Fitzroy Football Club
The Fitzroy Football Club, nicknamed the Lions or the Roys, is an Australian rules football club formed in 1883 to represent the inner-Melbourne suburb of Fitzroy and was a foundation member club of the Victorian Football League on its inception in 1897. The club experienced some early success in the league and was the first club to win a VFL Grand Final, it achieved a total of eight VFL premierships between 1898 and 1944, more three VAFA promotions in 2009, 2012 and 2018. The club ran into financial difficulties in the 1980s after decades of poor on-field performance and was forced to merge its AFL playing operations with the Brisbane Bears at the end of the 1996 season to form the Brisbane Lions. Despite this, the club survived in its own right and the Fitzroy Football Club Ltd came out of administration in late 1998. For a brief time it experimented in partnerships with other semi professional and amateur clubs before incorporating the Fitzroy Reds to play in the Victorian Amateur Football Association.
Fitzroy resumed its original VFL-AFL identity through its continued use of their 1975–1996 VFL-AFL jumper, their theme song and their 1884–1966 home ground at the Brunswick Street Oval. Fitzroy began in the D1 section of the VAFA in 2009, since the club has achieved multiple promotions and the 2018 premiership to be playing in the Premier B division as of the 2019 season, it is notable for being one of only three clubs to have played in the VFA, VFL/AFL and VAFA competitions of Australian rules football. In 2015 Fitzroy fielded its first women's team under the name of Fitzroy-ACU in partnership with the Australian Catholic University. In 2016, Fitzroy-ACU fielded two women's teams in the Victorian Women's Football League VWFL. From 2017, all Fitzroy teams play in the VAFA with the women playing in the VAFA's inaugural women's competition; the Fitzroy Football Club was formed at a meeting at the Brunswick Hotel on 26 September 1883, at a time when Melbourne's population was increasing. The Victorian Football Association made changes to their rules, allowing Fitzroy to join as the seventh club in 1884, playing in the maroon and blue colours of the local Normanby Junior Football Club.
They became one of the most successful clubs, drawing large crowds to their home at the Brunswick Street Oval in Edinburgh Gardens, in the top four and winning the VFA premiership in 1895. Fitzroy's season-by-season records throughout its thirteen seasons at VFA level are given below.. In 1897, Fitzroy were one of the eight clubs who broke away from the VFA to form the Victorian Football League. Despite winning only four games and finishing sixth in the first season, the Maroons, as they were known, won the premiership the following year, winning the VFL's first "Grand Final" against Essendon. Fitzroy was the most successful club in the first 10 years of the VFL, winning four premierships and finishing runners-up on three occasions. Despite internal problems after the 1906 season which led to the players and set the club back for several seasons, the 1913 team won the flag after winning 16 of 18 matches in the home and away season, earning the nickname "Unbeatables". In contrast, the 1916 Fitzroy team only won 2 home and away matches and finished last in a competition reduced by the effects of World War I to four teams.
All four teams qualified for the finals, Fitzroy won their next three games to win one of the strangest VFL premierships. The Maroons won their seventh premiership in 1922, a year season which included four rough games against eventual runners-up Collingwood. However, after this their fortunes waned, they did not make the finals at all from 1925 to 1942. During this time, highlights for the club were individual achievements of their players Haydn Bunton, Sr. A source of controversy, lured to Fitzroy with an illegal £222 payment, subsequently not allowed to play in the 1930 season, Bunton became one of the game's greatest players, winning three Brownlow Medals while at Fitzroy. Brownlow Medals were won by Wilfred Smallhorn and Dinny Ryan, while Jack Moriarty set many goalkicking records, it was during this time. Football was less affected by World War II than it had been in 1916, by 1944 was starting to return to its normal level, it was in this year, under captain-coach Fred Hughson, that the Gorillas won their eighth VFL flag against Richmond in front of a capacity crowd at Junction Oval.
