The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China began on November 8, 2012 at the Great Hall of the People. It was preceded by the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Due to term and age limits restrictions, seven of the nine members of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee retired during the Congress, including Hu Jintao, replaced by Xi Jinping as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China; the Congress elected the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, saw the number of Politburo Standing Committee seats reduced from nine to seven. It was succeeded by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China; the seven PSC members elected during the Congress were Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Zhang Dejiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, Wang Qishan and Zhang Gaoli. Five of these were identified as associates or having benefited from the patronage of former Communist Party leader Jiang Zemin, who exerted considerable influence in shaping the composition of the new Standing Committee.
Only Li Keqiang and Liu Yunshan are considered to be members of the tuanpai. Some 2,270 delegates selected from 40 constituencies attended the Congress; this represented an increase of 57 delegates and two constituencies from the 17th Congress. 31 of these constituencies represent China's province-level jurisdictions. Six other delegations represented Taiwan, the People's Liberation Army, Central Party organizations, Central Government Ministries and Commissions, State Owned Enterprises, Central Banks and Financial Institutions; the remaining three delegations are the subject of conflicting accounts. Hong Kong and Macau may represent two delegations or one delegation or they may be treated as part of the Guangdong delegation. Other delegations that have been identified by various sources include the Peoples Armed Police, units involved in “social management”, the public service sector, workers in private enterprises, workers in foreign and joint enterprises. No more than 68% of the delegates may hold leadership positions within the party.
The remaining 32% will be "grassroots" party members who hold jobs outside of the party apparatus. The number of females increased from the previous congress; each delegation will be selected in an election in which there are at least 15% more candidates than there are delegates to be selected. The candidates in these elections are vetted by multiple party organs. In addition to these 2,270 delegates, an uncertain number of additional delegates retired veteran Communist leaders, will be selected. At the 17th National Congress there were 57 such delegates; the Congress ratified changes to the Constitution of the Communist Party of China. The Scientific Outlook on Development of the Hu Jintao era was listed next to Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, Three Represents as a "guiding ideology" of the party,'upgraded' from an ideology to "follow and implement" when it was written into the constitution in 2007; the Scientific Outlook on Development was said to be the "latest product Marxism being adopted in the Chinese context," and the result of the "collective wisdom of the party membership."The affirmation of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics as a "system" was written into the party constitution for the first time.
The "construction of ecological civilization" as a major goal of the party was written into the party constitution, an extension from the previous version of the constitution which included economic, political and social realms. It was speculated that Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang would succeed Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao as top Politburo Standing Committee members by November 2012, take over the Presidency and Premiership in March 2013 at the National People's Congress. Since 2002, all Standing Committee members had retired if they were 68 or older at the time of a party congress; as a result of this unspoken convention, it was expected that all other members of the outgoing standing committee would have to retire at the 18th Congress. About 70% of the members of the Central Military Commission and the executive committee of the State Council would turn over in 2012; the Congress marked the most significant leadership transition in decades. Chinese politics prior to the 18th National Congress trended towards "collective leadership", where the paramount leader had to share power with his circle of senior leaders in the Politburo Standing Committee the Premier.
Thus the paramount leader was not expected to have the same amount of power accorded to it during the era of Mao and Deng. The practice of governing through consensus within the Politburo Standing Committee became the norm following the 16th Party Congress in 2002. During that Congress, the size of the Standing Committee was increased from seven members to nine, with Luo Gan and Li Changchun being added to handle the law enforcement and propaganda portfolios, respectively. However, these two factors led to inefficiencies in the decision-making process. In order to improve the efficacy of the Standing Committee, the 18th Party Congress was expected to end in a return to a smaller, seven-member committee; the propaganda and public security portfolios were expected to be downgraded to the level of the Politburo. Apart from the pre-ordained selection of Xi and Li for its top two positions, intense speculation mounted over who else might join the standing committee. Two unexpected events upset the care
Virginia Dare was the first English child born in a New World English possession. What became of Virginia and the other colonists remains a mystery; the fact of her birth is known because John White, Virginia's grandfather and the governor of the colony, returned to England in 1587 to seek fresh supplies. When White returned three years the colonists were gone. During the past four hundred years, Virginia Dare has become a prominent figure in American myth and folklore, symbolizing different things to different groups of people, she has been featured as a main character in books, songs, comic books, television programs, films. Her name has been used to sell different types of goods, from vanilla products to soft drinks, as well as wine and spirits. Many places in North Carolina and elsewhere in the Southern United States have been named in her honor. Virginia Dare was born in the Roanoke Colony in what is now North Carolina in August 1587, the first child of English parents born in the New World.
"Elenora, daughter to the governor of the city and wife to Ananias Dare, one of the assistants, was delivered of a daughter in Roanoke". Little is known of the lives of either of her parents, her mother Eleanor was born in London around 1563, was the daughter of John White, the governor of the ill-fated Roanoke Colony. Eleanor married Ananias Dare, a London tiler and bricklayer, at St Bride's Church on Fleet Street in the City of London. He, was part of the Roanoke expedition. Virginia Dare was one of two infants born to the colonists in 1587 and the only female child born to the settlers. Nothing else is known of Virginia Dare's life. Virginia's grandfather John White sailed for England for fresh supplies at the end of 1587, having established his colony, he was unable to return to Roanoke until August 18, 1590 due to England's war with Spain and the pressing need for ships to defend against the Spanish Armada—by which time he found that the settlement had been long deserted. The buildings had collapsed and "the houses taken down".
Worse, White was unable to find any trace of his daughter or granddaughter, or indeed any of the 80 men, 17 women, 11 children who made up the "Lost Colony". Nothing is known for certain of the fate of her fellow colonists. Governor White found no sign of a battle; the only clue to the colonists' fate was the word "Croatoan" carved into a post of the fort, the letters "Cro" carved into a nearby tree. All the houses and fortifications had been dismantled, suggesting that their departure had not been hurried. Before he had left the colony, White had instructed them that, if anything happened to them, they should carve a Maltese cross on a tree nearby, indicating that their disappearance had been forced. There was no cross, White took this to mean that they had moved to Croatoan Island, but he was unable to conduct a search. There are a number of theories regarding the fate of the colonists, the most accepted one being that they sought shelter with local Indian tribes, either intermarried with the natives or were killed.
In 1607, John Smith and other members of the successful Jamestown Colony sought information about the fate of the Roanoke colonists. One report indicated that the survivors had taken refuge with friendly Chesapeake Indians, but Chief Powhatan claimed that his tribe had attacked the group and killed most of the colonists. Powhatan showed Smith certain artifacts that he said had belonged to the colonists, including a musket barrel and a brass mortar and pestle. However, no archaeological evidence exists to support this claim; the Jamestown Colony received reports of some survivors of the Lost Colony and sent out search parties, but none were successful. They determined that they were all dead. William Strachey, a secretary of the Jamestown Colony, wrote in The History of Travel into Virginia Britannia in 1612 that there were two-story houses with stone walls at the Indian settlements of Peccarecanick and Ochanahoen; the Indians learned how to build them from the Roanoke settlers. There were reported sightings of European captives at various Indian settlements during the same time period.
Strachey wrote that four English men, two boys, one maid had been sighted at the Eno settlement of Ritanoc, under the protection of a chief called Eyanoco. The captives were forced to beat copper; the captives, he reported, had escaped the attack on the other colonists and fled up the Chaonoke river, the present-day Chowan River in Bertie County, North Carolina. Virginia Dare has become a prominent figure in American myth and folklore in the more than four hundred years since her birth, representing different things to different people. A 2000 article in the Piedmont Triad News and Record noted that she symbolizes innocence and purity for many Americans, "new beginnings and hope" as well as "adventure and bravery" in a new land, she symbolizes mystery because of her mysterious fate. For some residents of North Carolina, she has been an important symbol of the state and the desire to keep it predominantly European-American. In the 1920s, a group that opposed suffrage for women feared. One group in Raleigh, North Carolina urged "that North Carolina remain white... in the name of Virginia Dare".
Today, Virginia Dare's name is used for the VDARE website, associated with white supremacy, white nationalism, the alt-right. Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia describes VDARE as "one of the most prolific anti-immigration media outlets in the United States" and sta
The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds. Sitta europaea Sitta nagaensis Sitta cashmirensis Sitta castanea Sitta himalayensis Sitta victoriae Sitta pygmaea Sitta pusilla Sitta whiteheadi Sitta ledanti Sitta krueperi Sitta villosa Sitta yunnanensis Sitta canadensis Sitta leucopsis Sitta carolinensis Sitta neumayer Sitta tephronota Sitta frontalis Sitta solangiae Sitta oenochlamys Sitta azurea Sitta magna Sitta formosa Tichodroma muraria Certhia familiaris Certhia tianquanensis Certhia americana Certhia brachydactyla Certhia himalayana Certhia nipalensis Certhia discolor Salpornis spilonotus Donacobius atricapillus Campylorhynchus gularis Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus Campylorhynchus jocosus Campylorhynchus yucatanicus Campylorhynchus chiapensis Campylorhynchus griseus Campylorhynchus rufinucha Campylorhynchus turdinus Campylorhynchus megalopterus Campylorhynchus zonatus Campylorhynchus albobrunneus Campylorhynchus nuchalis Campylorhynchus fasciatus Odontorchilus branickii Odontorchilus cinereus Salpinctes obsoletus Catherpes mexicanus Hylorchilus sumichrasti Cinnycerthia unirufa Cinnycerthia peruana Cistothorus platensis Cistothorus apolinari Cistothorus meridae Cistothorus palustris Thryomanes bewickii Thryomanes sissonii Ferminia cerverai Thryothorus atrogularis Thryothorus spadix Thryothorus fasciatoventris Thryothorus euophrys Thryothorus eisenmanni Thryothorus mystacalis Thryothorus genibarbis Thryothorus coraya Thryothorus felix Thryothorus maculipectus Thryothorus rutilus Thryothorus sclateri Thryothorus semibadius Thryothorus nigricapillus Thryothorus thoracicus Thryothorus leucopogon Thryothorus pleurostictus Thryothorus ludovicianus Thryothorus rufalbus Thryothorus nicefori Thryothorus sinaloa Thryothorus modestus Thryothorus leucotis Thryothorus superciliaris Thryothorus guarayanus Thryothorus longirostris Thryothorus griseus Troglodytes troglodytes Troglodytes aedon Troglodytes tanneri Troglodytes rufociliatus Troglodytes ochraceus Troglodytes monticola Troglodytes solstitialis Troglodytes rufulus Thryorchilus browni Uropsila leucogastra Henicorhina leucosticta Henicorhina leucophrys Henicorhina leucoptera Henicorhina negreti Microcerculus philomela Microcerculus marginatus Microcerculus ustulatus Microcerculus bambla Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus Cyphorhinus thoracicus Cyphorhinus aradus Auriparus flaviceps Microbates collaris Microbates cinereiventris Ramphocaenus melanurus Polioptila caerulea Polioptila californica Polioptila melanura Polioptila lembeyei Polioptila nigriceps Polioptila albiloris Polioptila plumbea Polioptila lactea Polioptila guianensis Polioptila schistaceigula Polioptila dumicola Remiz pendulinus Remiz coronatus Remiz consobrinus Anthoscopus punctifrons Anthoscopus parvulus Anthoscopus musculus Anthoscopus flavifrons Anthoscopus caroli Anthoscopus sylviella Anthoscopus minutus Cephalopyrus flammiceps Pholidornis rushiae Parus palustris Parus lugubris Parus montanus Parus carolinensis Parus atricapillus Parus gambeli Parus