Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 243,626, together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 749,595 inhabitants and 1,178,335 in the area, it is the fifth largest in France, after Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Lille. It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department and its inhabitants are called Bordelais or Bordelaises. The term Bordelais may also refer to the city and its surrounding region, Bordeaux is the worlds major wine industry capital. It is home to the main wine fair, Vinexpo. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century, the historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 300 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around 60 BC, its importance lying in the commerce of tin, later it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing especially during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals, further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414 and the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city. In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, the city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, a certain Gallactorius is cited as count of Bordeaux, the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after storming the fortified city and overwhelming the Aquitanian garrison. After Duke Eudess defeat, the Aquitanian duke could still save part of its troops, the following year, the Frankish commander descended again over Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles sons Pepin and Carloman against Hunald, Hunald was defeated, and his son Waifer replaced him, who in turn confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifers last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Shorts troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, in 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux, probably undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, and possibly leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that very year
Panhard is a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles. Its current incarnation, now owned by Renault Trucks Defense, was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005, Panhard had been under Citroën ownership, then PSA after the 1974 takeover of Citroën by Peugeot, for 40 years. The combined company now uses the Panhard name, this was decided based on studies indicating that the Panhard name had better brand recognition worldwide than the Auverland name, Panhard once built innovative civilian cars but ceased production of those in 1968. Many of its military products however end up on the market via third sources. Panhard also built railbuses between the wars, Panhard was originally called Panhard et Levassor, and was established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887. Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile in 1890, based on a Daimler engine license, Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimlers interests in France. Following Sarazins 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazins widow Louise to carry on her late husbands agency, the Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, and shared improvements with one another and these first vehicles set many modern standards, but each was a one-off design. They used a pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox. The vehicle also featured a front-mounted radiator, an 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower with a steering wheel and this was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, in 1895,1,205 cc Panhard et Levassors finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. However during the 1896 Paris–Marseille–Paris race, Levassor was fatally injured due to a crash while trying to avoid hitting a dog, arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, and held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturer of automobiles before World War I, Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which used in many other types of automobiles as well. From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology that had been patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhards own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines. Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, the military were also keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP
Fernand Charron was a French pioneer of motor racing and automobile manufacturing. He started his career as a successful cyclist. In 1891 he won the French National Stayers Championships riding a bicycle around a track following a tandem. Between 1897 and 1903 he took part in 18 car races,4 of which he won,1898 Marseille–Nice and 1898 Paris–Amsterdam–Paris in 1898, Paris–Bordeaux in 1899 and he drove mainly Panhard & Levassor cars. On one occasion, he crashed into a St Bernard dog which became wedged between the wheel and the suspension and jammed the steering, though he still won the race. He retired after a season in 1903 and worked as manager of Adolphe Cléments factory complex at Levallois-Perret. In 1901 Fernand Charron was one of the three founders of a manufacturer called Charron, Girardot et Voigt. Following resignations the company was reformed in 1906 at Puteaux as Charron Ltd. the English Ltd suffix reflecting a large amount of investment capital that came from England. Shortly before the outbreak, in 1914, of the First World War Charron was trying to sell his auto-business, but he nevertheless was also using it at this time to build cars for the Alda company. The outbreak of peace found Carron still in ownership of the business which at the Paris Motor Show in October 1919 was offering two models, the small 6HP Type TC and the 15HP Type PGM. Charron married in 1907, and later divorced, Jeanne Clément, racing drivers Fernand Charron at Gordon Bennett Cup