However, it was to be their last senior premiership, as the club, which became known as the Lions in 1957, entered one of the least successful periods any VFL/AFL club has had. The club finished in the bottom three 11 times in the 1960s and 1970s, including three wooden spoons in four years and going winless in 1964, but still continued to produce great individual players, including Brownlow Medallists Allan Ruthven and Kevin Murray. By the mid 1960s, Fitzroy's traditional home ground, the Brunswick Street Oval was in a state of disrepair. However, the ground managers were the Fitzroy Cricket Club; the Football Club had to pay the Cricket Club to use the ground. Despite pressure from the Lions and other VFL clubs, the Cricket Club refused to make the needed upgrades; the Fitzroy City Council, despite repeated requests from the Football Club refused to help rejecting the idea of a $400,000 loan to Fitzroy Football Club, a 40-year lease of the ground so they could make some repairs. The football club put forward various ideas to try and change the situation, i
Université libre de Bruxelles
The Université Libre de Bruxelles, abbreviated ULB, is a French-speaking private research university in Brussels, Belgium. The Free University of Brussels was established in 1834 by Belgian lawyer Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen and split into the French-speaking ULB and Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel in 1970, it is one of the most important Belgian universities. A major research center open to Europe and the world, it has about 24,200 students, 33% of whom come from abroad, an cosmopolitan staff. In 2018, ULB was globally ranked 175th by 151th by Shanghai Ranking. Brussels has two universities whose names mean Free University of Brussels in English: the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Neither uses the English translation; when the Belgian State was formed in 1830 by nine breakaway provinces from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, it had three state universities, in Ghent, Liège and Leuven, but no university in the new capital, Brussels.
Since the government was reluctant to fund another state university, a group of Freemasons and intellectuals led by Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen and Auguste Baron planned to create a private university, permitted under the Belgian Constitution. After the Catholic Church sponsored the foundation of the Catholic University of Mechlin in 1834, the Université Libre de Belgique opened on 20 November 1834. In 1836, it changed its name to Université Libre de Bruxelles; the school's football team won the bronze medal at the 1900 Summer Olympics. As part of its commitment to academic freedom, the ULB closed down in 1941 rather than collaborate with the Nazi occupation of Belgium. Since 1935, some courses have been taught in both Dutch. Beginning in 1963, all faculties offered courses in both languages. In October 1969, shortly after the language dispute at the Catholic University of Leuven, the French and Dutch entities of the ULB separated into two distinct universities. With the act of 28 May 1970, the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Université Libre de Bruxelles became two separate legal and scientific entities.
November 20, called Saint Verhagen for Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen, is a holiday for students of both the Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The ULB comprises three main campuses: the Solbosch campus, on the territories of Brussels and Ixelles municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region, the Plaine campus in Ixelles, the Erasmus campus in Anderlecht, beside the Erasmus Hospital; the main and largest campus of the university is the Solbosch, which hosts the administration and general services of the university. It includes most of the faculties of the humanities, the École polytechnique, the large library of social sciences, among the museums of the ULB, the Museum of Zoology and Anthropology, the Allende exhibition room and the M. De Ghelderode Museum; the Plaine campus hosts the Faculty of Pharmacy. There are the Experimentariums of physics and chemistry, the Museum of Medicinal Plants and Pharmacy and student housing; this site is served by the metro station: Delta.
The Erasmus campus houses the Erasmus Hospital and the Pôle Santé, the Faculty of Medicine, the School of Public Health and the Faculty of Motor Sciences. There is the School of Nursing, the Museum of Medicine and the Museum of Human Anatomy and Embryology; this site is served by the metro station: Erasmus. The university has buildings and activities in the Brussels municipality of Auderghem, outside of Brussels, in Charleroi on the Aéropole Science Park and Nivelles. Institute for European Studies Interfacultary School of Bio-Engineering School of Public Health High Institute of Physical Education and Kinesiotherapy Institute of Work Sciences Institute of Statistics and Operational Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, Université de Montréal, Waseda University, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, BeiHang University, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Université de Lausanne, Université de Genève, University Ouaga I Pr.
