United States presidential election
The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U. S. states or in Washington, D. C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U. S. Electoral College, known as electors; these electors in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; the Electoral College and its procedure are established in the U. S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4. Under Clause 2, each of the states casts as many electoral votes as the total number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, per the Twenty-third Amendment ratified in 1961, Washington, D. C. casts the same number of electoral votes as the least-represented state, three.
Under Clause 2, the manner for choosing electors is determined by each state legislature, not directly by the federal government. Many state legislatures selected their electors directly, but over time all of them switched to using the popular vote to help determine electors, which persists today. Once chosen, electors cast their electoral votes for the candidate who won the plurality in their state, but at least 21 states do not have provisions that address this behavior. In modern times and unpledged electors have not affected the ultimate outcome of an election, so the results can be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote. Presidential elections occur quadrennially with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the first Tuesday after November 1; this date coincides with the general elections of various other federal and local races. The Electoral College electors formally cast their electoral votes on the first Monday after December 12 at their respective state capitals.
Congress certifies the results in early January, the presidential term begins on Inauguration Day, which since the passage of the Twentieth Amendment has been set at January 20. The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was not specified in the Constitution, but was developed over time by the states and political parties; these primary elections are held between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. Though not codified by law, political parties follow an indirect election process, where voters in the 50 U. S. states, Washington, D. C. and U. S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party may choose a vice presidential running mate to join the ticket, either determined by choice of the nominee or by a second round of voting; because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election.
Article Two of the United States Constitution established the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College. This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, those who preferred a national popular vote; each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in 1961, the District of Columbia is granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state. However, U. S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College. Constitutionally, the manner for choosing electors is determined within each state by its legislature. During the first presidential election in 1789, only six of the 13 original states chose electors by any form of popular vote. Throughout the years, the states began conducting popular elections to choose their slate of electors.
In 1800, only five of the 16 states chose electors by a popular vote. This gradual movement toward greater democratization coincided with a gradual decrease in property restrictions for the franchise. By 1840, only one of the 26 states still selected electors by the state legislature. Under the original system established by Article Two, electors could cast two votes to two different candidates for president; the candidate with the highest number of votes became the president, the sec
1904 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1904 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 8, 1904. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for the Democratic nominee, former Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker, over the Republican nominee, President Theodore Roosevelt. Parker won South Carolina by a landslide margin of 90.74 percent, due to the nearly complete disfranchisement of the black majority, the Republican Party’s sole support in the state
1980 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1980 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 4, 1980. All fifty states and The District of Columbia were part of the 1980 United States presidential election. South Carolina voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina was won by former California Governor Ronald Reagan by a slim margin of 1 point and a half; the state weighed in for this election as 8 percentage points more Democratic than the national average, just 3% less than four years earlier. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which the following counties voted for a Democratic presidential candidate: York, Oconee, Greenwood and Saluda
1992 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1992 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina was won by incumbent President George H. W. Bush with 48.02 percent of the popular vote over Governor Bill Clinton with 39.88 percent. Businessman Ross Perot finished with 11.55 percent of the popular vote. Clinton won the national vote, defeating both incumbent President Bush and Perot; this election marked the completion of South Carolina's transformation from one of the strongest Democratic states in the country to a reliably Republican one. For every election from 1880 to 1960, South Carolina had voted for the Democratic nominee always by wide margins and by percentages of over nine-tenths in every election from 1900 to 1944; however since Barry Goldwater carried the state in 1964, the state had lost its "Safe Democratic" status and moved towards the Republicans, being carried by them in five out of the preceding six elections and being won only by native Southerner Jimmy Carter.
As liberal and secular New England states such as Vermont trended towards the Democrats with the conservative movement in the 1980s, South Carolina, a conservative and religious Southern state, would trend towards the Republicans along with other states of the Deep South. From this election onward, it and the others would be considered safe red states. At the time of the election, Clinton was only the second Democrat to win without carrying South Carolina, along with Lyndon B. Johnson; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Edgefield County voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate. This is the first election in which any South Carolina county cast more than one hundred thousand votes, namely Greenville and Richland. With 48.02% of the popular vote, South Carolina would probe to be Bush's second strongest state in the 1992 election after Mississippi
1948 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1948 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 2, 1948, as part of the 1948 United States presidential election. State voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. South Carolina was won by States' Rights Democratic candidate Strom Thurmond, defeating the Democratic candidate, incumbent President Harry S. Truman, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Thurmond won his native state by a margin of 47.77 percent, making him the first third-party candidate to carry the state since Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge in 1860. For six decades South Carolina had been a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party; the Republican Party had been moribund due to the disfranchisement of blacks and the complete absence of other support bases as the Palmetto State lacked upland or German refugee whites opposed to secession. Between 1900 and 1944, no Republican presidential candidate obtained more than seven percent of the total presidential vote – a vote which in 1924 reached as low as 6.6 percent of the total voting-age population.
