Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
2000 U.S. Open (golf)
The 2000 United States Open Championship was the 100th U. S. Open Championship, held June 15–18 at Pebble Beach Golf Links in Pebble Beach, California. As the United States Golf Association wanted to begin the millennium with a memorable tournament, Pebble Beach was moved up two years in the rotation. Notable golfers going into the tournament at large included Jack Nicklaus, playing in his final U. S. Open, Vijay Singh, the years Masters winner, as well as Ernie Els, and David Duval. The defending champion, Payne Stewart, died in an aviation accident less than eight months earlier and his death was commemorated many times throughout the week, starting with a group of players simultaneously teeing off from the 18th fairway into the Pacific in a twist on the 21-gun salute. Sergio García wore Stewarts trademark navy plus fours in Stewarts honor in the first round. Nicklaus was asked to take Stewarts spot in the grouping, for the first two rounds, of the prior years British Open winner, U. S. Amateur winner.
Thursday, June 15, 2000Friday, June 16,2000 Players who started early took advantage of the conditions before dense fog came in. The second hole proved difficult for many golfers, USGA officials changed the hole from a par-5 to a par-4. Tiger Woods, with a starting time, fired a six-under 65 to take the first round lead. 75 golfers were unable to complete their rounds due to fog, June 16, 2000Saturday, June 17,2000 Weather conditions made the course extremely difficult for scoring. Tiger Woods, seemed almost impervious to the conditions and continued to make birdies to stretch his lead. On the 6th hole, Woods fired a now famous approach to reach the par-5 in two shots, ripping an iron from deep rough over the ocean and a cypress tree and he would two-putt for birdie, would birdie the 7th and 11th holes. With darkness settling in, Woods and his partners decided to attempt to play the 12th hole. Woods made the most of it, sinking a 30-foot putt for birdie, Woods played indifferent golf after returning on Saturday and would settle for a two-under par 69.
Still, with the scoring average so difficult, he increased his lead to six shots, Wilson, Barnes, Lile, McLuen. Saturday, June 17,2000 The 36-hole cut was 149, the low number was attributed to the fact that the cut is the top 60 players and ties, plus anyone within 10 strokes of the leader. Only 17 players were within 10 strokes of Tiger Woods, conditions on Saturday were brutal for scoring, with the wind blowing hard and the rough difficult to manage. Woods, after finishing his 2nd round 69, made a bogey on the third hole but multiple birdies eventually put him back at even par for the round
Joseph Joe Lloyd was an English professional golfer who won the third U. S. Open at the Chicago Golf Club in 1897. Lloyd grew up playing at Royal Liverpool Golf Club at Hoylake and he was an expert at making and repairing clubs. He was the first golf professional in France, being hired in 1883 at the Pau Golf Club in Pau, France, by Englishmen spending their winters there. One of those Englishmen was John Cumming Macdona, a member at Hoylake and Pau, the General, as Lloyd was popularly known, left Hayling after two seasons. From 1895 to 1909 Lloyd spent his summers as the professional at the Essex County Club, in Manchester, Massachusetts. Lloyd retired from the Pau Golf Club in 1925, Lloyd played in the 1896 U. S. Open, and lead at the halfway point, but finished tied for 7th place 6 strokes behind. Lloyd was known as a capable of extremely long drives and was considered to be one of the longest hitters in his day. In the 1897 tournament, he was trailing entering the final round and he hit a long drive at the 465-yard 18th hole, following by a wonderful brassie shot to within 8 feet of the pin.
He proceeded to sink the putt for an eagle 3 on the hole that gave him a one-stroke victory over Willie Anderson. No golfer since has won the Open with an eagle on the final hole, Lloyd played in only the U. S. Open and The Open Championship. NYF = Tournament not yet founded DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew T indicates a tie for a place Green background for wins, yellow background for top-10 Golfika page on Joe Lloyd U. S. Open 1897 page
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
James Foulis was a Scottish-American professional golfer who won the second U. S. Open in 1896. He finished tied for third in the inaugural 1895 U. S. Open held at Newport Golf Club in Newport, Foulis was born at the Home of Golf, St Andrews in Scotland, on 22 August 1871. His father was foreman at Old Tom Morriss golf shop and clubmaking business, in 1895 he travelled to the United States to take up a job as golf professional at Chicago Golf Club, which was the first club in the United States to have an 18-hole course. He was the first golf professional in the western States, Foulis was one of the eleven players who took part in the first U. S. Open in 1895, and he came third. The following year he won the tournament at Shinnecock Hills Golf Club on Long Island and he was representing the Chicago Golf Club and he won $200. The following year the Open was played at Fouliss home club, the most notable aspect of his game was his driving, it is said that he often drove over three hundred yards using the relatively primitive clubs of his day.
