their grace and movements of waltzing of which they never tire, there is a waltz in the second act finale of the opera Una Cosa Rara written by Martin y Soler in 1786. Solers waltz was marked Andante con moto, or at a pace with motion, but the flow of the dance was sped-up in Vienna leading to the Geschwindwalzer. In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a known as Langaus, became a sliding step. In the 19th century, the word primarily indicated that the dance was a one, one would waltz in the polka to indicate rotating rather than going straight forward without turning. The Viennese custom is to anticipate the second beat of each measure, making it sound as if the third is late. The metronome speed for a full bar varies between 60 and 70, with the waltzes of the first Strauss often played faster than those of his sons. Shocking many when it was first introduced, the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the 1780s, according to contemporary singer Michael Kelly, it reached England in 1791. During the Napoleonic Wars, infantry soldiers of the Kings German Legion introduced the dance to the people of Bexhill and it became fashionable in Britain during the Regency period, having been made respectable by the endorsement of Dorothea Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador. Diarist Thomas Raikes later recounted that No event ever produced so great a sensation in English society as the introduction of the waltz in 1813, in the same year, a sardonic tribute to the dance by Lord Byron was anonymously published. Influential dance master and author of manuals, Thomas Wilson published A Description of the Correct Method of Waltzing in 1816. Come, its time to be going home, the waltz, and especially its closed position, became the example for the creation of many other ballroom dances. Subsequently, new types of waltz have developed, including many folk and it incorporated hesitations and was danced to fast music. A hesitation is basically a halt on the foot during the full waltz measure
7. Hardanger fiddle – A Hardanger fiddle is a traditional stringed instrument used originally to play the music of Norway. In modern designs, this type of fiddle is very similar to the violin, though with eight or nine strings and thinner wood. Four of the strings are strung and played like a violin, while the rest, aptly named understrings or sympathetic strings, the Hardingfele is used mainly in the southwest part of Norway, whereas the ordinary violin is found elsewhere. The Hardingfele is used for dancing, accompanied by rhythmic loud foot stomping and it was also traditional for the fiddler to lead the bridal procession to the church. Sometimes pieces of bone are used to decorate the pegs and the edges of the instrument, the earliest known example of the hardingfele is from 1651, made by Ole Jonsen Jaastad in Hardanger, Norway. Originally, the instrument had a rounder, narrower body, around the year 1850, the modern layout with a body much like the violin became the norm. Specifically, the Hardingfele is a D instrument, meaning that the Hardingfeles written C corresponds to D on a non-transposing instrument, the notes given below for tunings are therefore relative to the Hardingfeles written A, not to a concert A. The understrings are tuned to vibrate according to the main tuning, for example, when the main strings are tuned A-D-A-E, the understrings are tuned B-D-E-F♯-A. The tuning largely depends on the region in which the instrument is being played, in Norway, more than 20 different tunings are recorded. Most hardanger tunes are played in a common tuning, the hardanger fiddle can also be played in low bass, the word bass referring to the lowest string, the normal violin tuning. In certain regions the Gorrolaus tuning is sometimes used, another tuning is called troll tuning. Legend has it that the fiddler learned fanitullen tunes from the devil and this tuning limits the melodic range of the tunes and is therefore sparsely used. The technique of bowing a Hardingfele also differs from that used with a violin and its a smoother, bouncier style of bowing, with a lighter touch. The player usually bows on two of the strings at a time, and sometimes three. This is made easy by the flatness of the bridge. The strings of the fiddle are slimmer than those of the violin, the Hardingfele has had a long history with the Christian church. Well known early fiddle maker Isak Botnen is said to have learned some of his craft from church lay leader and school master Lars Klark, as well as the methods for varnishing from pastor Dedrik Muus. In many folktales the devil is associated with the Hardingfele, in many good players were said to have been taught to play by the devil
8. 1897 in music – January 13 – At a memorial concert in Paris for composer Emmanuel Chabrier, the first act of his uncompleted work, Briséïs, is performed for the first time. It would be years before Rachmaninoff would compose a piece of music again. September 8-October 8 - Gustav Mahler becomes director of the Vienna Court Opera, the Cakewalk matures into Ragtime music. John Philip Sousas band makes phonograph recordings of Cakewalks and early Ragtime, andré Messager becomes musical director of the Opéra-Comique. Ralph Vaughan Williams studies with Max Bruch in Berlin, Teatro Nuovo in Bergamo changes its name to Teatro Donizetti. Composer Alexander Scriabin marries pianist Vera Ivanovna, Ben Harney – Ben Harneys Rag Time Instructor Asleep In The Deep w. Arthur J. Lamb m. Henry W. Petrie At A Georgia Camp Meeting w. m. Victor Herbert Beautiful Isle of Somewhere w. Mrs Jessie Brown Pounds m, john S. Fearis Break The News To Mother w. m. Charles K. Harris Danny Deever w. Rudyard Kipling m. Walter Damrosch Harlem Rag m, tom Turpin Let em All Come w. m. T. W. Connor Louisiana Rag m. Theodore H. Northrup On The Banks Of The Wabash Far Away w. m, Paul Dresser Our Lodgers Such A Nice Young Man w. m. Fred Murray & Laurence Barclay Roustabout Rag m. Paul Sarebresole The Shuffling Coon by J. R. Todd Song Of India m, nikolai Rimsky Korsakov The Stars and Stripes Forever m. John Philip Sousa Syncopated Sandy by Wayburn & Whiting Take Back Your Gold w. m. Monroe H. Rosenfeld Theres A Little Star Shining For You w. m