Joseph Ki-Zerbo, University of Lubumbashi Henri La Fontaine: Nobel Prize for Peace in 1913. Jules Bordet: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1919. Albert Claude: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. Ilya Prigogine: Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977. François Englert: Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013. Denis Mukwege: Nobel Prize for Peace in 2018. Aéropole Science Park Atomium Culture BioVallée Institut Jules Bordet Science and technology in Brussels Solvay Business School Top Industrial Managers for Europe University Foundation Vrije Universiteit Brussel Royal Statistical Society of Belgium Despy, A. 150 Ans De L‘Ulb Universite Libre De Bruxelles, Brussels, 1984 Noel, F. 1894 Universite Libre De Bruxelles En Crise, Brussels, 1994 The ULB, a university born of an idea ULB, at a glance Official home page
The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War. Germany began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the part of the decade, continued until World War I; the Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness and segregation that lasted until the 1960s. Franco-Prussian War resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire; the Anglo-Zulu War lasted from 11 January 1879 to 5 July 1879. The Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. Russo-Turkish War In the United States, post-Civil War reconstruction continued until its conclusion under President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1877 The British Empire continued to grow. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire; the Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains.
Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand. The German Empire and Alliance System emerged. Racial and economic politics in America's Reconstruction were bitter and sometimes violent; the Gilded Age began in 1874, lasting until 1896. The First Spanish Republic rises and promptly ends. In 1876 the first Ottoman Constitution is promulgated, starting the First Constitutional Era; the prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. The first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879; the phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. The steam drill is invented in 1879; the 6.35mm headphone jack was invented in 1878 and is still used today. Ludwig Boltzmann statistically defined thermodynamic entropy. 1873 Weltausstellung in Vienna, 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and 1878 Exposition universelle in Paris. Atlas bear became extinct. Yellowstone National Park was established. Jules Verne publishes Around The World in Eighty Days Monet, Renoir and Sisley organized the Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Graveurs for the purpose of exhibiting their artworks independently.
Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, Edgar Degas, were expected to forswear participation in the Salon. The organizers invited a number of other progressive artists to join them in their inaugural exhibition, including the older Eugène Boudin, whose example had first persuaded Monet to take up plein air painting years before. Another painter who influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar; the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would become the longest-living human being with a verified lifespan, she lived until 1997, at the age of 122. She still holds the record as of 2018. Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass. Henrik Ibsen releases A Doll's House in 1879 Emperor Franz Josef Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie Tongzhi Emperor Guangxu Emperor Emperor Wilhelm I Emperor Pedro II of Brazil Chancellor Otto von Bismarck King Victor Emmanuel II King Umberto I Emperor Meiji Pope Pius IX Pope Leo XIII Emperor Alexander II King Alfonso XII Queen Victoria Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli President Ulysses S. Grant President Rutherford B. Hayes Naser al-Din Shah Qajar of Qajar dynasty King Gojong Eugène Borel, Director Universal Postal Union Gustave Moynier, President International Committee of the Red Cross Sam Bass, Wild West, outlaw Charlie Bowdre, Wild West, outlaw/cowboy Richard M. Brewer, Wild West, gunslinger/cowboy, outlaw Crazy Horse, Native American war leader George Armstrong Custer, U. S. Army officer Wyatt Earp, Wild West, lawman E. B.