This absolute loyalty to the Democratic Party – so strong that Catholic Al Smith in 1928 received over ninety percent of South Carolina's limited vote total at the same time as five former Confederate states bolted to Herbert Hoover – began to break down with Henry A. Wallace's appointment as Vice-President and the 1943 Detroit race riots; the northern left wing of the Democratic Party became as a result of this riot committed to restoring black political rights, a policy vehemently opposed by all Southern Democrats as an infringement upon "states' rights". Tension widened much further when new President Harry Truman, himself a Southerner from Missouri, had described to him a number of horrifying lynchings and racial violence against black veterans, most crucially the beating and blinding of Isaac Woodard three hours after being discharged from the army. Truman viewed as no friend of civil rights, came to believe that racial violence against blacks in the South was a threat to the United States' image abroad and its ability to win the Cold War against the radically egalitarian rhetoric of Communism.
The result was a major Civil Rights plan titled To Secure These Rights a year and a civil rights plank in the 1948 Democratic platform. Southern Democrats were enraged by these proposals and thus sought to form a "States' Rights" Democratic ticket, which would replace Truman as the official Democratic nominee. In South Carolina, Dixiecrats controlled the situation and achieved this, so that Thurmond and Mississippi Governor Fielding Wright were listed as the official "Democratic" nominees. Significant opposition to Thurmond came from the poor whites of the industrial upcountry, who rejected the Dixiecrats' opposition to public works and labor regulation. However, sufficiently few of these poorer whites voted that Thurmond was able to carry South Carolina, winning 44 of the state's 46 counties and over seventy-one percent of the total presidential vote. Thurmond exceeded 72 percent in all but twelve counties, passed ninety percent in ten
2008 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 2008 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 4, 2008, was part of the 2008 United States presidential election. Voters chose 8 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina was won by Republican nominee John McCain by a 9.0% margin of victory. Prior to the election, all 17 news organizations considered this a state McCain would win, or otherwise considered as a safe red state. Despite the significant proportion of African Americans in the state, South Carolina still remains, like most other states throughout the South, a GOP stronghold at the state and federal levels. Republican John McCain kept South Carolina in the GOP column in 2008; this is the first time. For both parties in 2008, South Carolina's was the first primary in a Southern state and the first primary in a state in which African Americans make up a sizable percentage of the electorate. For Democrats, it was the last primary before 22 states hosted their primaries or caucuses on February 5, 2008.
The 2008 South Carolina Democratic presidential primary took place on January 26, 2008. Senator Barack Obama of Illinois won the primary's popular vote by a 28.9% margin. South Carolina's 45 delegates to the 2008 Democratic National Convention were awarded proportionally based on the results of the primary; the state sent nine superdelegates. New York Senator Hillary Clinton Former North Carolina Senator John Edwards Former Alaska Senator Mike Gravel Illinois Senator Barack Obama Delaware Senator Joe Biden Dropped out on January 4, 2008 Connecticut Senator Chris Dodd Dropped out on January 4, 2008 New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson Dropped out on January 10, 2008 Ohio Representative Dennis Kucinich Dropped out on January 25, 2008 New York Comedian Stephen Colbert Denied Ballot on November 1, 2007 and dropped out November 5, 2007 On the day of the South Carolina primary, Senator John Edwards led in fund raising from the state of South Carolina, followed by Barack Obama and Bill Richardson.
Obtained from CNN as of January 26, 2008 All monthly averages were retrieved from RealClearPolitics. Denotes Leader during Poll AverageDespite maintaining a major early lead in the polls, Senator Clinton fell after the Iowa Caucuses, as Barack Obama skyrocketed and John Edwards began to receive a gradual increase in the polling. However, in the last three polls taken before the South Carolina Primary, Barack Obama took a commanding lead over both Edwards and Clinton. Former Senator John Edwards had come into the margin of error with Senator Clinton for second place in the South Carolina Primary. Throughout the South Carolina campaign, most pundits had predicted Barack Obama the winner because of the state's large African-American population. For this reason, Obama was shown to be ahead of his two rivals, John Edwards, who carried the state in 2004, Hillary Clinton, whose husband was popular in the African-American community. In early polls taken in the weeks leading up to the primary, Clinton had a double-digit lead over both Edwards and Obama.