The Mors automobile factory was an early French car manufacturer. It was one of the first to part in automobile racing, beginning in 1897, due to the belief of the company founder, Émile Mors. By the turn of the century, automobile racing had become largely a contest between Mors and Panhard et Levassor, Mors was one of the first automobiles to use the V engine configuration. The Mors 60 horsepower Grand Prix car was powered by a 10 litre V4 side valve engine, with magneto ignition and dry sump lubrication, the car had a steel chassis and a four-speed transmission that drove the rear wheels via chain drive, and rear-wheel brakes. In 1902, Mors added pneumatic shock absorbers to their cars, with this car, Henri Fournier was able to win the highly significant Paris-Berlin race, with the drive chain breaking immediately afterwards. Plans to return to auto racing were cancelled due to World War I, andré Citroën became chairman of Mors in 1908 and restored the companys viability. In 1925, Citroën bought Mors outright and closed it down, the company produced a number of models which were sold widely in Europe and in the USA. In 1905 these ranged from 2.3 litres to the 8.1 litre 40/52 HP, post-1918 only sleeve valve engines were used. The marque was resurrected briefly when a few electric cars were made during World War II by a subsidiary electrical company of Émile Mors. Central Automobile Company was the US importer of Mors automobiles in New York, the 1904 Mors 18 HP was a touring car. Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat 4 to 6 passengers, the vertically mounted water-cooled straight-4, situated at the front of the car, produced 18 HP. The pressed steel-framed car was quite modern, with a cellular radiator, the Mors 11 HP sold for US$5000. The St. Louis Car Company also manufactured the American Mors, after making the American Mors for three years, the company turned to the manufacture of a car of their own design, the Standard Six. Frank Leslies Popular Monthly Georgano, Nick, the Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. ISBN 1-57958-293-1 Kimes, Beverley Rae, & Clark Jr, Henry Austin, Standard Catalog of American cars, 1805-1942
James Gordon Bennett Jr.
James Gordon Bennett Jr. was publisher of the New York Herald, founded by his father, James Gordon Bennett Sr. who emigrated from Scotland. He was generally known as Gordon Bennett to distinguish him from his father, among his many sports-related accomplishments he organized both the first polo match and the first tennis match in the United States, and he personally won the first trans-oceanic yacht race. He sponsored explorers including Henry Morton Stanleys trip to Africa to find David Livingstone, Bennett was born on May 10,1841 in New York City to James Gordon Bennett Sr. the founder, editor and publisher of the New York Herald. He was educated primarily in France, in 1866, the elder Bennett turned control of the Herald over to him. Bennett, like many of his class, indulged in the good life, yachts, opulent private railroad cars. He was the youngest Commodore ever of the New York Yacht Club, in 1861, Bennett volunteered his newly built schooner yacht, Henrietta, for the U. S. Revenue Marine Service during the Civil War, at the same time, Bennett was commissioned as a third lieutenant in the Revenue Marine Service and assigned to the U. S. Marine Revenue schooner Henrietta beginning in June 1861. She patrolled Long Island until February 1862 when she was sent to Port Royal, on March 3,1862, Bennett commanded the Henrietta as part of the fleet which captured Fernandina, Florida. Bennett and the Henrietta returned to life in New York in May 1862. In 1866, on a bet, he won the first trans-oceanic yacht race, the race was between three American yachts, the Vesta, the Fleetwing and the Henrietta. Each yachtsman put up $30,000 in the winner-take-all wager and they started off of Sandy Hook, New Jersey, on 11 December 1866 amid high westerly winds and raced to The Needles, the furthest westerly point on the Isle of Wight, famous for its lighthouse. Bennetts Henrietta won with a time of 13 days,21 hours,55 minutes and he entertained guests aboard his steam-yacht Namouna. American expatriate artist Julius LeBlanc Stewart painted several works set on the yacht, however, he often scandalized society with his flamboyant and sometimes erratic behavior. In 1877, he left New York for Europe after an incident that ended his engagement to socialite Caroline May, according to various accounts, he arrived late and drunk to a party at the May family mansion, then urinated into a fireplace in full view of his hosts. Bennetts controversial reputation has been thought to have inspired, in the United Kingdom, settling in Paris, he launched the Paris edition of the New York Herald, named The Paris Herald, the forerunner of the International Herald Tribune. He backed George W. De Longs voyage to the North Pole on the USS Jeannette via the Bering Strait, the ill-fated expedition led to the deaths from starvation of DeLong and 19 of his crew, a tragedy that only increased the papers circulation. He was a co-founder of the Commercial Cable Company, a venture to break the Transatlantic cable monopoly held by Jay Gould. Bennett returned to the United States and organized the first polo match in the United States at Dickels Riding Academy at 39th Street and he would help found the Westchester Polo Club in 1876, the first polo club in America