Farnum, Elected official and one of the first residents of Deadwood, South Dakota "Wild Bill" Hickok, Legendary Wild West, lawman and entertainer Doc Holliday, Legendary Wild West, gunfighter, dentist Frank James, Wild West, outlaw Jesse James, Wild West, outlaw Calamity Jane and professional scout Jack McCall, murderer of "Wild Bill" Hickok Henry McCarty a.k.a. William Bonney a.k.a. Billy the Kid, Wild West, outlaw/cowboy Alexander McSween, Wild West, figure Lawrence Murphy, Wild West, racketeer Tom O'Folliard, Wild West, best friend of Billy the Kid Giovanni Passannante, attempted assassin of Umberto I of Italy Frank Stilwell, Wild West, outlaw/cowboy Al Swearengen and entertainment entrepreneur who ran the Gem Theater, for 22 years during the late 19th century John Tunstall, First man to be killed during the Lincoln County War John Younger, Wild West, outlaw Jim Younger, Wild West, outlaw Cole Younger, Wild West, outlaw 1870s in sociology Gilded Age Long Depression Second Industrial Revolution Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia... for 1870 American Annual Cyclopedia... for 1872 Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia... for 1873 online edition Appleton's Annual C
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Ibrox Stadium is a football stadium on the south side of the River Clyde in the Ibrox district of Glasgow. The home of Rangers F. C. Ibrox is the third largest football stadium in Scotland, with an all-seated capacity of 50,817. Opened as Ibrox Park in 1899, it suffered a disaster in 1902. Vast earthen terraces were built in its place, a main stand, now a listed building, in 1928. A British record crowd of 118,567 gathered in January 1939 for a league match with Celtic. After the Ibrox disaster of 1971, the stadium was rebuilt; the vast bowl-shaped terracing was removed and replaced by three rectangular, all-seated stands by 1981. After renovations were completed in 1997, the ground was renamed Ibrox Stadium. Ibrox hosted the Scotland national football team when Hampden Park was redeveloped in the 1990s, three Scottish cup finals in the same period, has been a concert venue. Rangers played its first match on Glasgow Green; the club played home matches on public pitches across Glasgow, first moving to a regular home ground at Burnbank in 1875.
A year Rangers played at the Clydesdale cricket ground in Kinning Park. This ground was improved to give a capacity of 7,000. After hints by the landlords that they wished to develop the site, Rangers left in February 1887; the club shared Cathkin Park with Third Lanark for the remainder of the 1886–87 season. Rangers first moved to the Ibrox area in 1887, playing on a site to the east of the current stadium; the first match at this stadium was an 8–1 defeat to English side Preston North End on 20 August 1887, watched by a capacity crowd of over 15,000. This inaugural match had to be abandoned after 70 minutes due to a pitch invasion; the first Ibrox Park was a success in the short term, as three Scotland international matches and the 1890 Scottish Cup Final were played at the ground. Celtic Park, built in 1892, was more advanced, however. Rangers opted raising funds by forming a limited company; the last match at the old ground was played on 9 December 1899. The new Ibrox Park was formally opened with a 3–1 victory over Hearts on 30 December.
Ibrox Park, as it was known between 1899 and 1997, is completely different from the Ibrox Stadium of today. It followed the model of most Scottish stadiums of the time, comprising an oval track around the pitch, with a pavilion and one stand along one side; the ground had a capacity of 40,000. Celtic Park and Hampden Park all competed with each other to host Scottish Cup Finals and Scotland matches, one of which could generate up to £1,000 in revenue for the host club. To aid their chances of gaining that revenue, Rangers constructed a large terracing, holding 36,000 people, behind the western goalmouth; the terracing, designed by Archibald Leitch, was formed by wooden planks bolted onto a framework made of iron. A similar wooden terracing was constructed at the eastern end, giving a total capacity of 75,000; the structure was passed by the Govan Burgh Surveyor in March 1902, but there were newspaper reports that it was unstable. A crowd of 68,114 assembled for a Scotland v England match on 5 April 1902, but shortly after the kick-off one section of the terracing "collapsed like a trap door".
A gap of 20 square yards appeared, causing about 125 people to fall to the ground 50 feet below the terracing. Most survived due to the fact they fell on top of other bodies. 517 people were injured. Most people in the stadium were unaware. People re-occupied the damaged area, despite the danger of further collapse. A definite reason for the disaster was not agreed upon because there was no public inquiry held; some experts blamed the quality of wood and the supplier was tried for culpable homicide, but was acquitted. The design was cited as a possible cause. Wooden structures of that size were not trusted. Rangers removed the wooden terraces, reducing capacity to 25,000; the criticism of the design did not deter Rangers from hiring Leitch in the future. He designed an expansion of Ibrox to a 63,000 capacity by 1910. By this point, the city of Glasgow had the three largest purpose-built football grounds in the world; the next major redevelopment occurred in 1928. A new Main Stand, to the south side of the ground, was opened on 1 January 1929.