He continued to compete in the U. S. Open until 1911, Jim Foulis and his brother David ran a golf shop at the Chicago Golf Club, and played a significant part in the evolution of golf equipment. They invented the bramble patterning for Coburn Haskells new rubber-cored ball, in response to the demands of the new ball they developed the mashie-niblick, the modern 7-iron, which fell between the traditional mashie and niblick, and patented the design. Jim Foulis worked as a course designer from 1896 until his death. Foulis had four brothers, all of whom moved to the United States. All five brothers are buried in Wheaton Cemetery, adjacent to Chicago Golf Club and his nephew, son of brother David, a professional golfer, won the 1933 St. Paul Open. Foulis died on 3 March 1928 and he is remembered as the winner of the 1896 U. S. Open. He finished third in the 1895 U. S. Open and was an inventor of golf equipment, Foulis played only in the U. S. Open. DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew T indicates a tie for a place Green background for wins, yellow background for top-10 James Foulis at Find a Grave Feature Interview with Jim Healey
Willie Smith (golfer)
Willie Smith was a Scottish golfer. He won the 1899 U. S. Open, willie Smith was born in Dundee, Scotland on 8 October 1876. He learned to golf in Carnoustie. His brothers Alex and Macdonald were expert golfers, while working as a professional at the Midlothian Country Club, near Chicago he won the fifth staging of the U. S. Open in 1899, which was played at the Baltimore Country Club, Roland Park Course. He won by a margin of eleven shots, which wasnt bettered until Tiger Woods won the 2000 championship by fifteen shots, opens in total, and made the top-10 in eight of them, but he did not win again. In 1899, Smith won the first Western Open in a playoff against Laurie Auchterlonie and he won the 1900 California State Open. In 1904, Smith moved to Mexico City to become the golf pro at the Mexico City Country Club and he was injured during the Mexican Revolution. He had refused to leave his post at the club and was found trapped under a fallen beam after Emiliano Zapatas troops ransacked the club which they saw as a symbol of the corrupt ruling class.
He died of pneumonia on 26 December 1916 and his body was returned to Scotland for burial in the family plot. Smith played in only the U. S. Open and The Open Championship, DNP = Did not play WD = withdrew T indicates a tie for a place Green background for wins. Yellow background for top-10 Article on early Scottish golfers in the U. S
William Herbert Bert Way was an English professional golfer and golf course designer. Way placed tied for second in the 1899 U. S. Open, held 14–15 September 1899, at Baltimore Country Club in Baltimore, Way designed a number of golf courses, the best known being the South Course at Firestone Country Club in Akron, Ohio. Way was born in Bideford, England, to Richard Way and he had four brothers and two sisters. Way was Willie Dunn, Jr. s apprentice at North Devon and his wife Caroline emigrated to the United States in 1896 and both became naturalized American citizens. In the 1899 U. S. Open, held 14–15 September 1899 at Baltimore Country Club, Way played excellent golf and he finished in a tie for second place with George Low and Val Fitzjohn and took home $125 as his share of the purse. Way designed the Euclid Golf Club in Cleveland Heights, Ohio, in 1901, the Euclid Golf Allotment, known as the Euclid Golf Historic District, is a historic district. Roughly bounded by Cedar Road, Coventry Road, West Street, James Parkway, and Ardleigh Drive, the historic district is built on land formerly owned by John D.
Rockefeller and at one time leased to the Euclid Golf Club for its back nine holes. Note, This list may be incomplete, Way died on 11 August 1963 in Miami, Florida. In 1978, he was inducted into the Greater Cleveland Sports Hall of Fame
Alex Campbell (golfer)
Alexander Campbell was a Scottish professional golfer and golf course architect of the late 19th and early 20th century. In total, Campbell had five finishes in major championships. Alex/Alec Nipper Campbell was born in Scotland on 28 November 1876 and he had five brothers who became golf professionals. He was a course architect, designing the Moraine Country Club. In 1913, at The Country Club, he played a match against Wilfrid Reid upon the Englishmans arrival in Boston to play in the 1913 U. S. Open. During his 20-year career at The Country Club, he was involved in the development of caddy Francis Ouimet as a player, Campbell finished in eighth place in the 1901 U. S. Open at Myopia Hunt Club. Willie Anderson won his first of four U. S. Open titles in a playoff over Alex Smith, Campbell had rounds of 84-91-82-82=339—the high second round 91 being detrimental to this overall scoring—however he finished strongly and won $25 as his share of the purse. In the 1905 U. S. Open held September 21–22,1905, at Myopia Hunt Club, Willie Anderson won his third consecutive U. S.
Open title, Campbell finished in sixth place, carding rounds of 82-76-80-81=319, and won $70. Campbells best finish in the U. S. Open was third in the 1907 U. S. Open, held June 20–21,1907, at Philadelphia Cricket Club in Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. Alex Ross posted four sub-80 rounds to win his first U. S. Open title by two strokes over Gilbert Nicholls, Campbell played consistently good golf, posting rounds of 78-74-78-75=305, and won $100. The 1912 U. S. Open was the 18th U. S. Open, the golf tournament was held August 1–2,1912, at the Country Club of Buffalo, which is now Grover Cleveland Golf Course. 20-year-old John McDermott successfully defended his U. S. Open title with a victory over Tom McNamara. Campbell fired rounds of 74-77-80-71=302, finishing 8 strokes behind the winner, Campbell died at his home on 16 December 1942 in Dayton, Ohio. He had suffered from a heart ailment for some time and he is interred in the Woodland Cemetery and Arboretum. Note, Campbell never played in the Masters Tournament or The Open Championship, NT = No tournament R32, R16, QF, SF = Round in which player lost in PGA Championship match play T indicates a tie for a place.
= unknown Yellow background for top-10
United States Golf Association
The United States Golf Association is the United States national association of golf courses and facilities and the governing body of golf for the U. S. and Mexico. Together with The R&A, the USGA produces and interprets the rules of golf, the USGA provides a national handicap system for golfers, conducts 13 national championships, including the U. S. Open, U. S. Womens Open and U. S. Senior Open, and tests golf equipment for conformity with regulations, in addition, the USGA is a leader in turfgrass research through its Green Section and it provides hundreds of grants to grass-roots programs through its Foundation in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The USGA Foundation has provided more than $60 million in grants to programs for underprivileged youth and it is the largest contributor to The First Tee program. The USGA is currently led by Executive Director Mike Davis, and President Thomas J. OToole Jr. and is headquartered at Golf House in Far Hills, the Bob Jones Award is the highest honor given by the United States Golf Association in recognition of distinguished sportsmanship in golf.
The inaugural award was given in 1955, the USGA was originally formed in 1894 to resolve the question of a national amateur championship. Earlier that year, the Newport Country Club and Saint Andrews Golf Club, New York and that autumn, delegates from Newport, St. On December 22,1894, the Amateur Golf Association of the United States was officially formed, theodore Havemeyer was the first president, and the U. S. Amateur trophy is named in his honor. The first U. S. Amateur was held in 1895 at the Newport Country Club, the first U. S. Open was held the following day, almost as an afterthought. It was not until 1898 that the two events were held at separate clubs, the USGA administers 13 separate national championships, ten of which are expressly for amateurs. The USGA gradually expanded its membership from the five clubs. There were 267 club members in 1910, and 1,138 clubs by 1932, membership fell off during the Great Depression and World War II, but recovered by 1947. By 1980 there were over 5,000 clubs, and today membership exceeds 9,700.
