Sheffield United F.C.
Sheffield United Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. The team competes in the second tier of English football; the football club was formed in 1889 as an offshoot of Sheffield United Cricket Club, are nicknamed The Blades due to Sheffield's history of steel production. The club have played their home games at Bramall Lane since their formation in 1889. Bramall Lane is an all-seater ground with a capacity of 32,702. Sheffield United won the original Football League in 1898 and the FA Cup in 1899, 1902, 1915 and 1925, they were beaten finalists in the FA Cup in 1901 and 1936, reached the semi-finals in 1961, 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2014. They reached the semi-finals of the League Cup in 2003 and 2015. For most of the club's history they have played in white striped shirts with black shorts, their closest rivals are Sheffield Wednesday. Sheffield United formed on 22 March 1889 at the Adelphi Hotel, Sheffield by the President of the Cricket Club Sir Charles Clegg.
The Wednesday had moved from Bramall Lane to their own ground at Olive Grove after a dispute over gate receipts and the tenants of Bramall Lane needed to create a new team to generate income. Sir Charles Clegg was incidentally the president of The Wednesday. Undoubtedly United's heyday was the 30-year period from 1895–1925, when they were champions of England in 1897–98 and runners up in 1896–97 and 1899–00, FA Cup winners in 1899, 1902, 1915 and 1925, finishing runners up in 1901, eleven years after their cup final win in 1936. United have not won a trophy since 1925, bar those associated with promotion from lower-leagues, their best performances in the cup competitions being several semi-final appearances in the FA Cup and Football League Cup, their darkest days came between 1975 and 1981. After finishing sixth in the First Division at the end of the 1974–75 season, they were relegated to the Second Division the following season and three years after that setback they fell into the Third Division.
They reached an absolute low in 1981 when they were relegated to the Fourth Division, but were champions in their first season in the league's basement division and two years afterwards they won promotion to the Second Division. They did fall back into the Third Division in 1988, but new manager Dave Bassett masterminded a quick revival which launched the Blades towards one of the most successful eras in their history. Successive promotions in the aftermath of the 1988 relegation saw them return to the First Division in 1990 after a 14-year exile, they survived at this level for four seasons and reached an FA Cup semi-final in the 1992–93 season before being relegated in 1994. They would remain outside the top flight for the next 12 years, although they did qualify for the play-offs under Bassett's successor Howard Kendall in 1997 and caretaker manager Steve Thompson in 1998, they were struggling at the wrong end of Division One when Neil Warnock was appointed manager in December 1999, a financial crisis was preventing the club from being able to boost their squad, but in 2002–03 they enjoyed their most successful season for a decade, reaching the semi-finals of both domestic cups and reaching the Division One play-off final, where they were beaten 3–0 by Wolverhampton Wanderers.
Three years however, Warnock delivered a Premier League return as the Blades finished runners-up in the rebranded Championship. They lasted just one season back amongst the elite, before being relegated from the Premier League amidst the controversy surrounding Carlos Tevez, the player, controversially signed by West Ham United and whose performances played a big part in their remarkable escape from relegation. Neil Warnock resigned as manager; the club struggled to come to terms with life back in the Championship, with a spiralling wage bill not being matched by the quality of the players brought in, a succession of managers within a short period of time. The Blades did reach the Championship playoff final in 2009 under Kevin Blackwell, but a period of decline set in; the 2010–11 season proved disastrous, with the club employing three different managers in the space of a season, which ended in relegation to League One under Micky Adams, meaning they would play in the third tier of English football for the first time since 1989, only five years after gaining promotion to the Premiership.