The Main Stand, which has the familiar Leitch style criss-cross balcony and a red-brick facade, seated 10,000 people and provided standing accommodation in an enclosure. Simon Inglis, a writer on football stadia, commented in 2005 that the Main Stand is Leitch's "greatest work" and is "still resplendent today in its red brick glory under a modern mantle of glass and steel"; the architectural significance of the Main Stand was reflected when it became a Category B listed building in 1987. Original seats in the Main Stand were made of cast oak. One was auctioned in 2011 for £1,080; the banking of the terracing continued to increase in the 1930s. On 2 January 1939, the Old Firm game against Celtic attracted a crowd of 118,567, the record attendance for any league match played in Britain. At this point, Ibrox was the second-largest stadium in Britain. Floodlights were first used at Ibrox for a friendly match against Arsenal; the first floodlit Scottish league match was played at Ibrox, in March 1956.
Covers were built over the east terracing during the 1960s. No structural changes were made to Ibrox, but capacity was cut to 80,000 by safety legislation. Ibrox Park had the worst fan safety record in Britain before its complete redesign and ren
The 1900s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1900, ended on December 31, 1909. The term "nineteen-hundreds" can mean the entire century 1900–1999 years beginning with a 19; the Edwardian era covers a similar span of time. There are several main varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in American English. Using 1906 as an example, they are "nineteen-oh-six", "nineteen-six", "nineteen-aught-six". Which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, "nineteen-oh-six" is the most common. In the post-World War II era through the 1990s, mentions of "nineteen-ought-six" or "aught-six" distinctly connoted old-fashioned speech; the strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an "ohs" or "aughts" decade. The New Imperialism The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Third Republic sign Entente Cordiale Second Boer War ends.
Philippine–American War takes place. Russo-Japanese War establishes the Empire of Japan as a world power. Battle of Riyadh was a minor battle of the Unification of Saudi Arabia. Battle of Dilam was a major battle of the Unification War between Saudi rebels. First Saudi–Rashidi War was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh versus the Emirate of Ha'il; the Russian Revolution of 1905. Demand for Home Rule for Ireland Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa. January 1, 1901, British colonies in Australia federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia May 20, 1902 – Cuba gains independence from the United States. June 7, 1905 – The Norwegian Parliament declares the union with Sweden dissolved, Norway achieves full independence. October 5, 1908 – Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. September 8, 1900 – A powerful hurricane hits Galveston, Texas, USA killing about 8,000. April 19, 1902 – A magnitude 7.5 earthquake rocks Guatemala, killing 2,000.
May 8, 1902 – In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre and killing over 30,000. April 7, 1906 – Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. April 18, 1906 – The 1906 San Francisco earthquake on the San Andreas Fault destroys much of San Francisco, USA, killing at least 3,000, with 225,000–300,000 left homeless, $350 million in damages. September 18, 1906 – A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong. January 14, 1907 – An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000. June 30 - The Tunguska event or "Russian explosion" near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russian Empire occuers resulting in the flattening 2,000 km2 of forest, it is believed to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment, at an altitude of 5–10 kilometres above the Earth's surface. December 28, 1908 – An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina and Calabria, killing over 150,000 people. April 26, 1900 – The Great Lumber Fire of Ottawa–Hull kills 7 and leaves 15,000 homeless.
May 1, 1900 – The Scofield Mine disaster in Scofield, Utah caused by explosion killing at least 200 men. June 30, 1900 – Hoboken Docks Fire: The German passenger ships Saale, Main and Kaiser William der Grosse, all owned by the North German Lloyd Steamship line, catch fire at the docks in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA; the fire began on a wharf and spread to the adjacent piers and smaller craft, killing 326 people. May 3, 1901 – The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL, USA. July 10, 1902 – The Rolling Mill Mine disaster in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA kills 112 miners. August 10, 1903 – Paris Métro train fire. December 30, 1903 – A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, USA kills 600. February 7, 1904 – The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, USA destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. June 15, 1904 – A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York City's East River kills 1,021. June 28, 1904 – The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants.
