John Douglas (architect)
John Douglas was an English architect who designed over 500 buildings in Cheshire, North Wales, and northwest England, in particular in the estate of Eaton Hall. He was trained in Lancaster and practised throughout his career from an office in Chester, initially he ran the practice on his own, but from 1884 until two years before his death he worked in partnerships with two of his former assistants. Douglas worked during the period of the Gothic Revival, and many of his works incorporate elements of the English Gothic style and he was influenced by architectural styles from the mainland of Europe and included elements of French and Dutch architecture. However he is probably best remembered for his incorporation of elements in his buildings, in particular half-timbering. Other vernacular elements he incorporated include tile-hanging and the use of brick in diapering. Of particular importance is Douglass use of joinery and highly detailed wood carving, throughout his career he attracted commissions from wealthy landowners and industrialists, especially the Grosvenor family of Eaton Hall.
Most of his works have survived, particularly his churches, the city of Chester contains a number of his structures, the most admired of which are his half-timbered black-and-white buildings and Eastgate Clock. The highest concentration of his work is found in the Eaton Hall estate, John Douglas was born at Park Cottage, Cheshire, on 11 April 1830 and baptised on 16 May 1830 at St Marys Church, Weaverham. He was the second of the four children, and the son, of John Douglas. John Douglas senior was by trade a builder and joiner, and described himself as a surveyor, in 1835 he acted as architect for a house at Hartford, a village between Sandiway and Northwich. At the time of the 1851 census he was employing 48 men and he owned land in Sandiway, and a house and land in the neighbouring village of Cuddington. Nothing is known of John Douglas juniors school education and he gained knowledge and experience in his fathers building yard and workshop which were attached to the family house. In the mid or late 1840s he was articled to E. G.
Paley, of Sharpe and Paley, architects in Lancaster, when his articles were completed, Douglas became Paleys chief assistant. In either 1855 or 1860 he established his own office at No.6 Abbey Square, Douglass elder sister, was born in 1827. His younger sisters were Mary Hannah and Emma, who were born in 1832 and 1834 respectively, Mary Hannah died five months before Emmas birth, and Emma herself died in 1848. Douglas married Elizabeth Edmunds, a daughter from Bangor-is-y-Coed, Flintshire, on 25 January 1860 in St Dunawds Church in the village. Initially the couple lived over the office at 6 Abbey Square and their five children were born in these houses, John Percy in 1861, Colin Edmunds in 1864, Mary Elizabeth in 1866, Sholto Theodore the following year, and Jerome in 1869. Only two of the children survived to adulthood, Mary Elizabeth died from fever in 1868, Jerome lived for only a few days
A voussoir /vuˈswɑːr/ is a wedge-shaped element, typically a stone, used in building an arch or vault. Although each unit in an arch or vault is a voussoir, the keystone is the center stone or masonry unit at the apex of an arch. The springer is the lowest voussoir on each side, located where the curve of the springs from the vertical support or abutment of the wall or pier. The keystone is decorated or enlarged. The word is a term borrowed in Middle English from French verbs connoting a turn. Each wedge-shaped voussoir turns aside the thrust of the mass above, transferring it from stone to stone to the bottom face. Voussoir arches distribute weight efficiently and take advantage of the compressive strength of stone. In Visigothic and Moorish architecture, the voussoirs are often in alternating colors, usually red and this is sometimes found in Romanesque architecture also. The bricks used in such an arch are referred to as voussoirs
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member, the term column applies especially to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal and made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces, other compression members are often termed columns because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, column refers to such an element that has certain proportional. A column might be an element not needed for structural purposes, many columns are engaged. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns, egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres.
Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians and they included double-bull structures in their capitals. The Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 ×70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I, many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. The Minoans used whole tree-trunks, usually turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a set in the stylobate. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos, the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals. These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization, particularly in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their bases have and through these we may see their use. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most easily distinguished by the form of the column and their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders.
Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages. Early columns were constructed of stone, some out of a piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture, other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of stone, mortared or dry-fit together
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
In architecture the frieze /ˈfriːz/ is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on a wall it lies upon the architrave and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze being the most famous and this style is typical for the Persians. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail, by extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels, the material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium. In an example of a frieze on the façade of a building. A pulvinated frieze is convex in section, such friezes were features of 17th-century Northern Mannerism, especially in subsidiary friezes, and much employed in interior architecture and in furniture.