In the 2011–12 season, the club finished third in League One, narrowly missing out on automatic promotion to rivals Sheffield Wednesday, entered the playoffs. With victory over Stevenage in the semi-final, United missed out on an immediate return to the Championship after suffering a penalty shootout defeat to Huddersfield Town; the Blades again made it to the League One playoffs in 2012–13 after a fifth-place finish, but were knocked out by eventual promotion winners Yeovil Town on an 85th-minute goal in the second leg of the semi-finals. On 3 September 2013 it was confirmed that Saudi Prince Abdullah bin Musa'ed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of the royal House of Saud had bought a 50% stake in United's parent company'Blades Leisure Ltd' for the fee of £1 with the promise of providing "substantial new capital" with the aim of returning the Blades to the Premier League as "quickly as possible". In 2014 the Blades began to be described by areas of the media as "giant-killers", having reached the FA Cup semi-finals at Wembley, losing 5–3 to Hull City.
In 2014–15 the team reached the quarter-finals of the FA Cup and semi-finals of the Football League Cup, desp
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Crystal Palace National Sports Centre
The National Sports Centre at Crystal Palace in south London, England is a large sports centre and athletics stadium. It was opened in 1964 in Crystal Palace Park, close to the site of the former Crystal Palace Exhibition building, destroyed by fire in 1936, is on the same site as the former FA Cup Final venue, used here between 1895 and 1914, it was one of the five National Sports Centres, run on behalf of Sport England, but responsibility was transferred to the London Development Agency and is managed by Greenwich Leisure Limited, under their Better brand logo. The athletics stadium has a capacity of 15,500, which can be increased to 24,000 with temporary seating, it hosts international athletics meetings. The sports centre building was designed by the LCC Architects Department under Sir Leslie Martin between 1953–54 and is a Grade II* listed building, it has a interesting interior: there is a central concourse with a complex and delicate exposed concrete frame supporting the roof, which has a folded teak lining, to one side a series of pools, including a 50m competition pool, a diving pool with a dramatic reinforced concrete diving platform, to the other side a smaller sports arena.
The current 15,500 seater athletics stadium was built on the site of the football ground by M J Gleeson and opened in 1964. From 1999 to 2012 it hosted the London Grand Prix; the stadium can be expanded to 24,000 with temporary seating. Sand from the Beach Volleyball Courts at Horse Guards Parade during London 2012 was donated to Crystal Palace National Sports Centre in 2012; the current athletics stadium is on the same land as a previous football ground, which hosted the FA Cup final from 1895 to 1914 as well as other sports. In 1905, the owners wanted their own football club to play at the venue, so they formed Crystal Palace F. C.. The club were forced to leave by the military, in 1915, now play at nearby Selhurst Park; the largest'domestic' attendance at the stadium was in the 1913 Cup final between Aston Villa and Sunderland, when 121,919 spectators squeezed into the stands. The previous world record had been the 1901 Cup Final, when 114,815 amassed to watch Tottenham Hotspur and Sheffield United draw 2–2.
Crystal Palace F. C. have played reserve team matches in the past at the centre, most in 2001, in January 2011 the club's owners announced plans to relocate the club back to the site of the NSC, redeveloping it into a 40,000-seater, purpose-built football stadium. Tottenham Hotspur F. C. released plans to redevelop the NSC into a 25,000-seater stadium, maintaining it as an athletics stadium, as part of their plans to redevelop the Olympic Stadium after the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. However, their plans were cancelled due to their failure to obtain the Olympic Stadium. AC London used the stadium during the 2015–16 season; the following international matches have been played at Crystal Palace: 3 April 1897 – England 1–2 Scotland 30 March 1901 – England 2–2 Scotland 1 April 1905 – England 1–0 Scotland 3 April 1909 – England 2–0 Scotland 4 March 1911 – England Amateurs 4–0 Belgium 21 teams competed in the twenty FA Cup Finals staged at Crystal Palace, with ten different winners. Four more teams won the FA Cup after replays at other grounds.
Newcastle United appeared in the most finals at the ground, but never lifted the cup there, whilst Aston Villa won all four of their games there. Results of FA Cup Finals at Crystal Palace FA Cup Final Wins at Crystal Palace FA Cup Final appearances at Crystal Palace Goals Scored in FA Cup Finals at Crystal Palace Goals Conceded in FA Cup Finals at Crystal Palace On 2 December 1905, the ground held the first England rugby union international match against New Zealand in England, New Zealand winning 15–0. On Wednesday 18 August 1965, the ground was the venue of the Rugby league match in which the Commonwealth XIII rugby league team were defeated 7–15 by New Zealand, it played host to Fulham Rugby League in the mid-1980s for a couple of seasons, after they were forced to leave their previous ground of Craven Cottage. London County Cricket Club was a short-lived cricket club founded by the Crystal Palace Company. In 1898 they invited W. G. Grace to help them form a first-class cricket club. Grace accepted the offer and became the club's secretary and captain.
