1897 in art
April 3 – Vienna Secession founded by artists including Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil. May 1 – Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek art museum opened in Copenhagen, may 27 – A Separate Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture is staged at Sukiennice Museum in Main Square, Kraków. August 4 – The Lady of Elche Iberian sculpture is found at LAlcúdia near Elche in Spain, september – Edvard Munch stages a major retrospective in Christiania. October 27 – First meeting of the Society of Polish Artists Sztuka in Kraków, at Giverny, Claude Monet begins painting his Water Lilies series, which will continue until the end of his life. Elbridge Ayer Burbank begins painting portraits of Native Americans in the United States from life, women photographers Zaida Ben-Yusuf and Gertrude Käsebier open portrait studios in New York City. A Book of Fifty Drawings by Aubrey Beardsley is published, bernard Berenson publishes Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. Ogata Gekkō – Ryu sho ten J. W. and Mrs. I
1897 in architecture
The year 1897 in architecture involved some significant events. May 1 Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek art museum, designed by Wilhelm Dahlerup, tennessee Centennial Exposition opens in Nashville, with a temporary pyramid for Memphis, TN and a copy of the Parthenon, which will be rebuilt of permanent materials in the 1920s. May 12 - The new Oxford Town Hall, designed by Henry Hare, is opened in England. May 16 - The Teatro Massimo is inaugurated in Palermo, it is the largest opera theatre in Italy, november 1 - The Library of Congress Building in Washington, D. C. designed by Paul J. Pelz, is opened. Christmas - The Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul, Tunis, is completed, the Secession Building, Vienna, designed by Joseph Maria Olbrich is completed in Austria. Glasgow School of Art, designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, is begun in Scotland, the Arts and Crafts movement house Munstead Wood, designed by Edwin Lutyens for Gertrude Jekyll, is begun in England. The Flatiron Building of Atlanta, Georgia, United States is completed, the Battenberg Mausoleum, Sofia, designed by Hermann Mayer, is completed. The Weaver building, a mill at Swansea in Wales, becomes the first building in the United Kingdom to be constructed from reinforced concrete, dresden Hauptbahnhof railway station in Germany, designed by Ernst Giese and Paul Weidner, is completed. Restoration and remodelling of Castelldefels Castle in Spain by Enric Sagnier is completed, april 3 - Vienna Secession group founded by Otto Wagner, Joseph Maria Olbrich and Josef Hoffmann among others. David Ewart succeeds Thomas Fuller as Chief Dominion Architect of the Government of Canada, james Knox Taylor becomes Supervising Architect of the United States Department of the Treasury. RIBA Royal Gold Medal - Pierre Cuypers, english architect June 22 - William Mason, New Zealand architect William Lang, American architect
1897 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1897. January–March – Oscar Wilde, imprisoned in Reading Gaol in England, writes his letter to his lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, january 2 – Newspapers in London, England erroneously report the death of Mark Twain. It is believed that the rumors began when Twains cousin had become ill, Twain makes his famous statement the report of my death was an exaggeration. April–December – H. G. Wells science fiction novel The War of the Worlds is serialised in Pearsons Magazine, april 13 – The Grand Guignol is opened in Paris by Oscar Méténier. May 19 – Oscar Wilde is released early this morning from Pentonville Prison in London and this afternoon he visits Hatchards bookshop briefly before catching an evening train to Newhaven en route to exile on the continent under the name Sebastian Melmoth. On May 18 he had staged a reading of a version at the Lyceum Theatre. July 2 – Yorkshire Dialect Society founded, the oldest such society in England, july 25 – Writer Jack London sails to join the Klondike Gold Rush where he will write his first successful stories. October – First issue Albina, the Romanian literary and agriculturalist magazine aimed at a peasant readership, put out in Bucharest by Ioan Kalinderu, George Coșbuc, november 1 – The Library