January 22, 1906 – The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, killing over 100 in the ensuing disaster. Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, assassination attempts include: July 29, 1900 – King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci. March 6, 1901 – In Bremen, an assassin attempts to kill Wilhelm II of Germany. September 6, 1901 – American anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots U. S. President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. McKinley dies 8 days later. June 16, 1904 – Eugen Schauman assassinates Nikolai Bobrikov, Governor-General of Finland. February 1, 1908 – Carlos I of Portugal is assassinated in Lisbon, Portugal. October 26, 1909 – Itō Hirobumi, four time Prime Minister of Japan and Resident-General of Korea, is assassinated by Ahn Jung-geun at the Harbin train station in Manchuria; the cost of an American postage stamp was worth 1 cent. March 17, 1905 - Annus Mirabilis papers - Albert Einstein publishes his paper "On a heuristic viewpoint concerning the production and transformation of light", in which he explains the photoelectric effect, using the notion of light quanta.
For this paper Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. May 11, 1905 - Annus Mirabilis papers - Albert Einstein submits his doctoral dissertation "On the Motio
Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, who play in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, is in the south-west of the city in the Govan district. Although not part of the official name, the club is referred to as Glasgow Rangers. Rangers have won more league titles and trebles than any other club in the world, winning the league title 54 times, the Scottish Cup 33 times and the Scottish League Cup 27 times, achieving the treble of all three in the same season seven times. Rangers won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 after being losing finalists twice, in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the UEFA Cup in 2008. Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm, considered one of the world's biggest football derbies. Founded in February 1872, Rangers were one of the 11 original members of the Scottish Football League and remained in the top division continuously until the liquidation of The Rangers Football Club PLC at the end of the 2011–12 season.
With a new corporate identity, the club gained admittance to the fourth tier of Scottish league football in time for the start of the following season. Rangers secured promotion back to the Premiership for the start of the 2016–17 season having won three promotions in four years. Rangers were formed by four founders – brothers Moses McNeil and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath – who met at West End Park in February 1872. Rangers' first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was a founder member. In 1873, the club held staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached the Scottish Cup final. Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants' Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup; the first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtic's establishment. Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed of guest players from Hibernian.
The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, Rangers, by playing at the first Ibrox Stadium, were one of ten original members. The club's first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history. Rangers' first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won three Scottish Cups. During William Wilton's time as match secretary and team manager, Rangers won 10 league titles. Taking over as manager after William Wilton's tragic death in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers' most successful manager, guiding the club to 14 league titles before the onset of the Second World War. On 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Year's Day Old Firm match.
Leading the club for 34 years until 1954, Struth won more trophies than any manager in Scottish Football history, amassing 18 league championships, 10 Scottish Cups, two League Cups, seven war-time championships, 19 Glasgow Cups, 17 Glasgow Merchant Charity Cups and other war-time honours. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League. Scot Symon continued Struth's success, winning six league championships, five Scottish Cups and four League Cups, becoming the second manager to win the domestic treble in 1963–64 season, the era of'Slim' Jim Baxter, one of the club's greatest players. Rangers lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1. Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners' Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, only to lose 4–1 on aggregate.
Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich. The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on a stairway exit at the culmination of an Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was to have happened 10 minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs. A benefit match to raise funds for the victims' families took place after the disaster, a joint Rangers and Celtic team playing a Scotland XI at Hampden, watched by 81,405 fans. In 1972, Rangers emerged from the tragedy of the previous year to achieve success on the European stage. A Colin Stein goal and a Willie Johnston double helped secure a 3–2 victory over Dynamo Moscow at the Nou Camp, Barcelona, to lift the European Cup Winners' Cup. Captain John Greig received the trophy in a small room within the Nou Camp following pitch invasions by Rangers fans reacting to the heavy handed tactics of the Spanish police, the majority of whom had been brought in from outwith Catalonia.
Rangers were banned from Europe for two years for the behaviour of their fans reduced on appeal to one year. The following season saw the club compete in the first European Super Cup, although the Europea