As a result, he severed his connection with Gloucestershire County Cricket Club during the 1899 season. The club played first-class matches from 1900 to 1904; some of the best players of the time played some matches for the club while continuing to play for their usual teams, among them CB Fry, Johnny Douglas and K S Ranjitsinhji. However, the games were little more than exhibition games — and money-making exercises for Dr Grace — and so it lost its first-class status, with that the ability to attract the top players; the club folded in 1908. The 2,000 capacity indoor Arena at the National Sports Centre was home to former British Basketball League team's Crystal Palace and London Towers. Crystal Palace merged into the London Towers organisation in 1998, whilst after great success domestically and in European competition the Towers ran into severe financial difficulties and folded its professional team in 2006. During its most successful period, Towers alternated between Crystal Palace and Wembley Arena as its home venues.
For the 2012–2013 season, the London Lions played the home games at Crystal Palace National Sports Centre until they moved to the brand new Copper Box in 2013. From 2018, the Arena once more became a BBL venue when it was announced as the home of the new London City Royals franchise, the second London based franchise in the league; the stadium hosted the 1989
Non-League football describes football leagues played outside the top leagues of a country. It describes leagues which are not professional; the term is used for football in England, where it describes football played at a level below that of the Premier League and the three divisions of the English Football League. The term non-League was used well before 1992 when the top football clubs in England all belonged to The Football League; the term can be confusing as the vast majority of non-league football clubs in England play in a type of league. A non-League team would be any club playing in the National League and below and therefore would not play in the EFL Cup; the "League" of "non-League football" refers to the English Football League, rather than leagues in general — "non-League" clubs play most of their football in league competitions. There are many leagues below the level of the EFL, some, such as the Northern League, are as old as the EFL itself; the most senior of these leagues are loosely organised by The Football Association, the sport's governing body in England, into a National League System.
The NLS has seven levels or steps, includes over 50 separate leagues, many with more than one division. Prior to the 1986–87 season, there was no automatic promotion and relegation between The Football League and the leagues of non-League football; the bottom clubs of The EFL were required to apply for re-election to the League at the end of the season, but this was in most cases a mere formality. The system ensured that Football League membership remained static, with non-League clubs having little chance of joining. However, a major change came in 1986 when automatic promotion and relegation of one club between The Football League and the Football Conference, the top league in non-League football, was introduced, subject to the eligible club meeting the required facility and financial standards. Scarborough became the first non-League club to win automatic promotion to The Football League, Lincoln City became the first League club to be relegated to the ranks of non-League football. Since the 2002–03 season, two clubs from the Conference, now National League have been promoted at the end of each season.
The entire English football league system includes the Premier League, the EFL, the NLS leagues, any local leagues that have feeder relationships with an NLS league. Many non-League clubs enter the FA Cup, where they hope to become "giant-killers" by progressing from the qualifying rounds, first and second rounds proper, to meet and beat opposition from the Premier League or EFL Championship. Since the end of the Second World War, nine non-League clubs have reached the Fifth Round of the FA Cup, only one reached the quarter-final stage; the only non-League team to have won the competition since The Football League started is Tottenham Hotspur in the 1901 FA Cup Final, although at that time The Football League had only two divisions, consisting entirely of Northern and Midland clubs. The leading non-League clubs in the South played in the Southern Football League, which ran parallel to The Football League, were of a comparable standard to the League clubs. From its inaugural match in 1908 until 1912, the FA Charity Shield was contested between the champions of The Football League and the Southern Football League.