of Congress Building in Washington, D. C. is opened. December 30 – The comedy The White Horse Inn, by Oscar Blumenthal and Gustav Kadelburg, opens in Berlin, decades later it will be turned into a popular, hall Caines novel The Christian is published, becoming the first in Britain to sell a million copies. Anna Katharine Greens That Affair Next Door introduces the first female fictional character in a novel, Amelia Butterworth. Benito Pérez Galdós is elected to the Real Academia Española, the publisher Doubleday is founded as the Doubleday & McClure Company by Frank Nelson Doubleday in partnership with magazine publisher Samuel McClure in New York City. The publisher Commercial Press is founded as the first modern publishing organisation in China by 26-year-old Xia Ruifang and three friends in Shanghai
1897 in music
January 13 – At a memorial concert in Paris for composer Emmanuel Chabrier, the first act of his uncompleted work, Briséïs, is performed for the first time. It would be years before Rachmaninoff would compose a piece of music again. September 8-October 8 - Gustav Mahler becomes director of the Vienna Court Opera, the Cakewalk matures into Ragtime music. John Philip Sousas band makes phonograph recordings of Cakewalks and early Ragtime, andré Messager becomes musical director of the Opéra-Comique. Ralph Vaughan Williams studies with Max Bruch in Berlin, Teatro Nuovo in Bergamo changes its name to Teatro Donizetti. Composer Alexander Scriabin marries pianist Vera Ivanovna, Ben Harney – Ben Harneys Rag Time Instructor Asleep In The Deep w. Arthur J. Lamb m. Henry W. Petrie At A Georgia Camp Meeting w. m. Victor Herbert Beautiful Isle of Somewhere w. Mrs Jessie Brown Pounds m, john S. Fearis Break The News To Mother w. m. Charles K. Harris Danny Deever w. Rudyard Kipling m. Walter Damrosch Harlem Rag m, tom Turpin Let em All Come w. m. T. W. Connor Louisiana Rag m. Theodore H. Northrup On The Banks Of The Wabash Far Away w. m, Paul Dresser Our Lodgers Such A Nice Young Man w. m. Fred Murray & Laurence Barclay Roustabout Rag m. Paul Sarebresole The Shuffling Coon by J. R. Todd Song Of India m, nikolai Rimsky Korsakov The Stars and Stripes Forever m. John Philip Sousa Syncopated Sandy by Wayburn & Whiting Take Back Your Gold w. m. Monroe H. Rosenfeld Theres A Little Star Shining For You w. m
1897 in science
The year 1897 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. April 30 – J. J. Thomson first describes his discovery of the electron, adolf Erik Nordenskiöld publishes Periplus, An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing Directions in Stockholm. David Hilbert unifies the field of number theory with his treatise Zahlbericht. John Edward Campbell originates the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula for multiplication of exponentials in Lie algebras, raoul Bricard investigates and classifies flexible polyhedra, defining the Bricard octahedron. Henri Brocard begins publication of his book on geometric curves, Notes de Bibliographie des Courbes Géométriques. August 20 – Ronald Ross discovers the malaria Plasmodium in an Anopheles mosquito, october 10 – Chemists working at Bayer AG create a synthetically altered version of salicin which the company names Aspirin. Danish veterinarian Bernhard Bang isolates Brucella abortus as the agent of Brucellosis, epinephrine discovered by John Jacob Abel. L. Emmett Holt publishes the standard textbook The Diseases of Infancy, Émile Durkheim publishes his classic study Le Suicide. June 26 – At the British Fleet Review, Charles Parsons gives a display of the unprecedented speed attainable by his steam turbine-powered Turbinia. August 10 – Rudolf Diesel builds his first working prototype Diesel engine in Augsburg, august 31 – Thomas Edison is granted a patent for the Kinetoscope, a precursor of the movie projector. The Dahlander pole changing motor is patented, maxim develops the muffler in conjunction with the firearm silencer. Copley Medal, Albert von Kölliker Wollaston Medal, Wilfred Hudleston March 24 – Wilhelm Reich, july 20 – Tadeusz Reichstein, Polish-born Nobel Prize-winning chemist. August 12 – Otto Struve, Ukrainian-born astronomer, september 12 – Irène Joliot-Curie, French chemist. November 4 – C. B. van Niel, Dutch-born microbiologist, november 13 – Tilly Edinger, German-born paleoneurologist. December 22 – Vojtěch Jarník, Czech mathematician, january 25 – David Kirkaldy, Scottish-born engineer, pioneer of materials testing. February 19 – Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician, March 3 – John Peirce, American inventor. March 15 – James Joseph Sylvester, English mathematician, may 6 Edward James Stone, English astronomer. May 7 – Abraham Dee Bartlett, English zoologist, august 27 – Eduard von Hofmann, Austrian forensic pathologist