9. 1897 in architecture – The year 1897 in architecture involved some significant events. May 1 Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek art museum, designed by Wilhelm Dahlerup, tennessee Centennial Exposition opens in Nashville, with a temporary pyramid for Memphis, TN and a copy of the Parthenon, which will be rebuilt of permanent materials in the 1920s. May 12 - The new Oxford Town Hall, designed by Henry Hare, is opened in England. May 16 - The Teatro Massimo is inaugurated in Palermo, it is the largest opera theatre in Italy, november 1 - The Library of Congress Building in Washington, D. C. designed by Paul J. Pelz, is opened. Christmas - The Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul, Tunis, is completed, the Secession Building, Vienna, designed by Joseph Maria Olbrich is completed in Austria. Glasgow School of Art, designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, is begun in Scotland, the Arts and Crafts movement house Munstead Wood, designed by Edwin Lutyens for Gertrude Jekyll, is begun in England. The Flatiron Building of Atlanta, Georgia, United States is completed, the Battenberg Mausoleum, Sofia, designed by Hermann Mayer, is completed. The Weaver building, a mill at Swansea in Wales, becomes the first building in the United Kingdom to be constructed from reinforced concrete, dresden Hauptbahnhof railway station in Germany, designed by Ernst Giese and Paul Weidner, is completed. Restoration and remodelling of Castelldefels Castle in Spain by Enric Sagnier is completed, april 3 - Vienna Secession group founded by Otto Wagner, Joseph Maria Olbrich and Josef Hoffmann among others. David Ewart succeeds Thomas Fuller as Chief Dominion Architect of the Government of Canada, james Knox Taylor becomes Supervising Architect of the United States Department of the Treasury. RIBA Royal Gold Medal - Pierre Cuypers, english architect June 22 - William Mason, New Zealand architect William Lang, American architect
10. 1897 in literature – This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1897. January–March – Oscar Wilde, imprisoned in Reading Gaol in England, writes his letter to his lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, january 2 – Newspapers in London, England erroneously report the death of Mark Twain. It is believed that the rumors began when Twains cousin had become ill, Twain makes his famous statement the report of my death was an exaggeration. April–December – H. G. Wells science fiction novel The War of the Worlds is serialised in Pearsons Magazine, april 13 – The Grand Guignol is opened in Paris by Oscar Méténier. May 19 – Oscar Wilde is released early this morning from Pentonville Prison in London and this afternoon he visits Hatchards bookshop briefly before catching an evening train to Newhaven en route to exile on the continent under the name Sebastian Melmoth. On May 18 he had staged a reading of a version at the Lyceum Theatre. July 2 – Yorkshire Dialect Society founded, the oldest such society in England, july 25 – Writer Jack London sails to join the Klondike Gold Rush where he will write his first successful stories. October – First issue Albina, the Romanian literary and agriculturalist magazine aimed at a peasant readership, put out in Bucharest by Ioan Kalinderu, George Coșbuc, november 1 – The Library of Congress Building in Washington, D. C. is opened. December 30 – The comedy The White Horse Inn, by Oscar Blumenthal and Gustav Kadelburg, opens in Berlin, decades later it will be turned into a popular, hall Caines novel The Christian is published, becoming the first in Britain to sell a million copies. Anna Katharine Greens That Affair Next Door introduces the first female fictional character in a novel, Amelia Butterworth. Benito Pérez Galdós is elected to the Real Academia Española, the publisher Doubleday is founded as the Doubleday & McClure Company by Frank Nelson Doubleday in partnership with magazine publisher Samuel McClure in New York City. The publisher Commercial Press is founded as the first modern publishing organisation in China by 26-year-old Xia Ruifang and three friends in Shanghai
11. 1897 in science – The year 1897 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. April 30 – J. J. Thomson first describes his discovery of the electron, adolf Erik Nordenskiöld publishes Periplus, An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing Directions in Stockholm. David Hilbert unifies the field of number theory with his treatise Zahlbericht. John Edward Campbell originates the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula for multiplication of exponentials in Lie algebras, raoul Bricard investigates and classifies flexible polyhedra, defining the Bricard octahedron. Henri Brocard begins publication of his book on geometric curves, Notes de Bibliographie des Courbes Géométriques. August 20 – Ronald Ross discovers the malaria Plasmodium in an Anopheles mosquito, october 10 – Chemists working at Bayer AG create a synthetically altered version of salicin which the company names Aspirin. Danish veterinarian Bernhard Bang isolates Brucella abortus as the agent of Brucellosis, epinephrine discovered by John Jacob Abel. L. Emmett Holt publishes the standard textbook The Diseases of Infancy, Émile Durkheim publishes his classic study Le Suicide. June 26 – At the British Fleet Review, Charles Parsons gives a display of the unprecedented speed attainable by his steam turbine-powered Turbinia. August 10 – Rudolf Diesel builds his first working prototype Diesel engine in Augsburg, august 31 – Thomas Edison is granted a patent for the Kinetoscope, a precursor of the movie projector. The Dahlander pole changing motor is patented, maxim develops the muffler in conjunction with the firearm silencer. Copley Medal, Albert von Kölliker Wollaston Medal, Wilfred Hudleston March 24 – Wilhelm Reich, july 20 – Tadeusz Reichstein, Polish-born Nobel Prize-winning chemist. August 12 – Otto Struve, Ukrainian-born astronomer, september 12 – Irène Joliot-Curie, French chemist. November 4 – C. B. van Niel, Dutch-born microbiologist, november 13 – Tilly Edinger, German-born paleoneurologist. December 22 – Vojtěch Jarník, Czech mathematician, january 25 – David Kirkaldy, Scottish-born engineer, pioneer of materials testing. February 19 – Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician, March 3 – John Peirce, American inventor. March 15 – James Joseph Sylvester, English mathematician, may 6 Edward James Stone, English astronomer. May 7 – Abraham Dee Bartlett, English zoologist, august 27 – Eduard von Hofmann, Austrian forensic pathologist