The Football Association Challenge Trophy was introduced in 1969 to offer semi-professional non-League clubs a realistic chance of winning an FA competition. Amateur clubs could enter the FA Amateur Cup until 1974 when the Football Association abolished the distinction between professionals and amateurs; the Amateur Cup was replaced by the FA Vase in 1974, contested by clubs at Step 5 of the NLS and below while the Trophy is contested by clubs at Steps 1–4. In women's football, the non-League term is used for those clubs in the divisions below the FA Women's Premier League's two regional second divisions. In Scotland, "non-league football" refers to leagues outside the top four divisions of the national Scottish Professional Football League; these consist of a number of regional senior leagues which are part of the Scottish football pyramid system, as well as the separate regional Junior leagues. It is used throughout Europe, although in Germany non-professional leagues are known as Regionalliga, as the leagues are all regional depending on the location of the town or city the team represents, unlike 1.
Bundesliga, 2. Bundesliga and 3. Liga all being national leagues; until 1974, it was the second tier of the league system before being disbanded. The Regionalliga was re-introduced as the third tier of the system in 1994. Upon introduction of the 3. Liga in 2008, it was demoted to the fourth level of the pyramid, in the same way every league below the 5th step of the English pyramid was moved a step down due to the introduction of the Conference North and South, now National League North and South. In the Republic of Ireland, football outside the top two divisions consists of regional senior leagues based on which province the club comes from. England national football C team Non League UK
Pathé News was a producer of newsreels and documentaries from 1910 until 1970 in the United Kingdom. Its founder, Charles Pathé, was a pioneer of moving pictures in the silent era; the Pathé News archive is known today as British Pathé. Its collection of news film and movies is digitised and available online, its roots lie in 1896 Paris, when Société Pathé Frères was founded by Charles Pathé and his brothers, who pioneered the development of the moving image. Charles Pathé adopted the national emblem of the cockerel, as the trademark for his company. After the company, now called Compagnie Générale des Éstablissements Pathé Frère Phonographes & Cinématographes, invented the cinema newsreel with Pathé-Journal. French Pathé began its newsreel in 1908 and opened a newsreel office in Wardour Street, London in 1910; the newsreels were shown in the cinema and were silent until 1928. At first they ran for about four minutes, were issued biweekly. Though during the early days the camera shots were taken from a stationary position, the Pathé newsreels captured events such as Franz Reichelt's fatal parachute jump from the Eiffel Tower, suffragette Emily Davison's fatal injury by a racehorse at the 1913 Epsom Derby.
During the First World War, the cinema newsreels were called the Pathé Animated Gazettes, for the first time this provided newspapers with competition. After 1918, British Pathé started producing a series of cinemazines, in which the newsreels were much longer and more comprehensive. By 1930, British Pathé was covering news, sport and women's issues through programmes including the Pathétone Weekly, the Pathé Pictorial, the Gazette and Eve’s Film Review. In 1927, the company sold British Pathé to First National. Pathé changed hands again in 1933. In 1958, it was sold again to Warner Bros. and became Warner-Pathé. Pathé stopped producing the cinema newsreel in February 1970 as they could no longer compete with television. During the newsreels' run, the narrators included Bob Danvers-Walker, Dwight Weist, Dan Donaldson, André Baruch, Clem McCarthy, among others; the library itself was sold with Associated British Picture to EMI Films and others, including The Cannon Group and the Daily Mail and General Trust, before relaunching in its own right in 2009.
The feature film division is now part of StudioCanal, is not to be confused with Pathé, the French company and original parent of British Pathé. In 2002 funded by the UK National Lottery, the entire archive was digitised; the British Pathé archive now holds over 3,500 hours of filmed history, 90,000 individual items and 12 million stills. On February 7, 2009, British Pathé launched a YouTube channel of its newsreel archive. From March 2010, British Pathé relaunched its archive as an online entertainment site, making Pathé News a service for the public as well as the broadcasting industry. In May 2010 The Guardian was given access to the British Pathé archive, hosting topical videos on its website. In November 2010 the Daily Mail gave its readers free DVDs of the seven-part British Pathé series A Year To Remember: The War Years; the series comprised seven discs, each focusing on a different year from 1939–1945. In May 2012 British Pathé won the FOCAL International Award for Footage Library of the Year.
