18 Mile House, California
18 Mile House began as a travelers' rest stop.
|This Kern County, California-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
18 Mile House began as a travelers' rest stop.
|This Kern County, California-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Kern County, California – Kern County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 839,631, Kern County comprises the Bakersfield, CA Metropolitan statistical area. The county spans the end of the Central Valley. Its northernmost city is Delano and its southern reach expands just beyond Lebec to the Grapevine, the countys economy is heavily linked to agriculture and to petroleum extraction. There is also an aviation, space, and military presence, such as Edwards Air Force Base, the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station. It is one of the fastest growing areas in the United States in terms of population growth, and suffers from significant water supply issues and poor air quality. The area was claimed by the Spanish in 1769, and in 1772 Commander Don Pedro Fages became the first European to enter it, in the beginning, the area that became Kern County was dominated by mining in the mountains and in the desert. The south of Tulare County was later organized as Kern County in 1866, with additions from Los Angeles and its first county seat was in the mining town of Havilah, in the mountains between Bakersfield and Tehachapi. The flatlands were considered inhospitable and impassable at the due to swamps, lakes, tule reeds. This changed when settlers started draining lands for farming and constructing canals, within 10 years the valley surpassed the mining areas as the economic center of the county, and the county seat was moved as a result from Havilah to Bakersfield in 1874. The discovery well of the Kern River Oil Field was dug by hand in 1899, soon the towns of Oil City, Oil Center and Oildale came into existence. The county derives its name from the Kern River, which was named for Edward Kern, frémonts 1845 expedition, which crossed Walker Pass. The Kern River was originally named Rio Bravo de San Felipe by Father Francisco Garces when he explored the area in 1776, severe earthquakes have struck Kern County within historical times, including the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. On July 21,1952, an earthquake occurred with the epicenter about 23 miles south of Bakersfield and it measured 7.3 on the moment magnitude scale and killed 12 people. In addition to the deaths, it was responsible for hundreds of injuries, the main shock was felt over much of California and as far away as Phoenix, Arizona and Reno, Nevada. The earthquake occurred on the White Wolf Fault and was the strongest to occur in California since the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Tehachapi suffered the greatest damage and loss of life from the earthquake, though its effects were widely felt throughout central and southern California. Ground disturbances that were created by the earthquakes were also surveyed, the details of these false accusations are covered extensively in the 2008 documentary Witch Hunt, narrated by Sean Penn. Kern county is considered to be a hotbed of country music, the Buck Owens Crystal Palace is located in Bakersfield
2. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
3. International Standard Book Number – The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
4. County seat – A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Canada, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name. Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, Mississippi, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont, Massachusetts, and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town. Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county
5. Bakersfield, California – Bakersfield is a city in California, United States, and the county seat of Kern County. It covers about 142 square miles near the end of the San Joaquin Valley. Bakersfields population is approximately 365,000, making it the ninth-most populous city in California, the Bakersfield–Delano Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Kern County, had a 2010 census population of 839,631, making it the 62nd largest metropolitan area in the United States. The more built-up urban area that includes Bakersfield and areas immediately around the city, such as East Bakersfield, the city is a significant hub for both agriculture and oil production. Kern County is the most productive oil producing county, and the fourth most productive county in the United States. Industries include natural gas and other energy extraction, aerospace, mining, petroleum refining, manufacturing, distribution, food processing, the city is also the birthplace of the country music genre known as the Bakersfield sound. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of Native American settlements dating back thousands of years, the Yokuts lived in lodges along the branches of the Kern River Delta and hunted antelope, tule elk, deer, bear, fish, and game birds. In 1776, Spanish missionary Father Francisco Garcés became the first European to explore the area, following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, settlers flooded into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1851, gold was discovered along the Kern River in the southern Sierra Nevada, the Bakersfield area, once a tule-reed-covered marshland, was first known as Kern Island to the handful of pioneers who built log cabins there in 1860. The area was subject to flooding from the Kern River, which occupied what is now the downtown area. In 1862, disastrous floods swept away the original settlement founded in 1860 by the German-born Christian Bohna, among