On September 17,1956, Ann Gregory began competing in the U. S. Womens Amateur Championship, the USGA organizes or co-organizes the following competitions, An open golf championship is one which both professionals and amateurs may enter. In practice, such events are won by professionals nowadays. The two leading opens in the U. S. are, U. S. Open – no age or gender restrictions, established in 1895, it is the second-oldest of the four major championships. U. S. Womens Open – females, no age restrictions, established in 1946 and administered by the USGA since 1953, it is the oldest of the five womens majors. The last win by an amateur at the U. S. Open was 84 years ago in 1933, the USGA conducts the U. S
Henry Harry Gullane was a Scottish professional golfer. Gullane finished in place in the 1899 U. S. Open, held 14–15 September 1899, at Baltimore Country Club in Baltimore. Henry Gullane was born on 19 May 1874 at 4 Market Place, North Berwick, Scotland, to James Gullane, a fisherman and his brother Andrew were granted their professional tickets on the West Links in April 1893. Gullane played in the Open Championship at Muirfield in 1896 and this was the last Open that Old Tom Morris played in at the age of 75. Gullane emigrated to America, sailing from Liverpool on the SS Rhynland of the Red Star Line, in 1898 he was appointed assistant pro and greenkeeper at the Philadelphia Country Club, where he held the course record of 77 strokes. Gullane won the first professional tournament in the Philadelphia area. There were ten entries and the club provided a lunch for the contestants. They played the course four times each day to make it a 72-hole tournament. He had the score of 319 while Willie Anderson finished twelve strokes back in second place and Jimmy Campbell completed the North Berwick trio.
The purse totaled $150 and the winner received $100 and his best finish in the U. S. Open Championship was eighth place at Baltimore Country Club in 1899 when he received $25 in prize money. The day before the championship they held a driving contest and Gullane finished second with a drive of 264 yards 2 feet 9 inches, Willie Hoare had the winning drive which was 269 yards 7 feet 6 inches. The big drives were long by 19th century standards as the ball was still in use at that time. In 1900 Gullane was the professional at the Philadelphia Cricket Club, in April that year he partnered Willie Thompson of the Huntingdon Valley Country Club in an exhibition match against Harry Vardon at the Philadelphia Cricket Club. It was reported in The New York Times that Gullane outdrove Vardon by 10 to 15 yards, Gullane entered the 1900 U. S. Open from Pittsburgh where he laid out the course for Pittsburgh Golf Club. Gullane was the first pro to be appointed to the nine-hole St. Davids Golf Club in Wayne and he supervised the extension of that course to 18 holes which was completed in April 1899.
Also that year Gullane laid out a course at West Chester Golf and Country Club. In 1899 Gullane set a new record at Cape May Golf Club. In 1908 The American Golfer magazine compiled a composite golf course taken from the best 18 holes in the USA, among them were the 7th and 16th holes at St. Davids, laid out by Gullane and the only course to have two holes featured
George Low Sr.
George Anderson Low, Sr. was a Scottish-American professional golfer. Low finished tied for place in the 1899 U. S. Open championship. In total, he had five finishes in the U. S. Open. He won the Metropolitan Open in 1906 and the Florida Open three times, Low was born in Carnoustie, Scotland, in 1874. He learned the trade of golf club maker in the workshop of Archie Simpson in Carnoustie and he lived in Aberdeen, for a time and honed his considerable golf skills while living there. He won $125 for his sterling performance, in 1900, Low accompanied Harry Vardon for a portion of his American exhibition tour. That same year, Low finished sixth in the 1900 U. S. Open, Low won the Metropolitan Open in 1906 and the Florida Open three times. In 1906 Low was appointed as the first president of the Eastern Professional Golfers Association and he advertised his business regularly in the golf magazines. In addition to his skill as a maker, Low was a superb player. As of 1915 he had tied his own record of 3-under-par 71 on the par 74 Baltusrol course no less than a dozen times.
That same year he placed seventh in the 1915 U. S. Open held on his course at Baltusrol. Lows biggest challenge as a club maker occurred in March 1909 when Baltusrols original clubhouse burned down, lows repair shop was saved, but some 400 sets of members clubs were destroyed. In those days there were no standardized sets of clubs, Low must have suffered the tortures of the damned as he responded to each replacement order, and he must have earned a pretty penny as he did so. But, as one newspaper observed, Low suffered large losses to his own account in the fire so that what he made in sales was partially offset by his losses in the fire, in 1921, Low taught the game of golf to champion boxer Jack Dempsey. Dempsey thought golf was good training for his boxing career, Dempsey discovered the game quite by accident. In 1920 while on the coast he had occasion to see several professionals in action and he immediately became interested and decided to try his hand at the Scottish pastime, but he soon found that hitting the little white pill was much harder than it appeared to be.
Among the pros Dempsey met were George Low, the popular Baltusrol club player and Tommy Kerrigan, each pro invited Dempsey to play over their course when he came east. Since Dempsey played a round daily, and he intended to play one round a day, or as often as possible, until he started strenuous training, three weeks before the time of his next fight