Adams Morgan is a culturally diverse neighborhood in Northwest Washington, D. C. centered at the intersection of 18th Street and Columbia Road. Much of the neighborhood is composed of 19th- and early 20th-century row houses, adjacent to Adams Morgan is Dupont Circle to the south, Kalorama-Sheridan to the southwest, Mount Pleasant to the north, and Columbia Heights to the east. The neighborhood is bounded by Connecticut Avenue to the southwest, Rock Creek Park to the west, Harvard Street to the north, 16th Street to the east, pursuant to the 1954 Bolling v. Sharpe Supreme Court ruling, District schools were desegregated in 1955. The Adams-Morgan Community Council, comprising both Adams and Morgan schools and the neighborhoods they served, was formed in 1958, throughout the 20th century, the Adams Morgan community has also stood on behalf of social justice, political activism, and inclusive, progressive values. The development was named the Marie H. Reed Learning Center after Bishop Reed and it featured a daycare center, tennis and basketball courts, a solar-heated swimming pool, health clinic, athletic field and outdoor chess tables. From 2010 to 2012, one of the main commercial corridors, 18th Street NW, was reconstructed with wider sidewalks, more crosswalks. As part of the all of the mature trees on the street were cut down. Along with its adjacent sister communities to the north and east, Mount Pleasant and Columbia Heights, since the 1960s, the predominant international presence in both communities has been Latino, with the majority of immigrants coming from El Salvador, Guatemala and other Central American countries. Since the early 1970s, like areas of the nation, Adams Morgan had seen a growing influx of immigrants from Africa, Asia. Adams Morgan also has become a spot for night life, with a number of bars. Over 90 establishments possess liquor licenses, putting it on level with other popular nightlife areas like Georgetown, the moratorium was renewed in 2004, but eased to allow new restaurant licenses. Adjacent Mt. Pleasant also hosts a number of enterprises, social service agencies. Another barometer of the pull of Adams Morgan for immigrants is the linguistic. Many of the families served live beyond the established for routine student enrollment, however, Adams, Reed. Cooke elementary schools all have populations, with children from well over 30 nations in attendance. Latino and African-American children comprise the majority of students in the public schools, the second Sunday of September, the neighborhood hosts the Adams Morgan Day Festival, a multicultural street celebration with live music and food and crafts booths. In the 1960s, the attractions included the Avignon Freres bakery and restaurant, the Café Don restaurant, the Ontario motion picture theater. In the 1980s, Hazels featured live blues and jazz and its soul food offerings made it a favorite of black jazz musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie when they came to town
Strivers' Section Historic District
The Strivers Section is a historic district located in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Northwest Washington, D. C. Strivers Section was historically an enclave of upper-middle-class African Americans, often community leaders, in the late 19th and it takes its name from a turn-of-the-20th-century writer who described the district as the Strivers section, a community of Negro aristocracy. The name echoes that of Strivers Row in Harlem, a New York City historic neighborhood of black professionals, the area was envisioned as part of the capital city by Pierre Charles L’Enfants 1791 plan, by 1852, plans were drawn up for 11 squares subdivided by streets. But the rural landscape remained largely uninhabited until the half of the century. Development began in the 1870s, encouraged by a streetcar line along nearby 14th Street. Early residents including working-class people and professionals, African Americans, but the area became most strongly identified with the African American elites who were attracted by public transit and the nearby Howard University. The area includes some 430 buildings constructed between 1875 and 1946 that are contributing properties to the historic district, among its most notable residents was Frederick Douglass, runaway slave, abolitionist, orator, writer, and civil servant. Douglass built the three buildings of a five-house, Second Empire-style row located at 2000–2008 17th Street in 1875–76. Douglass son inherited the houses and lived at 2002 17th Street from 1877 until his death in 1908, other notable residents have included, Calvin Brent, the late-19th-century architect lived on V Street. Recorder of Deeds in 1904-10, also lived in the area, james E. Storum, the educator and entrepreneur who founded the Capital Savings Bank, the first African American-owned banking institution in the nations capital, lived at 2004 17th Street. Prominent figures who lived within a few blocks of the district boundaries include, Langston Hughes, Harlem Renaissance poet, novelist, essayist. Charles Hamilton Houston, dean of Howard Universitys Law School, lived at 1744 S Street, georgia Douglas Johnson, author and poet of the Harlem Renaissance, lived at 1461 S Street, NW. African American neighborhood National Register of Historic Places listings in the District of Columbia
A street is a public thoroughfare in a built environment. It is a parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact. A street can be as simple as a patch of dirt. Portions may also be smoothed with asphalt, embedded with rails, originally the word street simply meant a paved road. Examples of streets include pedestrian streets, alleys, and city-centre streets too crowded for road vehicles to pass, conversely, highways and motorways are types of roads, but few would refer to them as streets. The word street has its origins in the Latin strata, it is related to stratum. Ancient Greek stratos means army, Greeks originally built roads to move their armies, old English applied the word to Roman roads in Britain such as Ermine Street, Watling Street, etc. Later it acquired a meaning of straggling village, which were often laid out on the verges of Roman roads. In the Middle Ages, a road was a way people travelled, the street is a public easement, one of the few shared between all sorts of people. As a component of the environment as ancient as human habitation. Its roles are as numerous and diverse as its ever-changing cast of characters, streets can be loosely categorized as main streets and side streets. Main streets are usually broad with a high level of activity. Commerce and public interaction are more visible on main streets, side streets are quieter, often residential in use and character, and may be used for vehicular parking. Circulation, or less broadly, transportation, is perhaps a streets most visible use, the unrestricted movement of people and goods within a city is essential to its commerce and vitality, and streets provide the physical space for this activity. In the interest of order and efficiency, an effort may be made to different types of traffic. Le Corbusier, for one, perceived an ever-stricter segregation of traffic as an affirmation of social order—a desirable. To this end, proposals were advanced to build vertical streets where vehicles, pedestrians. Such an arrangement, it was said, would allow for denser development in the future
Quadrants of Washington, D.C.
Street and number addressing, centered on the Capitol, radiates out into each of the quadrants, producing a number of intersections of identically named cross-streets in each quadrant. Originally, the District of Columbia was a near-perfect square, however, even then the Capitol was never located at the geographic center of the territory. As a result, the quadrants are of varying size. Northwest is quite large, encompassing over a third of the geographical area, while Southwest is little more than a neighborhood. The boundaries of the quadrants are not straight lines radiating from the medallion, but follow the paths of the streets, North Capitol Street, South Capitol Street. The National Mall spans the boundary west of the medallion. Northwest is located north of the National Mall and west of North Capitol Street, the very large Rock Creek Park divides the northwest quadrant in two. Northeast is located north of East Capitol Street and east of North Capitol Street, Southeast is located south of East Capitol Street and east of South Capitol Street. Southeast D. C. is noted for its crime rate. Elizabeths Hospital, RFK Stadium, Nationals Park, and the Congressional Cemetery, the quadrant is divided by the Anacostia River, with the portion that is west of the river sometimes referred to as Near Southeast and the portion east of the river is known as River East. Many people falsely call the entire portion of the quadrant Anacostia. Southwest is located south of the National Mall and west of South Capitol Street and is the smallest quadrant of the city, fort McNair and the National War College are also there
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, However, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
The LEnfant Plan for the city of Washington is the urban plan developed in 1791 by Major Pierre Charles LEnfant for George Washington, the first President of the United States. Major LEnfant was a French engineer who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, in 1789, when discussions were underway regarding a new federal capital city for the United States, LEnfant wrote to President Washington asking to be commissioned to plan the city. However, any decision on the capital was put on hold until July 1790 when Congress passed the Residence Act, included in the new district were the river port towns of Georgetown and Alexandria. LEnfant arrived in Georgetown on March 9,1791, and began his work, Washington arrived later on March 28, to meet with LEnfant and the Commissioners for several days. On June 22, LEnfant presented his first plan for the city to the President. On August 19, he appended a new map to a letter that he sent to the President, President Washington retained a copy of one of LEnfants plans, showed it to the Congress, and later gave it to the three Commissioners. In this, they had the support of Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Ellicott, with the aid of his brother, Benjamin Ellicott, then revised the plan, despite LEnfants protests. Ellicotts revisions, which included the straightening of the longer avenues,15, created changes to the citys layout. Andrew Ellicott stated in his letters that, although he was refused the original plan and it is therefore possible that Ellicott recreated the plan. After LEnfant departed, Andrew Ellicott continued the city survey in accordance with the revised plan, as a result, Ellicotts revisions subsequently became the basis for the capital citys development. The work of André Le Nôtre, particularly his Gardens of Versailles, is said to have influenced LEnfant’s master plan for the capital, LEnfants Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of the United States. Encompassed an area bounded by the Potomac River, the Eastern Branch, the base of the escarpment of the Atlantic Seaboard Fall Line and his plan specified locations for two buildings, the Congress House and the Presidents House. The Congress House would be built on Jenkins Hill, which LEnfant described as a pedestal awaiting a monument, the Presidents House would be situated on a ridge parallel to the Potomac River north of the mouth of Tiber Creek, which LEnfant proposed to canalize. LEnfant envisioned the Presidents House to have gardens and monumental architecture. Emphasizing the importance of the new legislature, the Congress House would be located on a longitude designated as 0,0. The plan specified that most streets would be out in a grid. To form the grid, some streets would travel in an east-west direction, diagonal broader avenues, later named after the states of the Union, crossed the north/south-east/west grid. The diagonal avenues intersected with the north-south and east-west streets at circles and rectangular plazas that would later honor notable Americans, a prominent geometric feature of LEnfants plan was a large right triangle whose hypotenuse was a wide avenue connecting the Presidents Houseand the Congress House
Pierre Charles L'Enfant
Pierre Peter Charles LEnfant was a French-born American architect and civil engineer best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D. C. the LEnfant Plan. In 1758, his brother Pierre Joseph died at the age of six and he studied art at the Royal Academy in the Louvre, as well as with his father at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. He left school in France to enlist in the American Revolutionary War on the side of the rebelling colonials, LEnfant was recruited by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais to join in the American Revolutionary War in the American colonies. He arrived in 1777 at the age of 23, and served as an engineer in the Continental Army with Major General Lafayette. He was commissioned as a captain in the Corps of Engineers on April 3,1779 to rank from February 18,1778, despite his aristocratic origins, LEnfant closely identified with the United States, changing his first name from Pierre to Peter. LEnfant served on General George Washingtons staff at Valley Forge, while there, the Marquis de Lafayette commissioned LEnfant to paint a portrait of Washington. He was wounded at the Siege of Savannah on October 9,1779 and he recovered and became a prisoner of war at surrender of Charleston, South Carolina on May 12,1780. He was exchanged in November 1780 and served on General George Washingtons staff for the remainder of the Revolutionary War, LEnfant was promoted by brevet to Major of Engineers on May 2,1783, in recognition of his service to the cause of American liberty. He was discharged when the Continental Army was disbanded in December 1783, after the war, LEnfant designed the badge of the Society of the Cincinnati, an organization of former officers of the Continental Army, shaped as an eagle, at the request of Washington. He was sent to France to have made for members of the Society. Following the American Revolutionary War, LEnfant established a successful and highly profitable civil engineering firm in New York City and he achieved some fame as an architect by redesigning the City Hall in New York for the First Congress of the United States. He also designed furniture and houses for the wealthy as well as coins and medals and he was also a friend of Alexander Hamilton. While LEnfant was in New York City, he was initiated into Freemasonry and his initiation took place on April 17,1789, at Holland Lodge No. 8, F & A M, which the Grand Lodge of New York F & A M had chartered in 1787, LEnfant took only the first of three degrees offered by the Lodge and did not progress further in Freemasonry. Included in the new district were the port towns of Georgetown. LEnfant arrived in Georgetown on March 9,1791, and began his work, Washington arrived later on March 28, to meet with LEnfant and the Commissioners for several days. On June 22, LEnfant presented his first plan for the city to the President. On August 19, he appended a new map to a letter that he sent to the President, President Washington retained a copy of one of LEnfants plans, showed it to the Congress, and later gave it to the three Commissioners
Downtown, Washington, D.C.
Downtown is a neighborhood of Washington, D. C. as well as a colloquial name for the central business district in the northwest quadrant of the city. Geographically, the area extends roughly five to six blocks west, northwest, north, northeast, several important museums, theaters, and a major sports venue are located in the area. A portion of area is known as the Downtown Historic District and was listed on the NRHP in 2001. The boundaries of the Downtown district are irregular and difficult to define, historically, downtown was bounded by Pennsylvania Avenue NW, New York Avenue NW, Massachusetts Avenue NW, and Indiana Avenue NW. This area includes the Penn Quarter, Mount Vernon Square, Chinatown, however, in 2004 Frommers defined downtowns boundaries as 7th Street NW, Pennsylvania Avenue NW, 22nd Street NW, and P Street NW. This definition includes the neighborhoods listed above, as well as Foggy Bottom, West End, Logan Circle, and the lower part of the Dupont Circle neighborhood. This more expansive definition of downtown is due to construction of major new office buildings around Farragut Square, west along K Street NW. Similar construction in the area east of 7th Street to Union Station was, by the mid 2000s, beginning to push the boundary of downtown eastward. Cassidy & Pinkard, a real estate services company, defined downtown in 2004 as extending from P Street NW south to Constitution Avenue NW. This is mostly concurrent with the adopted by Frommers. By the 1990s and continuing into the 2010s, the core of the district was almost exclusively commercial. The area also featured a number of attractions, including museums, 7th Street NW between H and F Streets NW—a short commercial strip known as Gallery Place—has become a major hub of bars, restaurants, theaters, and upscale retail shops. However, even as late as 2010, most of the area tended to be empty of pedestrian foot traffic at night, except for streets immediately around theaters. Downtown D. C. has been adding residents, however, in 1990, the area had about 4,000 residents, but this had increased to 8,449 by 2010. Such increases appear small, but are more significant than they seem because the height restrictions limit population density. The completion of the $950 million CityCenterDC project in late 2013 is estimated to add another 1,000 or more residents, One exception to the low nighttime foot traffic is Gallery Place. Large crowds gather day and night at Gallery Place, especially after sporting events at the Verizon Center. Crime and street brawls in the area skyrocketed in the area, several notable restaurants exist in the downtown district, including Fogo de Chão, Kinkeads, Loebs NY Deli, Old Ebbitt Grill, and Wok n Roll