those attracted to the area by the California gold rush was Thomas Baker, a lawyer and former colonel in the militia of Ohio, his home state. Baker moved to the banks of the Kern River in 1863, at what became known as Bakers Field, by 1870, with a population of 600, what is now known as Bakersfield was becoming the principal town in Kern County. In 1873, Bakersfield was officially incorporated as a city, alexander Mills was hired as the city marshal, a man one historian would describe as. An old man by the time he became Marshal of Bakersfield, but he was a Kentuckian, a handy man with a gun, and not lacking in initiative and resource when the mood moved him. Businessmen and others began to resent Mills, who was cantankerous, wanting to fire him but fearing reprisals, they came up with a scheme to disincorporate, effectively leaving him without an employer. According to local historian Gilbert Gia, the city was also failing to collect the taxes it needed for services, in 1876, the city voted to disincorporate. For the next 22 years, a citizens council managed the community, by 1880, the town had a population of 801, and by 1890, it had a population of 2,626. Migration from Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Southern California brought new residents, the city reincorporated on January 11,1898
6. Arvin, California – Arvin is a city in Kern County, California. Arvin is located 15 miles southeast of Bakersfield, at an elevation of 449 feet, as of the 2010 census, the population was 19,304, up from 12,956 at the 2000 census. In 2007, the United States Environmental Protection Agency listed Arvin as having the highest levels of smog of any community in the United States. The citys level of ozone, smogs primary component, exceeded the EPAs acceptable limits an average of 73 days per year between 2004 and 2006, wired telephone numbers in Arvin follow the format 854-xxxx or 855-xxxx and the ZIP Code is 93203. Property sales of lots in present-day Arvin began in 1906, the Arvin Post Office was established in 1914 and the community incorporated as a city in 1960. The city was named after Arvin Richardson, who was the son of one of the settling families from San Bernardino. Birdie Heard petitioned for the addition of the post office in 1914 and submitted proposed names including Bear Mountain, Walnut, officials in Washington D. C. chose Arvin as it was the only proposed name which was not already in use in California. Birdie was the citys first postmaster and she set up the post office in her living room originally, but it was later moved to the general store owned by the Staples family. The in-store post office was also the areas first informal library until a branch of the Kern County Library system was established in 1927. The Mountain View Oil Field, which underlies the town and much of the area, was discovered in 1933. Many oil wells still surround the town, some are slant-drilled to reach formations directly underneath inhabited areas, the Arvin Tiller started publication in 1939 and Arvin High School was built in 1949. The city was destroyed on July 21,1952 during the M7.3 Kern County earthquake. Arvin suffered further damage on December 20,1977, when a hit the area. Roosevelt to respond to the Great Depression and this agricultural camp was considered a model, and was built by the Resettlement Administration. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 4.9 square miles. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Arvin has a semi-arid climate, the economy of Arvin is primarily based on agriculture, and as such the employment statistics show seasonal variation. In March 2011,41.9 percent of Arvins residents were out of work, the 2010 United States Census reported that Arvin had a population of 19,304. The population density was 4,005.5 people per square mile
7. California City, California – California City is a city incorporated in 1965 in the northern Antelope Valley in Kern County, California,65 miles southwest of Death Valley National Park. The population was 14,120 at the 2010 census making California City the 331st largest city in the state by population, covering 203.631 square miles, the city is the third largest city in the state by area. California City has a PGA golf course, one prison, one airport, and is home to the California City Whiptails. Much of the workforce of Edwards Air Force Base, which is located just to the south of the city, is made up of city residents, the area where California City now exists was largely uninhabited prior to the 1960s. In the late 19th century, the Twenty Mule Team Trail and he designed his model city, which he hoped would one day rival Los Angeles in size, around a Central Park with a 26-acre artificial lake. Growth fell well short of his expectations, today, a vast grid of crumbling paved roads which define residential blocks, extend well beyond the developed area of the city. Satellite photos underscore its claim to being Californias 3rd largest geographic city, California City was incorporated on December 10,1965. This could be considered an example of a planned city. Although areas of California City have not developed as expected, California City has grown from 3,200 people in 1985 to over 14,000 in 2009, the first post office opened in 1960. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 203.6 square miles. Although one of Californias smaller cities in terms of population, California City is the third largest city in California by land area. According to the census of 2000, there were 8,385 people,3,067 households, as of 2006 the citys population grew 8. 9% from 12,106 to 13,219. California City outpaced rivals Palmdale and Lancaster, making the city the 12th fastest growing city in California and this also made California City the fastest growing city in the Antelope Valley. The population density was 41.2 inhabitants per square mile, there were 3,560 housing units at an average density of 17. 5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 68. 19% White,12. 82% Black or African American,1. 56% Native American,3. 73% Asian,0. 32% Pacific Islander,7. 43% from other races, and 5. 94% from two or more races. 16. 96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,21. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was out with 30. 7% under the age of 18,7. 3% from 18 to 24,27. 7% from 25 to 44,23. 5% from 45 to 64
8. Delano, California – Delano is a city in Kern County, California, United States. Delano is located 31 miles north-northwest of Bakersfield at an elevation of 315 feet, the population was 62,088 in 2016, up from 38,824 in 2000. It is Kern Countys second largest city after Bakersfield, the area is particularly well known as a center for the growing of table grapes. Delano is also home to two California state prisons, North Kern State Prison and Kern Valley State Prison, the Voice of America once operated its largest, most powerful shortwave broadcast facility outside Delano at 35°45′15″N 119°17′7″W. However, the Voice of America ceased broadcasts in October 2007, citing a changing mission, reduced budgets. Delanos two school districts currently operate eight schools, three middle schools, three comprehensive high schools and two alternative high schools. The city has its own department and contracts with the Kern County Fire Department for fire services, EMS services are privately provided by local company. Delano was founded on July 14,1869 as a town, not because the railroad passed through the town but because the railroad coming down from San Francisco. The name was given by the Southern Pacific Railroad in honor of Columbus Delano. The first post office opened in 1874, the town naturally started with a boom. Great loads of bullion were delivered here from the mines in the mountains, Delano became the northern terminus for the passenger stages that ran south to Bakersfield and Los Angeles. The fare from Bakersfield to Delano was $7.00 a trip, Delano was a major hub of farmworker organization efforts and Chicano movement politics. Filipino immigrants Philip Vera Cruz and Larry Dulay Itliong were instrumental in shaping the direction of farm worker movement in the 1950s, the strikers goal was to improve farmworkers wages and working conditions. The National Farm Workers Association, a largely Hispanic union led by Cesar Chavez, during the strike, the two groups joined forces and formed the United Farm Workers of America. By 1970, the UFW won a contract with major grape growers across California, Delano is also known as The Town because of the many towns folk that roam there. Major farm employers in Delano include Wonderful Citrus, Columbine Vineyards, Munger Farms, Lucich Farms, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles, over 99% of which is land. Delanos climate is characteristic of the San Joaquin Valley, the weather is hot and dry during the summer and cool and damp in winter. Frequent winter ground fog known regionally as tule fog can obscure vision, record temperatures range between 115 °F and 14 °F. Delano is located within a desert climatic zone, receiving 7.51 in of rainfall annually
9. Maricopa, California – Maricopa is a city in Kern County, California. Maricopa is located 6.5 miles south-southeast of Taft, at an elevation of 883 feet, the population was 1,154 at the 2010 census, up from 1,111 at the 2000 census. Maricopa lies at the junction of Route 166 and Route 33, the Carrizo Plain is located to the northwest, and the enormous Midway-Sunset Oil Field, the third largest oil field in the United States, is adjacent on the north and east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 1.5 square miles. The climate of the area is hot and semi-arid, with summertime temperatures routinely exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit, freezes occur in the winter, with the mean period without freezes being about 275 days. About six inches of rain falls annually in Maricopa, the first post office opened in 1901. The city was named after the Maricopa Indians, the 2010 United States Census reported that Maricopa had a population of 1,154. The population density was 768.4 people per square mile, the racial makeup of Maricopa was 958 White,1 African American,27 Native American,16 Asian,2 Pacific Islander,112 from other races, and 38 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 232 persons, the Census reported that 1,154 people lived in households,0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 were institutionalized. There were 50 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2 same-sex married couples or partnerships,91 households were made up of individuals and 33 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79, there were 291 families, the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 39.4 years, for every 100 females there were 101.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.4 males, there were 466 housing units at an average density of 310.3 per square mile, of which 268 were owner-occupied, and 146 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1. 8%, the vacancy rate was 9. 8%. 704 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 450 people lived in housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,111 people,404 households, the population density was 739.7 people per square mile. There were 460 housing units at a density of 306.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85. 87% White,1. 98% Native American,0. 45% Asian,8. 91% from other races,13. 50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race