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Jules Rimet was a French football administrator who was the 3rd President of FIFA, serving from 1921 to 1954. He is FIFAs longest-serving president, in office for 33 years and he also served as the president of the French Football Federation from 1919 to 1942. On Rimets initiative, the first FIFA World Cup was held in 1930, the Jules Rimet Trophy was named in his honour. He also founded the French football club Red Star Saint-Ouen, Jules Rimet was born in 1873 in eastern France. His father was a grocer, and the moved to Paris in 1884 when Jules was eleven years old. He became a lawyer, and in 1897 he started a club called Red Star which, due to Rimets ideals. One of the played at the club was football, which was becoming popular. The First World War put Rimets and FIFAs plans on hold, Rimet served in the French Army as an officer and was decorated with a Croix de Guerre. Following the war in 1919, he became President of the French Football Federation, Rimet traveled to Uruguay for the World Cup on SS Conte Verde along with the competing European teams, all the while carrying the trophy in his bag. The following World Cup was held in Italy under the Fascist rule of Benito Mussolini, Rimets efforts in establishing the tournament earned him a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1956. Rimet died in Suresnes, France in 1956, two days after his 83rd birthday, in 2004 he was posthumously made a member of the FIFA Order of Merit, which was collected by his grandson Yves Rimet. He is credited with being the inventor of the World Cup, the original World Cup trophy was named the Jules Rimet Trophy in his honor. It was stolen just prior to the 1966 World Cup in England, brazil won the tournament for the third time at the 1970 World Cup and was awarded the trophy permanently. It was stolen once more in Rio de Janeiro in 1983 and is believed to have melted down by the thieves. The Brazilian Football Confederation had a replica of the trophy made, rumours of the various disappearances of the trophy and its final resting place continue to the present day. A statue of Rimet stands in Theuley in the middle of a penalty box, Rimet was portrayed by Academy Award nominated French actor Gerard Depardieu in the 2014 biographical drama United Passions. Jean-Yves Guillain, La Coupe du monde de football, lœuvre de Jules Rimet, Éditions Amphora,1998 ( Biography portal Jules Rimet at Find a Grave
Red Star F.C.
Red Star Football Club, also known simply as Red Star, is a French association football club founded in Paris in 1897. The club currently play in Ligue 2, as of 2016, Red Star plays its home matches at the Stade Jean-Bouin as their traditional home, Stade Bauer in Saint-Ouen does not meet the necessary requirements of a French second tier stadium. The team is managed by former Sporting Braga assistant coach Rui Almeida, despite the clubs long spell under a semi-pro status, Red Star has a rich history. The club was founded in 1897 under the name Red Star Club Français by French football legend Jules Rimet, Rimet later went on to serve as president of both the French Football Federation and FIFA. The original FIFA World Cup trophy was named in his honour, Red Star is one of the founding members of Ligue 1 and have spent 19 seasons in the first division, the clubs last stint being in 1974–75. In cup competitions, the club has won five Coupe de France titles, Red Star is not a translation, the clubs name in French is Red Star, rather than Étoile Rouge. Red Star Football Club was founded on 21 February 1897 in a Parisian café by Jules Rimet, upon its creation, Rimet installed Jean de Piessac as club president and one of his younger brothers as club secretary. The club was inaugurated on 12 March 1897 after Rimet signed the clubs statutes and sent them to the USFSA. Members of the club were required to pay ₣100 a month to help the club meet its daily quota, Red