University of Montana
The University of Montana is a public research university in Missoula, Montana, in the United States. Founded in 1893, the university is the second largest of the Montana University System, second to Montana State University, the main campus is at the foot of Mount Sentinel, the hill bearing Missoulas most recognizable landmark, a large hillside letter M. The University of Montana ranks 17th in the nation and fifth among universities in producing Rhodes Scholars. The University of Montana has 11 Truman Scholars,14 Goldwater Scholars and 40 Udall Scholars to its name, the University of Montanas Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library houses the earliest authorized edition of the Lewis and Clark journals. Rolling Stone labelled the university the most scenic campus in America and Outside magazine called it among the top 10 colleges nationally for combining academic quality, an act of Congress of February 18,1881 dedicated 72 sections in Montana Territory for the creation of the University. Montana was admitted to the Union on November 8,1889, the cities bids were supported by the rival Copper Kings, William A.
Clark and Marcus Daly, respectively. Missoula won the vote for the new university at the Third Montana Legislative Assembly in February 1893. The University was formally opened in 1895, while plans for a university campus were progressing, classes were temporarily held at nearby Willard School. The South Missoula Land Company, owned by A. B. Hammond, Richard Eddy and Marcus Daly, in June 1898 the cornerstone for A. J. Gibson designed University Hall was laid and Missoula became the University City, the University of Montana comprises eleven full colleges and schools, College of Humanities & Sciences, Phyllis J. The Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences is divided into five academic departments, in 1914, the University of Montana School of Law became a member of The Association of American Law Schools and in 1923, the School received accreditation from the American Bar Association. For the fall 2014 term, University of Montana offered admission to 4,956 freshmen out of 5,345 applicants, the first set of buildings were set up around the oval in 1895.
Since that time, various plans and architectural styles have been used. Today the campus consists of 220 acres and is bordered to the east by Mount Sentinel, landmarks include, The Oval A3 acres swath of grass running east to west, marking the traditional center of the university. Today it is divided into quadrants by two intersecting paths, though originally the oval was solid grass and forbidden to be crossed by students. A double row of trees was planted around the oval on Arbor Day 1896, the original gravel driveway that once surrounded the Oval has been replaced by sidewalk. The original master plan of the university called for all buildings to face the center of the oval, but this proved difficult. On the western extreme of the Oval is a grizzly bear statue created by ceramic artist
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Bozeman is a city in and the county seat of Gallatin County, United States, in the southwestern part of the state. The 2010 census put Bozemans population at 37,280 and the 2015 census estimate put the population at 43,405 making it the fourth largest city in the state. It is the city of the Bozeman, MT Micropolitan Statistical Area. It is the largest Micropolitan Statistical Area in Montana and is the third largest of all of Montana’s statistical areas, the city is named after John M. Bozeman who established the Bozeman Trail and was a key founder of the town in August 1864. The town became incorporated in April 1883 with a city form of government. Bozeman was elected an All-America City in 2001 by the National Civic League, Bozeman is a college town, home to Montana State University. The local newspaper is the Bozeman Daily Chronicle, and the city is served by Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, william Clark visited the area in July 1806 as he traveled east from Three Forks along the Gallatin River.
The party camped 3 miles east of what is now Bozeman, the journal entries from Clarks party briefly describe the future citys location. Red Clouds War closed the Bozeman Trail in 1868, but the fertile land attracted permanent settlers. In 1866 Nelson Story, a successful Virginia City, Story braved the hostile Bozeman Trail to successfully drive some 1000 head of longhorn cattle into Paradise Valley just east of Bozeman. Eluding the U. S. Army, who tried to turn Story back to protect the drive from hostile Indians, Story established a sizable ranch in the Paradise Valley and holdings in the Gallatin Valley. He donated land to the state for the establishment of Montana State University – Bozeman, Fort Ellis 45°39′16″N 110°56′35″W, el.4,987 feet was established in 1867 by Captain R. S. In addition to Fort Ellis, a fort, Fort Elizabeth Meagher, was established in 1867 by volunteer militiamen. The first library in Bozeman was formed by the Young Mens Library Association in a room above a drugstore in 1872 and it moved to the mayors office and was taken over by the city in 1890.