The concept of a frieze has been generalized in the construction of frieze patterns. Media related to Friezes at Wikimedia Commons Frieze
Yale University Press
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University. It was founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day, and became a department of Yale University in 1961. As of 2009, Yale University Press published approximately 300 new hardcover and 150 new paperback books annually and has more than 6,000 books in print and its books have won five National Book Awards, two National Book Critics Circle Awards and eight Pulitzer Prizes. Since its inception in 1919, the Yale Series of Younger Poets Competition has published the first collection of poetry by new poets, the first winner was Howard Buck, the 2011 winner was Katherine Larson. Yale University Press and Yale Repertory Theatre jointly sponsor the Yale Drama Series, the winner of the annual competition is awarded the David C. Horn Prize of $10,000, publication of his/her manuscript by Yale University Press, the Yale Drama Series and David C. Horn Prize are funded by the David Charles Horn Foundation, in 2007, Yale University Press acquired the Anchor Bible Series, a collection of more than 115 volumes of biblical scholarship, from the Doubleday Publishing Group.
New and backlist titles are now published under the Anchor Yale Bible Series name, the Dwight H. Terry Lectureship was established in 1905 to encourage the consideration of religion in the context of modern science and philosophy. Many of the lectures, which are hosted by Yale University, have been edited into book form by the Yale University Press, the Yale Publishing Course was founded in 2010 by former Publishing Director of the Yale University Press, Tina C. It filled the gap created by the closing of the legendary Stanford Publishing Course and it operates under the aegis of the Office of International Affairs of Yale University. The Course trains mid to senior-level publishing professionals to tackle the most compelling issues facing the publishing industry, the curriculum focuses on in-depth analyses of global trends, innovative business models, management strategies, and new advances in technology. Its immersive week-long programs, one devoted to publishing and the other to magazine and digital publishing, combine lectures, discussion groups.
The faculty is made up of leading experts and members of the Yale School of Management, the Yale Library. Participants come from all over the world and represent all areas of publishing within organizations of all sizes and types of publications, in 1963, the Press published a revised edition of Ludwig von Misess Human Action. Official website, including a mission statement Yale University Press, London Yale Publishing Course, New Haven, Connecticut
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner CBE FBA was a German, British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture. He is best known for his 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England, the son of a Russian-Jewish fur haulier, Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, Saxony. He attended the Thomas School and went on to art history at the Universities of Leipzig, Berlin. In 1923, he married Carola Kurlbaum, the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer Alfred Kurlbaum and he worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery. In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft and he taught at the University of Göttingen, offering a specialist course on English art and architecture. According to biographer Stephen Games, Pevsner welcomed many of the economic, due to Nazi race laws he was forced to resign his lectureship in 1933. Later that year he moved to England and his first post was an 18-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and partly funded by the Academic Assistance Council.
He was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles, since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages. The English-language edition has been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design, Pevsner was more German than the Germans to the extent that he supported Goebbels in his drive for pure non-decadent German art. He was reported as saying of the Nazis I want this movement to succeed, there is no alternative but chaos. There are things worse than Hitlerism, nonetheless he was included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. In 1940, Pevsner was interned as an alien in Huyton. He was released three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick, Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, Outline would eventually go into seven editions, be translated into 16 languages, and sell more than half a million copies.
In 1942, Pevsner finally secured two regular positions, from 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J. M. Richards was on active service. Under the ARs influence, Pevsners approach to modern architecture became more complex and he was closely involved with the Reviews proprietor, Hubert de Cronin Hastings, in evolving the magazines theories on Picturesque planning. In 1942, Pevsner was appointed a lecturer at Birkbeck, University of London. He lectured at Cambridge for almost 30 years, having been Slade professor there for a six years from 1949 to 1955
The society is a membership organisation which relies on the public joining to support its charitable work. The Society runs an annual list of the Top Ten Most Endangered Victorian or Edwardian Buildings in England and Wales and has active Facebook, the Twentieth Century Society undertakes a similar protective role for post-1914 buildings and the Georgian Group for those built between 1700 and 1840. The founding of the Society was proposed in November 1957 with the intention of countering the widely prevalent antipathy to 19th, the commonly-held view had been expressed by P. G. The first meeting was held at Linley Sambourne House on 28 February 1958, among its thirty founder members were John Betjeman, Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Nikolaus Pevsner, who became Chairman in 1964. Former Bletchley Park codebreaker, Jane Fawcett, managed the societys affairs as secretary from 1964 to 1976, the society has worked to save numerous landmark buildings such as St Pancras Station, Albert Dock in Liverpool, the Foreign Office and Oxford University Museum.