During a majority of the final campaigning, the attacks between the Clinton campaign and the Obama campaign intensified by the candidates as well as the media coverage. Barack Obama began to attack former President Bill Clinton for his comments which were taken as racist; these comments are considered by analyst and historians alike as the turning point of the South Carolina primary and the cause of Clinton's loss of support from the black community. Despite the increasing tensions between the Clinton and Obama camps, Obama continued to lead in the polls. Into the final days of the campaign in South Carolina, it became apparent that Obama would win by a rather wide margin; the final tally had Obama winning by 28.9 % over Hillary Clinton. In the early months of the campaign, Clinton enjoyed a steep lead over Senator Obama, a 30-point lead over former Senator John Edwards. However, after Obama's win in Iowa, Clinton's campaign in South Carolina began to fall apart by the Obama political machine rolling into South Carolina with force.
For Clinton, despite winning the popular vote in Nevada, the fact that she had lost Nevada's National Delegates, receiving 12 compared to Obama's 13 still lingered in the media. This, combined with the fact of Bill Clinton's continuing negative publicity from "injecting race into the campaign" as several people called Bill Clinton's actions in his wife's campaign. Between battling media scrutiny on Bill Clinton, constant attacks between the Obama and Clinton campaigns, a surging John Edwards which threatened a Clinton second-place finish, poll number began to plunge, with a poll taken by Reuters-Cspan-Zogby showing Clinton in the margin of error for second place with Edwards, with Edwards at 21% and Clinton at 25%; this was combined with the fact of Edwards's constant barrage of attacks claiming Clinton big city politics were "too good for the people of South Carolina". However, despite the attacks from opponents that Bill Clinton's attacks alienated African-Americans, Clinton was able to keep a 35% support amongst that key constituency, while losing the white vote to Edwards, In the end, Clinton's African-American support was able to place her in a clear second-place finish, finishing 9 points ahead of John Edwards despite losing to Obama by 29 points.
After the terrible results for the Edwards Campaign during the Nevada caucuses, in which Edwards finished in third with 4% of the state delegation and received no national delegates, South Carolina began to
2012 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 2012 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. South Carolina voters chose 9 electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. Romney defeated Obama in the state by 54.56% to 44.09%, a margin of 10.47%. President Obama was unopposed in the Democratic primary and won with more than 99% of the vote; the Democratic election was held on January 2012, one week after the Republican election. The Republican primary was held on January 21, 2012. During the primary election campaign, the candidates ran on a platform of government reform in Washington. Domestic and economic policy emerged as the main themes in the election campaign following the onset of the 2008 economic crisis, as well as policies implemented by the Obama administration.
This included the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, termed "Obamacare" by its opponents, as well as government spending as a whole. The primary has become one of several key early state nominating contests in the process of choosing the nominee of the Republican Party for the election for President of the United States, it has been more important for the Republican Party than for the Democratic Party. As of 2012, the primary has cemented its place as the "First in the South" primary for both parties. Newt Gingrich was declared the winner of the race as soon as polls closed, Mitt Romney went on to win the nomination; the 2012 South Carolina Republican primary was tentatively scheduled to occur on February 28, 2012, much than the date in 2008, which immediately followed the beginning of the year in January 2008. On September 29, 2011, the entire schedule of caucuses and primaries was disrupted, when it was announced that the Republican Party of Florida had decided to move up its primary to January 31, in an attempt to bring attention to its own primary contest, attract the presidential candidates to visit the state.
Because of the move, the Republican National Committee decided to strip Florida of half of its delegates. As a result, the South Carolina Republican Party, along with Iowa, New Hampshire and Nevada sought to move their primaries and caucuses back into early January. All but Nevada, who agreed to follow Florida, confirmed their caucus and primary dates to take place throughout January, with South Carolina deciding to hold their contest on January 21, 2012, it is an open primary. Nine candidates appeared on the presidential primary ballot. South Carolina had only 25 delegates up for grabs because it moved its primary to January 21. Eleven delegates were awarded for the statewide winner, Newt Gingrich, two additional delegates were awarded to the winner of each of the seven congressional districts. Six districts were won by Gingrich, one by Romney, giving Gingrich twelve additional delegates and Romney two delegates. Official results with 100% precincts reporting. There were 2,804,231 registered voters, for a turnout of 21.60%.
Technically the voters of South Carolina cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. South Carolina is allocated 9 electors because it has 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 9 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate. Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 9 electoral votes, their chosen electors vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them. An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector; the electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 19, 2016, to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols; the following were the members of the Electoral College from the state.
All 9 were pledged for Romney/Ryan. Bruce Chadwick Connelly Chair, South Carolina Republican Party Drew McKissick Parliamentarian, South Carolina Republican Party Cynthia F. Costa, Republican National Committee Randall S. Page Janice C. McCord Betty Sheppard Poe Sandra R. Stroman Roy Rex Lindsey III James Edward Jerow South Carolina primary Republican Party presidential debates, 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries, 2012 Results of the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries South Carolina Republican Party South Carolina State Election Commission South Carolina's Secretary of State South Carolina Republican Party The Green Papers: for South Carolina The Green Papers: Major state elections in chronological order