In April 2014 British Pathé uploaded the entire collection of 85,000 historic films to its YouTube channel as part of a drive to make the archive more accessible to viewers all over the world. British Pathé produced a number of programmes and series as well as newsreels, such as Pathé Eve and Astra Gazette. In 2010 BBC Four reversioned the 1950s Pathé series Time To Remember, narrated by the actor Stanley Holloway, broadcast it as a thematic 12-part series. British Pathé has been known under the following names: C. G. P. C. First National-Pathé, Associated British-Pathé, Warner-Pathé, British Pathé News, British Pathé; the British and American newsreel companies separated in 1921. In 1947, the film assets of the successor companies of Pathé News, Inc. were purchased by Warner Bros. from RKO Radio Pictures, which had acquired them in 1931. Warners, as had RKO before them, continued to produce the theatrical newsreel Pathé News, its title changing from RKO-Pathe News to Warner-Pathe News. Warners produced a series of 38 theatrical short subjects, 81 issues of the News Magazine of the Screen series, which added to the Pathé film properties and are now part of the company's extensive film library.
Producer/editor Robert Youngson was responsible for these series, won two Academy Awards for them. In 1956, Warner Bros. discontinued the production of the theatrical newsreel and sold the Pathé News film library, the 38 theatrical short subjects, the Pathé News Magazine of the Screen, the crowing rooster trade mark and the copyrights and other properties to Studio Films, Inc.—shortly thereafter named Pathé Pictures, Inc.—which subsequently relinquished the name and film properties of both companies to Pathé News, Inc. Other U. S. newsreel series included Paramount News, Fox Movietone News, Hearst Metrotone News/News of the Day, Universal Newsreel, The March of Time. Oliver G Pike – filmmaker for British Pathé Official website British Pathé History British Pathé's channel on YouTube "News Magazine of the Screen". Internet Archive. "News o
John Cameron (footballer, born 1872)
John Cameron was a Scottish footballer and manager. He played as a forward for Queen's Park and Scotland and was noted as an effective goal-maker and goalscorer. In 1899 he guided them to victory in the 1901 FA Cup; as a result, they became the only club outside the English Football League to win the competition. In 1898 he became the first secretary of the Association Footballers' Union, the ill-fated fore-runner of the Professional Footballers' Association, he coached Dresdner SC and during the First World War he was interned at Ruhleben, a civilian detention camp in Germany. After the war he coached Ayr United for one season and became a football journalist and publisher, he had worked as a columnist for various newspapers before the war. Cameron began his career with local club Ayr Parkhouse, before moving to Queen's Park in early 1895, he made 5 Glasgow Cup appearances and scored one goal for the Spiders and won a cap for Scotland in 1896. Alongside Robert Smyth McColl, he played in a 3–3 draw with Ireland and helped Scotland win the British Home Championship.
He worked in a shipping office in Liverpool and joined Everton in September 1895 as an amateur, turned professional. He switched from a centre-forward to an inside-forward, he made his senior debut in a 5–0 home League win over Sheffield United in October 1895. Cameron made 48 appearances and scored 14 goals; this record included 2 goals in the FA Cup. Cameron had been one of the highest earning footballers of the day with Everton, he returned to Queen's Park for two short spells in the second half of the 1895–96 season, making four appearances. In February 1898 while Cameron was contracted to play for Everton he became involved in the movement toward unionisation of footballers in defiance of both League directives and club proposals which resulted in the power of players to seek high earnings; as the League were not willing to negotiate on this point Cameron broke contract with Everton and went to play for Tottenham Hotspur in the Southern Football League directly because that League did not support the proposal to limit earnings.