Star officially joined the USFSA in 1898 and was inserted into the third-tier of the associations football league system. In the clubs infancy, the played in navy blue. However, soon after, Red Star moved to Meudon playing on a terrace overlooking the Seine Valley, midway through the year, de Piessac left his post as club president. Rimet quickly succeeded him and, by 1904, Red Star were playing in the first division of the USFSA league, in 1907, Red Star changed its name to Red Star Amical Club after merging with Amical Football Club. Due to the merger, the club departed Meudon and moved to Grenelle, after three years in Grenelle, the club moved to Saint-Ouen in Seine-Saint-Denis to play in the newly built Stade de Paris. On 25 October 1909, the stadium was inaugurated following a match between Red Star and English club Old Westminsters, the stadium was later renamed to its present name today. With the USFSA becoming disorganised in the early 1900s, Red Star joined the newly created Ligue de Football Association in 1910, in 1912, the club earned its first honour after winning the associations Ligue Nationale. In the same year, the also finished runner-up to Étoile des Deux Lacs in the Trophée de France. In 1919, the French Football Federation was created and months later, from 1920–34, Red Star embarked on a remarkable uprising in which the club won four Coupe de France titles, achieved professional status, and were founding members of the French Division 1. In the ensuing two seasons, Red Star won back-to-back Coupe de France titles, in 1922, the club defeated Stade Rennais UC 2–0 and, in 1923, Red Star beat Cette 4–2 to complete the hat trick
Lomas Athletic Club
Lomas Athletic Club is an Argentine sports club from the Lomas de Zamora district of Greater Buenos Aires. Lomas Athletic has also had a role in field hockey, with the female section being the most winning team in Argentina with 17 Metropolitano championships won. Nevertheless, in 2014 the first team was relegated to the division after playing Italiano. Lomas field hockey compete at tournaments organised by the Buenos Aires Hockey Association. Apart from rugby and hockey, other activities practised at the club are bowls, contract bridge, cricket, golf, swimming, the arrival of English emigrants to Argentina had taken place in the period after Argentinas independence from Spain through the 19th century. When English settled up in a village, they established a club. Following those non-written rules, they founded the Lomas Academy Athletic Club, the founding members were John Cowes, Thomas Dodds and James Gibson. They were assisted by the directors of Lomas Academy School, R. L. Goodfellow, the club changed its name to Lomas Athletic Club two years later. The sports initially practised were cricket, rugby union, association football, golf, Lomas had two different fields, one for cricket and tennis and other for rugby exclusively. In 1892 the club moved to another field located two blocks from the railway station, Lomas acquired a land placed in Arenales and Alberti streets in 1897, where it moved. The club has remained there since then, scottish Professor Alexander Watson Hutton is generally recognised as the father of Argentine football, after having founded the English High School where students formed their own team, Alumni. At the same time, English W. W, hayward, founder of Lomas Academy taught to play football to his students. Those alumni would later form the Lomas Athletic team, the first rugby match played by Lomas was in August 1891 against Quilmes. The match was won by Lomas with a try conversion, which count 2 points by then, on February 21,1893 the Argentine Football Association was created in order to continue the organization of football tournaments. Lomas won the 1893 championship totalizing 15 points in 8 games played, five titles followed that, in 1894,1895,1897 and 1898. Within those years, the Lomas Athletic team won 46 games, the 1895 and 1896 tournaments were the only official championships played by Lomas Academy. Although no records survive, it is believed that the team was dissolved soon after winning the title. In 1899, along with Buenos Aires FC, Belgrano AC and Rosario AC, Lomas became founding member of the River Plate Rugby Championship and that same year the club won the first championship organized by the union
Aston Villa F.C.
