This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

1899 Carrabelle hurricane

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
1899 Carrabelle hurricane
Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Hurricane Two analysis 31 Jul 1899.png
Surface weather analysis map of Hurricane Two on July 31, 1899
Formed July 28, 1899 (1899-07-28)
Dissipated August 2, 1899 (1899-08-03)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 100 mph (155 km/h)
Lowest pressure 979 mbar (hPa); 28.91 inHg
Fatalities 9 direct[nb 1] (15 missing)
Damage $1 million (1899 USD)
Areas affected Dominican Republic, Florida
Part of the 1899 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1899 Carrabelle hurricane caused significant damage in the Dominican Republic and the Florida Panhandle, the second tropical cyclone and second hurricane of the 1899 Atlantic hurricane season, the storm was first observed south of the Dominican Republic on July 28, 1899. Shortly thereafter, it made landfall in Azua Province, Dominican Republic with an intensity equivalent to a Category 1 hurricane on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Early on July 29, the system weakened to a tropical storm, shortly before emerging into the Atlantic Ocean. It then moved west-northwestward and remained at the same intensity for the next 24 hours. The storm made landfall near Islamorada, Florida on July 30. It then brushed Southwest Florida before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico, the storm began to re-intensify on July 31 and became a hurricane later that day. Early on August 1, it peaked with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h), several hours before making landfall near Apalachicola, Florida at the same intensity. The storm quickly weakened inland and dissipated over Alabama on August 2.

In the Dominican Republic, three large schooners were wrecked at Santo Domingo; only one crew member on the three vessels survived. "Great" damage was reported along coastal sections of the country while a loss of telegraph service impacted most of interior areas. In Florida, damage in the city of Carrabelle was extensive, where only nine houses remained. Losses in the city reached approximately $100,000 (1899 USD).[nb 2] At least 57 shipping vessels were destroyed; damage from these ships collectively totaled about $375,000. Additionally, 13 lumber vessels were beached. Many boats at the harbor and the wharfs in Lanark were wrecked; large portions of stores and pavilions in the city were damaged. The towns of Curtis Mill and McIntyre were completely destroyed, while the resort city of St. Teresa suffered significant damage. Overall, seven deaths were confirmed in Florida and losses in the state reached at least $1 million.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A "violent hurricane" was first observed near the south coast of Hispaniola at 1200 UTC on July 27.[1] Within the next six hours, the storm made landfall in Azua Province, Dominican Republic with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) – equivalent to a Category 1 hurricane on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Early on July 28, it weakened to tropical storm while moving northwestward across northern Haiti. A few hours later, the storm emerged into the Atlantic near Port-de-Paix, the system maintained intensity for over 24 hours as it moved northwestward and parallel to the north coast of Cuba. At 1000 UTC on July 30, the storm made landfall in Islamorada, Florida on Upper Matecumbe Key with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). It weakened slightly and then moved just offshore or struck the mainland portion of Monroe County, Florida. Early on July 31, the storm began to re-strengthen while entering the eastern Gulf of Mexico.[2]

HURDAT – the North Atlantic hurricane database – indicated that the system re-intensified into a hurricane at 1200 UTC on July 31. Further deepening occurred, with the storm becoming a Category 2 hurricane early on August 1. Later that day, the hurricane made landfall between Carrabelle and Eastpoint, Florida with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h).[2] Reports at landfall indicate that the storm was small, spanning a diameter of only 40 miles (64 km).[1] At 1800 UTC on August 1 – about an hour after it moved inland – a weather station measured the storm's minimum barometric pressure of 979 mbar (28.9 inHg). Early on August 2, it weakened to a tropical storm and then a tropical depression several hours later. Shortly thereafter, it dissipating over southern Alabama.[2]

Impact[edit]

Ships wrecked at Dog Island in Florida

News reports indicate that a "violent" hurricane struck the Dominican Republic on July 28. Three large schooners were wrecked at Santo Domingo; only one crew member on the three vessels survived. "Great" damage was reported along coastal sections of the country, while a loss of telegraph service impacted most of interior areas.[1]

Due to "somewhat threatening" weather conditions on July 30 and July 31, advisories were issued to stations across Florida, warning of the potential for strong winds. As a result, 40 vessels, coasting schooners, and spongers remained at port in Cedar Key. According to the displayman at Cedar Key, "they [the ships and sailors] would have sailed and some would have been lost" had they not received warnings.[3]

The destroyed Railroad building in Carrabelle, Florida

At the time of the storm, it was described as "the most disastrous cyclone that ever visited this section of Florida".[4] Losses from the storm in Florida reached at least $1 million. The city of Carrabelle was devastated as only nine houses in the city remained. According to the mayor, about 200 families were left homeless. The New York Times stated that, "Carrabelle is literally wiped from the map." Losses in the city reached approximately $100,000. One fatality occurred in Carrabelle when a house collapsed on a woman; numerous other people in the area sustained injuries.[4] At least 57 shipping vessels were destroyed, including 14 barques, 40 small boats, and 3 pilot boats.[1] Losses for these ships collectively totaled about $375,000, at the Chattahoochee, then known as River Junction, a mass meeting of citizens was held on August 4 to collect money for the victims of the storm in Carrabelle.[4]

Additionally, 13 lumber vessels were beached. A 30-mile (48 km) portion of the Carrabelle, Tallahassee and Georgia Railroad was washed away. A passenger train was blown over 100 yards from the track, injuring many passengers. Many boats at the harbor and the wharfs in Lanark were wrecked, the local summer resort of Lanark Inn was blown into the Gulf of Mexico. Large portions of stores and pavilions in the city were damaged, at McIntyre, virtually the entire town was destroyed, except for only two mill boilers. The city of Curtis Mill was completely destroyed. Additionally, the resort city of St. Teresa suffered significant damage. A total of fifteen ships either destroyed or beached at Dog Island, including the Benjamin C. Cromwell and James A. Garfield. At least 15 people were reported missing. Six drowning deaths were confirmed in association with this storm.[1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ It is likely that there were more than 9 fatalities associated with this storm, as reports from Santo Domingo state, "only one crew member on the three vessels survived".[1]
  2. ^ All damage figures are in 1899 USD, unless otherwise noted

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Jose F. Partagas (1996). Year 1899 (PDF). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 41 and 42. Retrieved May 22, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". Hurricane Research Division (Database). Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center. April 11, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2018. 
  3. ^ A. J. Mitchell (August 1899). The Carrabelle, Fla., Storm of August 1–2, 1899 (PDF) (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. 348. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c "Destruction In Florida". River Junction, Florida: The New York Times. August 5, 1899. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 

External links[edit]