The first Grange meeting in Montana Territory was held in Bozeman in 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway reached Bozeman from the east in 1883. By 1900 Bozemans population reached 3,500, in 1892 the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries established a fish hatchery on Bridger Creek at the entrance to Bridger Canyon. Montana State University - Bozeman was established in 1893 as the states land-grant college, by the 1920s, the institution was known as Montana State College, and in 1965 it became Montana State University. Bozemans first high school, the Gallatin Valley High School, was built on West Main Street in 1902, in the early 20th century, over 17,000 acres of the Gallatin Valley were planted in edible peas harvested for both canning and seed
1901 Carlisle Indians football team
The 1901 Carlisle Indians football team represented the Carlisle Indians football team of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School during the 1901 college football season. The Indians were coached by Pop Warner in his year as head coach. The team compiled a record of 5–7–1, despite the 16 to 11 Carlisle victory, The Dickinsonian called it the greatest day in the football history of Dickinson. The national champion Michigan Wolverines defeated the Carlisle Indians, 22–0, the game was watched by a crowd of 8,000 spectators that included Chinas Minister to the United States, Wu Ting-Fan, occupying a box with former United States Secretary of War, Russell A. Alger. The Columbia Lions rolled up their largest score of the season and it was 40 to 0 until the final five minutes. Starring in the contest was Columbias backfield of Bill Morley, Harold Weekes, Dick Smith, and Chauncey L. Berrien
1901 Nebraska Cornhuskers football team
The 1901 Nebraska Cornhuskers football team was the representative of the University of Nebraska in the 1901 college football season. The team was coached by Walter C, bummy Booth and played their home games at Antelope Field in Lincoln, Nebraska. Nebraska was coming off one of its best ever seasons with head coach Booth. The Cornhuskers continued their unbeaten streak against Lincoln High School in this preseason exhibition game, Nebraska barely escaped from Kirksville with a win, managing only one touchdown against the medical students from Missouri. The Cornhuskers utilized their larger size to control Kirksville, twice preventing scores on two significant attempts. This was the time these teams would meet. After a four-year break, Doane arrived in Lincoln to resume the oldest active series between the Cornhuskers and its opponents, Nebraska traveled to Minneapolis in an attempt to avenge their sole loss from the previous season, and again riding high on a streak of shutout wins. It was not to be, however, as the dominant Golden Gophers completely shut down the Cornhuskers and sent them home with no points, Nebraska bounced right back from the thrashing in Minneapolis by completely shutting down Iowa State 17-0.
The Cyclones accumulated only 75 yards and three first downs on the day, the success of the Cornhuskers was significant when taking into account that almost half of the Nebraska linemen were sidelined with injuries from the previous game. Nebraska improved to 4-2 over Iowa State, Nebraska met the Wisconsin Badgers for the first time, traveling to Milwaukee to face off with another northern squad. It was Nebraskas second painful defeat from a team of the year. Still, coach Booth had praise for his players, stating that Nebraska played 100% better than in the defeat by Minnesota. Nebraska met Missouri on neutral ground in Omaha, on the field where the Bugeaters of old thrice defeated the Omaha YMCA, Nebraska pulled up to match Kansas and even the series at 5-5. Having defeated one team from Lawrence, Kansas two weeks prior, Nebraska welcomed a new team to Nebraska hailing from Lawrence, the squad from the Haskell Institute. At that time, Haskell was a school but not yet a college. Perhaps Nebraska was overconfident, or the Haskell team performed admirably, after regrouping for the second half, Nebraska managed to shut Haskell down and score 18 points of their own to come up with the season-closing win.
Coach Booth finished his season with a 6-2-0 record, dropping his Nebraska career record to 12-3-1
Montana Grizzlies football
The Montana Grizzlies football program represents the University of Montana in the Division I Football Championship Subdivision of college football. The Grizzlies have competed in the Big Sky Conference, where it is a founding member and they play their home games on campus in Missoula at Washington-Grizzly Stadium, where they had an average attendance of 24,380 in 2013. The Grizzlies had a season from 1986–2011. In Washington-Grizzly Stadium they have a percentage of.890 including playoffs. They hold the records for most playoff appearances in a row, Big Sky Conference titles in a row and their success made them the most successful program in all college football in the 2000s and third most successful team in FCS in the 1990s. The University of Montanas first football season was in 1897 where they won a game against future rival Montana State. The team played only schools from Montana until it helped found the Northwest Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1902, in addition to Montana, this original Northwest Conference included Washington, Washington State, Oregon State and Whitman College.
Despite the associations stated goal of increasing intercollegiate athletics, Montana continued to only the nearest teams. More unfortunate for the team, it would not win a game against a conference opponent until a 10-0 win over Washington State in 1914, Montana joined the conference in 1924 and remained through the 1949 season. Montana won only nine games, and never played a home game against a team from the state of California. No team was organized in 1918, due to World War I, Record, vs. CatsDoug Fessenden was the first Montana coach to last more than five years and was the first to end his career with a winning record that coached more than two years. The program was on hiatus for the 1943 and 1944 seasons, of the six teams in the northern division of the PCC, only Washington continued through the war. In 1948, the Montana board of education announced that it was de-emphasizing athletics at the state university, the conference was only preferable to having no conference affiliation. In 1951, Montana joined the Mountain States Conference, popularly known as the Skyline Conference and it would compete here until the conference dissolved in 1962, never having a winning season and not winning more than three games until 1960.
In 1963, Montana joined Gonzaga, Idaho State, Weber State, following a 1–9 season in 1966, University of Montana president Robert T. Pantzer announced in December the hiring of Jack Swarthout, a former quarterback/halfback/end from Montana. Swarthout brought on Jack Elway as an assistant and they improved the team immediately to 7–3 in their first season, within two years, Swarthout guided the team to back-to-back undefeated regular seasons in 1969 and 1970 and Montanas first Big Sky Conference titles. Continued success was expected, but a season in 1971 was followed by a work-study scandal that eventually led to Swarthouts resignation. Though Swarthout was found innocent, the charges hurt recruiting and the government decided to withdraw financial support for athletic programs