Aston Villa Football Club is a professional association football club based in Aston, Birmingham, that plays in the Championship, the second level of English football. Founded in 1874, they have played at their current home ground, Villa Park, Aston Villa were one of the founder members of the Football League in 1888. They were also one of the members of the Premier League in 1992. Aston Villa are one of only five English clubs to be crowned champions of Europe and they have also won the First Division Championship seven times, the FA Cup seven times, the Football League Cup five times, and the UEFA Super Cup once. They have a local rivalry with Birmingham City and the Second City derby between the sides has been played since 1879. The clubs traditional kit colours are claret shirts with sky blue sleeves, white shorts and their traditional badge is of a rampant lion, which was introduced by the clubs Scottish chairman William McGregor in honour of the Royal Standard of Scotland. The club is owned by Recon Group Limited, a company chaired by Chinese businessman Tony Xia. Aston Villa Football Club were formed in March 1874, by members of the Villa Cross Wesleyan Chapel in Handsworth which is now part of Birmingham, the four founders of Aston Villa were Jack Hughes, Frederick Matthews, Walter Price and William Scattergood. Aston Villas first match was against the local Aston Brook St Marys Rugby team, as a condition of the match, the Villa side had to agree to play the first half under Rugby rules and the second half under Association rules. The club won their first FA Cup in 1887 with captain Archie Hunter becoming one of the games first household names. Aston Villa were one of the teams that competed in the inaugural Football League in 1888 with one of the clubs directors. Aston Villa emerged as the most successful English club of the Victorian era, winning no fewer than five League titles, in 1897, the year Villa won The Double, they moved into their present home, the Aston Lower Grounds. Supporters coined the name Villa Park, no official declaration listed the ground as Villa Park. This was largely the result of a defensive record, they conceded 110 goals in 42 games,7 of them coming from Arsenals Ted Drake in an infamous 1–7 defeat at Villa Park. Like all English clubs, Villa lost seven seasons to the Second World War, the team was rebuilt under the guidance of former player Alex Massie for the remainder of the 1940s. The team struggled in the league though and were relegated two seasons later, due in part to complacency. However, under the stewardship of manager Joe Mercer Villa returned to the top-flight in 1960 as Second Division Champions, the following season Aston Villa became the first team to win the Football League Cup. Mercers forced retirement from the club in 1964 signalled a period of deep turmoil, the most successful club in England was struggling to keep pace with changes in the modern game, with Villa being relegated for the third time, under manager Dick Taylor in 1967
Standard Athletic Club
The Standard Athletic Club is a British social club in Paris, created on 1 March 1890, as one of the first football clubs in France. The Standard Athletic Club won the first French football championship in 1894 and it also represented France for the one and only Cricket match in the 1900 Olympics. The Club was founded on 1 March 1890, in the back-room of the Horse shoe bar rue Copernic in the 8th arrondissement, in 1922, the historic decision to ensure a permanent home for the Club led to the purchase of the present grounds in Meudon. During World War II, the Club was taken over and used as a jamming station. Just prior to the Liberation of Paris in 1944, the top storey was blown up. The new clubhouse was inaugurated by HM Queen Elizabeth II in 1957 and 1972, up to the war, the main sporting activities were football, tennis, field hockey, and cricket. The hockey teams played in the national First Division, the swimming pool was opened in 1962, the golf section made its debut in 1979, and the first squash court was built in 1976. A Standard Athletic Club member was the first squash champion of France
Glentoran Football Club is a semi-professional football club that plays in the NIFL Premiership. The club was founded in 1882 and plays its games at the Oval in east Belfast. Club colours are red, green and black, Linfield and Glentoran are nicknamed Belfasts Big Two, as they have traditionally dominated local football in Northern Ireland since the demise of Belfast Celtic. The two play a match on Boxing Day each year, which regularly attracts the largest attendance of the Irish League season. George Best watched Glentoran with his grandfather as a youth, but was rejected by the club for being too small, however, Best did make one appearance for Glentoran, in the clubs centenary match against Manchester United. In 1964–65, Glentoran faced Panathinaikos in the European Cup and drew 2–2 at home, in the following seasons Fairs Cup, they faced Antwerp resulting a 1–0 defeat away and 3–3 draw at home. The Cup-Winners Cup in 1966–67 saw Glentoran draw 1–1 with Rangers in front of a packed Oval before losing the away leg 4–0, Glentorans finest hour came in a European Cup encounter with Benfica in 1967. The tie was played two legs, the first being at the Oval. Glentoran scored a penalty early on and held out for nearly sixty minutes until football great Eusébio equalised, the return tie was at Benficas Estádio da Luz. Part-time Glentoran were expected to crumble under the pressure of the occasion, Benfica advanced to the next round on the away goals rule. Glentoran were the first team to lose out to this rule, in 1967, the club ran the Detroit Cougars football franchise in the United Soccer Association. The two leagues would merge and form the North American Soccer League the following year. In 1973–74, Glentoran reached the quarter-finals of the Cup-Winners Cup and they faced Borussia Mönchengladbach in the quarter-finals and were beaten 2–0 and 5–0. Four seasons later they faced Juventus in a European Cup match and lost 1–0 at home, in 1981–82, Glentoran reached the second round of the European Cup and faced eventual semi-finalists CSKA Sofia. After a 2–0 defeat away, Glentoran went 2–0 up in the leg to force the game into extra time. The final result was 2–1, Glentoran going out 3–2 on aggregate, the 1985 Irish Cup final between the big two saw another famous incident. Glentoran supporters brought a cockerel, the emblem, to the match and a pig, painted in royal blue colour. The two animals stayed on the sidelines for the duration of the match and this run of 5 victories over Linfield in post-war finals which started in 1966 continued until Glentorans defeat in the 2006 final
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club, commonly known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in Gorgie in the west of Edinburgh. It is currently the only Scottish Premiership club in the city, with Edinburgh derby rivals Hibernian playing in the Scottish Championship and Edinburgh City playing in Scottish League Two. Hearts is the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, having formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the citys Royal Mile, Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadium, where home matches have been played since 1886. Their current training facilities are at the nearby Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh, the clubs most successful period was under Tommy Walker from the mid 1950s to mid 1960s. They won seven trophies in this period and were runners up for five others, Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn, Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half lynch pins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side, along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young they set the record for the number of goals scored in that league winning campaign. In doing so became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100. Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most recently in 2012 after a 5–1 win over city-rivals Hibernian, Hearts four Scottish League Cup triumphs were all under Walker, most recently a 1–01962 Scottish League Cup Final victory against Kilmarnock. The most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013 when they lost to St Mirren 3–2, in 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate, the club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of rugby and football as we know it, in December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington. This was the first time that Association rules had seen in Edinburgh. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules, the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the club who went on to form the football club. The club took its name from the Heart of Midlothian jail, by becoming members of the Scottish Association Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time
Bristol City F.C.
Bristol City Football Club is a professional association football club based in Bristol, England. Their ground is Ashton Gate, located in the southwest of the city and they currently play in the Championship, the second tier of English football, after winning League One during the 2014–15 season. In sealing the League One title, Bristol City became only the team to win both the third-tier championship and Football League Trophy double during the same season. Bristol City won the Welsh Cup – despite being an English club – in 1934, in 1907 they finished runners-up in Football League Division One, which is their highest ever final position. In 1909 they lost the FA Cup final to Manchester United, since relegation in 1911, however, they only returned to the top division from 1976 to 1980 and did not contend for any honours then. In 1982, Bristol City became the first English club to three consecutive relegations. With victories in 1986,2003 and 2015, Bristol City are now the most successful team in the Football League Trophy, the clubs nickname is The Robins, and a robin featured on the clubs badge from 1976 to 1994. Official club merchandise, including replica kits, still has a showing a robin. An attempt by the club to alter the badge was abandoned after it was criticised fiercely by fans, the teams main rivals are Bristol Rovers in the Bristol derby and Cardiff City in the Severnside derby, along with other regional teams in the West Country derby. Bristol Citys current manager is Lee Johnson, a former Bristol City player who made 199 appearances for the club. Coincidentally, he is the son of former City manager Gary Johnson, who took City to the Championship play-off final in 2008, where they eventually lost 0–1 to Hull City. The club was founded in 1894 as Bristol South End and changed their name to Bristol City on adopting professionalism three years later when they were admitted into the Southern League. Finishing as runners-up in three of the first four seasons, in 1900 the club amalgamated with local Southern League rivals Bedminster, City joined the Football League in 1901 when they became only the third club south of Birmingham to perform in the competition. Their first game in the Football League was on 7 September 1901 at Bloomfield Road, nicknamed the Bristol Babe at this time, they finished as runners-up in their inaugural First Division campaign. Unfortunately, there was no such award to help them in the Final at the Crystal Palace as Manchester United took the honours 1–0. The 1920s were a time as City bounced between the Second Division and the Southern Section of the Third Division. By the 1930s they had slumped into the division. Harry Dolman became chairman in 1949, a post he would hold for over 30 years, an engineer who had bought out the firm he worked for, he designed the first set of floodlights installed at Ashton Gate in the early 1950s
Juventus Football Club S. p. A. colloquially known as Juve, is a professional Italian association football club based in Turin, Piedmont. The clubs fan base is larger than any other Italian football club and is one of the largest worldwide, support for Juventus is widespread throughout the country and abroad, mainly in countries with a significant presence of Italian immigrants. Juventus is the most successful club in Italian football and one of the most awarded globally, Juventus were founded as Sport-Club Juventus in late 1897 by pupils from the Massimo DAzeglio Lyceum school in Turin, but were renamed as Foot-Ball Club Juventus two years later. The club joined the Italian Football Championship during 1900, during this period the team wore a pink and black kit. Juventus first won the championship in 1905 while playing at their Velodrome Umberto I ground. By this time the colours had changed to black and white stripes. There was a split at the club in 1906, after some of the staff considered moving Juve out of Turin, President Alfred Dick was unhappy with this and left with some prominent players to found FBC Torino which in turn spawned the Derby della Mole. Juventus spent much of this period steadily rebuilding after the split, fiat owner Edoardo Agnelli gained control of the club in 1923, and built a new stadium. This helped the club to its second scudetto in the 1925–26 season beating Alba Roma with a score of 12–1. With star players such as Raimundo Orsi, Luigi Bertolini, Giovanni Ferrari, Juventus moved to the Stadio Comunale, but for the rest of the 1930s and the majority of the 1940s they were unable to recapture championship dominance. After the Second World War, Gianni Agnelli was appointed honorary president, the club added two more league championships to its name in the 1949–50 and 1951–52 seasons, the latter of which was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver. Two new strikers were signed during 1957–58, Welshman John Charles and Italo-Argentine Omar Sívori and that season saw Juventus awarded with the Golden Star for Sport Excellence to wear on their shirts after becoming the first Italian side to win ten league titles. In the same season, Sívori became the first ever player at the club to win the European Footballer of the Year, the following season they beat Fiorentina to complete their first league and cup double, winning Serie A and Coppa Italia. Boniperti retired in 1961 as the top scorer at the club, with 182 goals in all competitions. During the rest of the decade, the won the league just once more in 1966–67, The 1970s, however. Under former player Čestmír Vycpálek, they won the scudetto in 1971–72 and 1972–73, with such as Roberto Bettega, Franco Causio. During the rest of the decade, they won the league twice more, the Trapattoni era was highly successful in the 1980s, the club started the decade off well, winning the league title three more times by 1984. This meant Juventus had won 20 Italian league titles and were allowed to add a golden star to their shirt
Northampton Town F.C.
Northampton Town Football Club /nɔːrˈθæmptən ˈtaʊn/ is a professional association football club based in the town of Northampton, Northamptonshire, England. The team play in League One, the tier of English football. They hold the record for the shortest time taken to be promoted from the tier to the top tier. Northampton were formed in 1897, after meetings between the town’s schoolteachers and local solicitor A. J. They play their games at the 7,724 capacity all-seater Sixfields Stadium, having moved in 1994 from the County Ground which they shared with the owners. The club’s main rivals are Peterborough United, a rivalry which has endured since the 1960s, other recent rivals include Rushden & Diamonds and Oxford United. The clubs colours have traditionally been claret and white, the club nickname is The Cobblers, a reference to the towns historical shoe-making industry. In 1919–20, the first season after the war, Town conceded a club record 103 goals, nonetheless, the club was allowed to join the Football League for the following season, in Division Three. 1922–23 saw the club become a company and 8,000 shares were released at £1. The season produced a record crowd of 18,123 against Plymouth on Boxing day, 1923–24 started with the club raising £5,000 to build a stand with a players tunnel underneath and also improved terracing in the Hotel End. The following season saw the formation of the supporters club, in 1925 the clubs first foreign transfer took place as William Shaw was signed from Barcelona. A new ground record was set for the F. A, Cup third-round replay with Sunderland,21,148 turned up to see the Cobblers lose 3–0. However, disaster occurred at the County Ground during December 1929, only one stand was saved although this was charred. The source of the fire was thought to be in the dressing room. By August 1930, the stands were rebuilt, in 1932–33, the club created history when brothers Fred and Albert Dawes both scored in an 8–0 win over Newport County. The latter finished the season scoring 32 league goals and even scored all four in a 4–0 win over the Netherlands national football team while the club was on tour. Cup fifth round was reached for the first time courtesy of a round win away to Huddersfield Town who. The Cobblers lost to Preston North End 4–0 at Deepdale, setting a new record of 40,180
Scotland national football team
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. It competes in the two professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship. Scotland, as a constituent country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee, the majority of Scotlands home matches are played at the national stadium, Hampden Park. Scotland is the joint oldest national team in the world, alongside England. Scotland has a rivalry with England, whom they played annually from 1872 until 1989. The teams have met six times since then, most recently in November 2016. Scotland have qualified for the FIFA World Cup on eight occasions and the UEFA European Championship twice, the team have achieved some noteworthy results, such as beating the 1966 FIFA World Cup winners England 3–2 at Wembley Stadium in 1967. Archie Gemmill scored what has been described as one of the greatest World Cup goals ever in a 3–2 win during the 1978 World Cup against the Netherlands, in their qualifying group for UEFA Euro 2008, Scotland defeated 2006 World Cup runners-up France 1–0 in both fixtures. Scotland supporters are known as the Tartan Army. The Scottish Football Association operates a roll of honour for every player who has more than 50 appearances for Scotland. Kenny Dalglish holds the record for Scotland appearances, having played 102 times between 1971 and 1986, Dalglish scored 30 goals for Scotland and shares the record for most goals scored with Denis Law. Scotland and England are the oldest national teams in the world. Teams representing the two sides first competed at the Oval in five matches between 1870 and 1872, the two countries contested the first official international football match, at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, Scotland, on 30 November 1872. The match ended in a goalless draw, all eleven players who represented Scotland that day played for Glasgow amateur club Queens Park. Over the next forty years, Scotland played matches exclusively against the other three Home Nations—England, Wales and Ireland, the British Home Championship began in 1883, making these games competitive. The encounters against England were particularly fierce and a rivalry quickly developed, Scotland lost just two of their first 43 international matches. It was not until a 2–0 home defeat by Ireland in 1903 that Scotland lost a match to an other than England. This run of success meant that Scotland would have topped the Elo ratings
Professionalism in association football
Association football is the worlds most popular sport, and is worth US$600 billion worldwide. By the end of the 20th century it was played by over 250 million players in over 200 countries, Football has the highest global television audience in sport. The sport had amateur origins and evolved into the professional competition. Association football was first codified in 1863, with the formation of the Football Association in England, at this time the sport was played mainly by public schools, or teams with public school roots, and amateurism was the norm. This remained the case until the 1880s, when teams began to vie for supremacy. Blackburn Olympic, a team composed mainly of workers, won the 1883 FA Cup Final. They were the first working-class team to win the competition since its inception in 1870, though professionalism was not permitted, Olympic arranged jobs for their players, and supplemented their income with additional payments, a common occurrence among Lancashire clubs. The differences between the amateur idealists from southern England and the increasingly professionalised teams from northern industrial towns came to a head in 1884. After Preston North End won an FA Cup match against Upton Park and this sparked a series of events which threatened to split the FA. Preston withdrew from the competition, and fellow Lancashire clubs Burnley, eighteen months later the FA relented, and in July 1885 professionalism was formally legalised in England. Though English clubs employed professionals, the Scottish Football Association continued to forbid the practice, consequently, many Scottish players migrated southward. At first the FA put residential restrictions in place to prevent this, in the inaugural season of the Football League, champions Preston North End fielded ten Scottish professionals. The Scottish FA lifted its ban on professionalism in 1893, whereupon 560 players were registered as professionals and this table details the year in which professionalism was introduced, country by country. See also Professional sports#Association football The Rise of the Professional Footballer
Geography of association football
The following article gives a list of association football confederations, sub-confederations and associations around the world. The sports international governing body is FIFA, but those not affiliated to FIFA are also included in this article. In the Americas, leagues are organised as either multi-stage tournaments or separate Apertura and Clausura stages. The football associations listed in this section are members of FIFA-affiliated confederations, all UEFA associations are affiliated with FIFA. All CONMEBOL associations are affiliated with FIFA, the football associations in this section represent fully or partially recognized sovereign states or dependent territories, but are not part of FIFA or a FIFA confederation. Beneath the national level, governance of football may be divided up into regional or territorial associations, other non-national associations represent stateless populations, diasporas or micronations. Details of these are listed at non-FIFA international football