Its campaigns have not always successful, notably its failed attempts to save the Euston Arch from demolition in 1961. Advises members of the public on how they can shape the future of their local Victorian and Edwardian buildings. Provides information to owners of Victorian and Edwardian houses about how they can look after their buildings. Helps people understand and enjoy the architectural heritage of the Victorian and Edwardian period through its publications, a recent campaign of the Victorian Society has taken on the preservation of Victorian gasometers after utility companies announced plans to demolish nearly 200 of the now outdated structures. Christopher Costelloe, director of the Victorian Society, said in regards to the efforts, Gasometers, by their very size and structure, cannot help. Are singularly dramatic structures for all their emptiness. ”The Victorian Society The Victorian Society, Birmingham & West Midlands Group
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments. The body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983. Historic England has a remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment. Historic England inherits English Heritages position as the UK governments statutory adviser and this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of Englands heritage and publishes the annual the Heritage at Risk survey which is one of the UK Governments Official statistics and it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of buildings, monuments.
In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings, advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of Englands listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, conservation areas and protected parks and this is published as an online resource as The National Heritage List for England. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage, providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources. In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e. g. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings, the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government.
It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites, however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. Britain from Above, presents the unique Aerofilms collection of photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer, Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Polychrome is the practice of decorating architectural elements, etc. in a variety of colors. The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, some very early polychrome pottery has been excavated on Minoan Crete such as at the Bronze Age site of Phaistos. In ancient Greece sculptures were painted in strong colors, the paint was frequently limited to parts depicting clothing, and so on, with the skin left in the natural color of the stone. But it could cover sculptures in their totality, the painting of Greek sculpture should not merely be seen as an enhancement of their sculpted form but has the characteristics of a distinct style of art. On high-quality bronzes like the Riace bronzes, an early example of polychrome decoration was found in the Parthenon atop the Acropolis of Athens. By the time European antiquarianism took off in the 18th century, however, some classicists such as Jacques Ignace Hittorff noticed traces of paint on classical architecture and this slowly came to be accepted.
An example of classical Greek architectural polychrome may be seen in the full size replica of the Parthenon exhibited in Nashville, throughout medieval Europe religious sculptures in wood and other media were often brightly painted or colored, as were the interiors of church buildings. The exteriors of churches were painted as well, but little has survived, exposure to the elements and changing tastes and religious approval over time acted against their preservation. With the arrival of European porcelain in the 18th century, brightly colored pottery figurines with a range of colors became very popular. Polychrome brickwork is a style of brickwork which emerged in the 1860s. It was often used to replicate the effect of quoining and to decorate around windows, early examples featured banding, with examples exhibiting complex diagonal, criss-cross, and step patterns, in some cases even writing using bricks. In the 1970s and 1980s, architects working with bold colors included Robert Venturi, Michael Graves, Polychrome building facades rose in popularity as a way of highlighting certain trim features in Victorian and Queen Anne architecture in the United States.
The rise of the paint industry following the civil war helped to fuel the use of multiple colors. These earned the endearment Painted Ladies, a term that in modern times is considered kitsch when it is applied to describe all Victorian houses that have painted with period colors. John Joseph Earley developed a process of concrete slab construction and ornamentation that was admired across America. In the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, his products graced a variety of buildings — all formed by the staff of the Earley Studio in Rosslyn, earleys Polychrome Historic District houses in Silver Spring, Maryland were built in the mid-1930s. The concrete panels were pre-cast with colorful stones and shipped to the lot for on-site assembly, less well-known, but just as impressive, is the Dr. Fealy Polychrome House that Earley built atop a hill in Southeast Washington, D. C. overlooking the city. His uniquely designed polychrome houses were outstanding among prefabricated houses in the country, appreciated for their Art Deco ornament, the term polychromatic means having several colors