In May 1898 Cameron was signed by Frank Brettell as a player for Tottenham Hotspur. When Brettell was offered a better-paid position in Portsmouth and moved there in February 1899, Cameron succeeded Brettell and became player-manager for Tottenham, he enjoyed instant success when, in his first game in charge, Tottenham became the first lower division club to come from behind against top flight opposition to win an F A cup tie with Cameron himself scoring the winning goal against Sunderland. In 1900 he led Tottenham to the Southern Football League title and in 1901 led them to victory in the FA Cup final. After drawing 2–2 with Sheffield United, Tottenham won the replay with Cameron scoring an equaliser in a 3–1 win; as a result, Tottenham became the only club outside the English League to win the competition. Under Cameron the club finished as a runners-up in the Southern League in 1902 and 1904. During his career with the club, Cameron scored 139 goals in 293 appearances, including 43 goals in 111 appearances in the Southern League.
He resigned as Tottenham manager in March 1907. After Tottenham Hotspur, Cameron worked as a sport journalist, before going to Germany to coach Dresdner SC. While there the First World War broke out and he was subsequently interned at Ruhleben, a civilian detention camp in the Spandau district of Berlin; the camp contained between 5,500 prisoners. A mini-society evolved and football became a popular activity. Cup and league competitions were organised and as many as 1,000 attended the bigger games. Cameron was prominent in organising and playing football within the camp and was secretary of the Ruhleben Football Association. During his time at the camp he was a member of the Ruhleben Tennis Association. Cameron was one of several former professional footballers at Ruhleben. Others included former England internationals, Fred Spiksley, Fred Pentland, Samuel Wolstenholme and Steve Bloomer, a German international Edwin Dutton and one of his former Tottenham players, John Brearley. On 2 May 1915 an England XI featuring Pentland, Wolstenholme and Bloomer played a World XI captained by Cameron.
Player/Manager Tottenham Hotspur FA Cup: 1900–01 Southern League Winners 1899–1900: Runners Up 1901–02, 1903–04: Western League Winners 1903–04: Sheriff of London Charity Shield: 1902Player Scotland British Home Championship: 1896 Who's Who of Everton: Tony Matthews Cameron at Ayr United Cameron at www.tottenhamhotspur.com Cameron at TOPSPURS site Cameron at Ruhleben Cameron www.zoominfo.com Works by John Cameron at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Cameron at Internet Archive Works by John Cameron at LibriVox
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. He or she is the final decision-making authority on all facts connected with play, is the only official on the pitch with the authority to start and stop play and impose disciplinary action against players during a match. At most levels of play the referee is assisted by two assistant referees, who are empowered to advise the referee in certain situations such as the ball leaving play or infringements of the Laws of the Game occurring out of the view of the referee. At higher levels of play the referee may be assisted by a fourth official who supervises the teams' technical areas and assists the referee with administrative tasks, and, at the highest levels, additional assistant referees and/or video assistant referees. Referees' remuneration for their services varies between leagues. Many are wholly amateur, some may be paid a small fee or reimbursed for expenses, and, in some countries, a limited number of referees – those who officiate in their country's top league – are employed full-time by their national associations and receive a retainer at the start of every season plus match fees.
Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the additional honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials. Otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches; the referee's powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game. These include: Powers stopping, suspending or terminating the match at their discretion, for any infringements of the Laws. An injured player may only return to the field of play, they are not obliged to take this action but must do so when the ball next goes out of play. Duties enforcing the Laws of the Game; the player may only return on receiving a signal from the referee, who must be satisfied that the bleeding has stopped. As per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play.
However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge and socks: until the 1950s it was more common for a referee to wear a blazer than a jersey. Traditionally that uniform was always all black, unless one of the teams was wearing a dark jersey in which case the referee would wear another colour of jersey to distinguish themself from both teams. At the 1994 World Cup finals, new jerseys were introduced that gave officials a choice of burgundy, yellow or white, at the same time the creation of the Premier League in England saw referees wear green jerseys: both changes were motivated by television considerations. Since most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor.
FIFA allows referees to wear five colours: black, yellow and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear black shorts, black socks, black shoes; the badge, which displays the referee's license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a data wallet with pen and paper, a coin for determining which team has the choice of ends or kick-off. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen