An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earths lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to people around. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, Earthquakes are measured using measurements from seismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe and these two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes are mostly imperceptible or weak and magnitude 7 and over potentially cause damage over larger areas. The largest earthquakes in historic times have been of magnitude slightly over 9, intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. The shallower an earthquake, the damage to structures it causes. At the Earths surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground, when the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami.
Earthquakes can trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity, in its most general sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether natural or caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of faults, but by other events such as volcanic activity, mine blasts. An earthquakes point of rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter, tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane. The sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the surface that increase the frictional resistance. Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behavior, once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface.
This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the portion of the fault. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface and this process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of a total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction
Suffragettes were members of womens organizations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries which advocated the extension of the franchise, or the right to vote in public elections, to women. It particularly refers to militants in the United Kingdom such as members of the Womens Social and Political Union, suffragist is a more general term for members of the suffrage movement. The term suffragette is particularly associated with activists in the British WSPU, led by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, Women in South Australia achieved the same right and became the first to obtain the right to stand for parliament in 1895. Women in Britain over the age of 30, meeting certain property qualifications, were given the right to vote in 1918, opinion amongst historians today is divided as to whether the militant tactics of the suffragettes helped or hindered their cause. British suffragettes were mostly women from upper and middle-class backgrounds, frustrated by their social, mill introduced the idea of womens suffrage on the platform he presented to the British electorate in 1865.
He was subsequently joined by men and women fighting for the same cause. The term suffragette was first used as a term of derision by the journalist Charles E, hands in the London Daily Mail to describe activists in the movement for womens suffrage, in particular members of the Womens Social and Political Union. But the women he intended to ridicule embraced the term saying suffraGETtes implied not only that they wanted the vote, the National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies, founded in 1897, was formed from local suffrage societies. The union was led by Millicent Fawcett, who believed in constitutional campaigning, issuing leaflets, organising meetings and presenting petitions, in 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst founded a new organisation, the Womens Social and Political Union. She thought the movement would have to become radical and militant if it was going to be effective, the Daily Mail gave them the name Suffragettes. Some radical techniques used by the suffragettes, especially hunger strikes, were learned from Russian exiles from tsarism who had escaped to England, many suffragists at the time, and most historians since, have argued that the actions of the militant suffragettes damaged their cause.
Opponents at the time saw evidence that women were too emotional, from 1909, the Pank-A-Squith board game was sold by the WSPU to raise awareness of their campaign and raise money. The name is derived from Pankhurst the surname of the leaders of the WSPU, and Asquith, the surname of the Prime Minister at the time and a largely hated figure by the movement. The Peoples History Museum in Manchester has a Pank-A-Squith board game on display in the main galleries, one suffragette, Emily Davison, died under the Kings horse Anmer at the Epsom Derby of 4 June 1913. It is debated whether she was trying to pin a Votes for Women banner on the Kings horse or not, many of her fellow suffragettes were imprisoned and refused food as a scare tactic against the government. The Liberal government of the day led by Asquith responded with the Cat, another prominent British Suffragette, Sophia Duleep Singh was almost forgotten for 70 years. In the early-20th century until the First World War, approximately one thousand suffragettes were imprisoned in Britain, most early incarcerations were for public order offences and failure to pay outstanding fines.
The first suffragettes to be imprisoned were Christabel Pankhurst and Annie Kenney in October 1905 and this cause was taken up by the Womens Social and Political Union, a large organisation in Britain, that lobbied for womens suffrage led by militant suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst
Salisbury railway station
Salisbury railway station serves the city of Salisbury in Wiltshire, England. It is 83.75 miles by rail south-west of London Waterloo on the line to Exeter St Davids and this is crossed at Salisbury by the Wessex Main Line between Cardiff Central and Portsmouth Harbour/Brighton. In the past timetabled routes had more distant destinations to the south-west including Ilfracombe, Padstow and it is operated by South West Trains and served by Great Western Railway. The LSWR opened their Milford station on the east side of the city on 1 March 1847, with the opening of their line from Eastleigh, near Southampton. For nearly a decade this was the only railway, until 30 June 1856 when the GWR opened their Salisbury branch from Westbury. On 1 May 1857 the LSWR opened their main line from London and Andover. On 2 May 1859 the LSWR opened a station on the side of the 1856 GWR station, west of Fisherton Street, to coincide with the opening of the first section of the Salisbury. At the same time the terminus of the Andover line moved to the new station, having been brought across the city, part of the way in a tunnel.
The building is largely of two stories with a main entrance, the architect was Sir William Tite, who was responsible for a number of LSWR stations. The LSWR station had a long platform served by trains in both directions and a second bay platform was provided at the London end. The LSWR station was enlarged between 1899 and 1902, and the 1870s platform east of Fisherton Street could be closed. In the early morning of 1 July 1906 an overnight boat train derailed in Salisbury station, in 2008 the group of buildings was designated as Grade II listed. The GWR opened their 7 ft broad gauge Salisbury branch line from Westbury on 30 June 1856, the terminus was on the west side of Salisbury on the west side of Fisherton Street. Isambard Kingdom Brunel provided a station with a train shed to cover the tracks. In 1896 a through service between Cardiff on the GWR and Portsmouth on the LSWR began operating over a line at Salisbury. The two companies lines ran alongside each other from Salisbury as far as Wilton until October 1973, on 12 September 1932 the GWRs passenger trains were transferred to the LSWR station, and the two railways were in common ownership by British Railways from 1 January 1948.
The train shed was demolished but Brunels passenger buildings were designated as Grade II listed in 1972 and are in use as offices by non-railway businesses, the former Salisbury Milford station was used as a goods station until it was closed in 1967 and demolished in 1968. The former GWR station remained in use as a depot until 1991
Swansea, officially known as the City and County of Swansea, is a coastal city and county in Wales. It is the second largest city in Wales after Cardiff, Swansea lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan and the ancient Welsh commote of Gŵyr. Situated on the sandy South West Wales coast, the county includes the Gower Peninsula. According to its council, the City and County of Swansea had a population of 241,300 in 2014. During its 19th-century industrial heyday, Swansea was a key centre of the copper industry, archaeological finds are mostly confined to the Gower Peninsula, and include items from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The Romans reached the area, as did the Norsemen, Swansea is thought to have developed as a Viking trading post. Its English name may be derived from Sveinns island – the reference to an island may refer to a bank at the mouth of the river Tawe, an alternative explanation is that the name derives from the Norse name Sweyn and ey, which can mean inlet.
This explanation supports the tradition that the city was founded by the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard, the name is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen, a second charter was granted in 1215 by King John. In this charter, the name appears as Sweyneshe, the town seal which is believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse. Following the Norman Conquest, a marcher lordship was created under the title of Gower and it included land around Swansea Bay as far as the River Tawe, the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, and the peninsula itself. Swansea was designated chief town of the lordship and received a borough charter some time between 1158 and 1184, the port of Swansea initially traded in wine, wool, cloth and in coal. Smelters were operating by 1720 and proliferated, following this, more coal mines were opened and smelters were opened and flourished. Over the next century and a half, works were established to process arsenic and tin and to create tinplate, the city expanded rapidly in the 18th and 19th centuries, and was termed Copperopolis.
However, the census understated Swanseas true size, as much of the area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough. Swanseas population was overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881. Through the 20th century, heavy industries in the town declined, leaving the Lower Swansea Valley filled with derelict works, the Lower Swansea Valley Scheme reclaimed much of the land. The present Enterprise Zone was the result and, of the original docks, only those outside the city continue to work as docks, North Dock is now Parc Tawe
London and South Western Railway
The London and South Western Railway was a railway company in England from 1838 to 1922. It had many routes connecting towns in Hampshire and Berkshire, including Portsmouth, in the grouping of railways in 1923 the LSWR became part of the Southern Railway. The London and South Western Railway originated as a renaming of the London and Southampton Railway, the railway was an immediate success, and this encouraged the company to think of extensions, to Windsor, to Gosport and to Salisbury. It made a start but eventually had its own line from Basingstoke to Salisbury and Exeter, continuing by a northerly arc to Plymouth. Coming than the Great Western to the area, it never achieved the solid prosperity there of its broad gauge neighbour. The Southampton line had extended to Weymouth via Ringwood, and the LSWR consolidated its home area building branches closer to London, and direct lines to Portsmouth. It became joint owner, with the Midland Railway, of the Somerset and Dorset Railway, responsible for infrastructure, shipping became significant also, with passenger and freight services to the Channel Islands, to Saint-Malo in France, and to the Isle of Wight.
In the twentieth century it embarked on a programme of electrifying the suburban routes, eventually this covered the entire suburban area. At the same time they revolutionised express passenger train speeds to Weymouth, electrification of the Portsmouth line was now carried out. However, in 1966 the geographical limits of the British Railways regions was rationalised, the Bournemouth line was electrified in 1967, at first with converted steam coaching stock, replaced by purpose built stock, the electrification was extended to Weymouth. In recent years the system has remained constant, with increasing train frequency from about 1990 now forming a limitation. The services were transferred to St Pancras International in 2007 and at present the Eurostar terminal is dormant, construction probably started on 6 October 1834 under Francis Giles, but progress was slow. The Parliamentary fight had been bitter, and a combination of resentment, a more immediate opportunity was taken up, of serving Portsmouth by a branch line.
Interests friendly to the L&SR promoted a Portsmouth Junction Railway, which would have run from Bishopstoke via Botley, however resentment in Portsmouth—which considered Southampton a rival port—at being given simply as branch and thereby a roundabout route to London, killed the prospects of such a line. Portsmouth people wanted their own line, but in trying to play off the L&SR against the London & Brighton Railway they were unable to secure the committed funds they needed. The L&SR now promoted a line to Gosport and simpler than the earlier proposal. To soothe feelings in Portsmouth, the L&SR included in its Bill a change of name to the London, construction of the Gosport branch was at first quick and simple under Thomas Brassey. Stations were built at Bishopstoke and Fareham, an extremely elaborate station was built at Gosport, tendered at £10,980, seven times the tender price for Bishopstoke
A permanent wave, commonly called a perm or permanent, involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure. The hair is washed and wrapped on a form and waving lotion or reagent is applied and this solution reacts chemically softening the inner structure of the hair by breaking some of the cross links within and between the protein chains of the hair. The hair swells and softens, molds around the shape of the form, in addition, the process is often used for the chemical hair straightening, or relaxing. This process makes use of the chemical reactions as that of the permanent wave. The first person to produce a practical method was Marcel Grateau in 1872. He devised a pair of specially manufactured tongs, in one of the arms had a circular cross-section. The tongs were generally heated over a gas or alcohol flame, the waving itself was safe if care was taken to keep the tongs away from the scalp. Each time the tongs were applied, they were moved slightly in a normal to the lock of hair.
Skill using the wrist could produce slight variations of the wave, Marcel waving produced a two-dimensional wave, by thermal means only and the change was produced by plastic flow of the hair, rather than by any chemical means. Because of the temperature used, the process tended to degrade the hair. However, in spite of its drawbacks, forms of Marcel waving have persisted until today, as the demand for self-determination grew among women, hair was shortened so that it did not pass the lower end of the neck. This was not only a political gesture but a practical one, as shorter hair was improved in appearance by waving even more than long hair, it was only a matter of time before an improved form of waving appeared. An early alternative method for curling hair that was suitable for use on people was invented in 1905 by German hairdresser Karl Nessler and he used a mixture of cow urine and water. The first public demonstration took place on 8 October 1905, wigs had been set with caustic chemicals to form curls, but these recipes were too harsh to use next to human skin.
His method, called the spiral method, was only useful for long hair. The hair was wrapped in a spiral around rods connected to a machine with a heating device. Sodium hydroxide was applied and the hair was heated to 212 °F or more for a period of time. The process used about twelve 2-pound brass rollers and took six hours to complete and these hot rollers were kept from touching the scalp by a complex system of countering weights which were suspended from an overhead chandelier and mounted on a stand
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the battleship was the most powerful type of warship, the word battleship was coined around 1794 and is a contraction of the phrase line-of-battle ship, the dominant wooden warship during the Age of Sail. The term came into use in the late 1880s to describe a type of ironclad warship. In 1906, the commissioning of HMS Dreadnought heralded a revolution in battleship design, subsequent battleship designs, influenced by HMS Dreadnought, were referred to as dreadnoughts. Battleships were a symbol of naval dominance and national might, the launch of Dreadnought in 1906 commenced a new naval arms race. Jutland was the largest naval battle and the only full-scale clash of battleships in the war, the Naval Treaties of the 1920s and 1930s limited the number of battleships, though technical innovation in battleship design continued. The value of the battleship has been questioned, even during their heyday, there were few of the decisive fleet battles that battleship proponents expected, and used to justify the vast resources spent on building battlefleets.
Battleships were retained by the United States Navy into the Cold War for fire support purposes before being stricken from the U. S. Naval Vessel Register in the 2000s. A ship of the line was a large, unarmored wooden sailing ship which mounted a battery of up to 120 smoothbore guns, from 1794, the alternative term line of battle ship was contracted to battle ship or battleship. The sheer number of guns fired broadside meant a sail battleship could wreck any wooden enemy, holing her hull, knocking down masts, wrecking her rigging, and killing her crew. However, the range of the guns was as little as a few hundred yards. The first major change to the ship of the concept was the introduction of steam power as an auxiliary propulsion system. Steam power was introduced to the navy in the first half of the 19th century, initially for small craft. The French Navy introduced steam to the line of battle with the 90-gun Napoléon in 1850—the first true steam battleship, Napoléon was armed as a conventional ship-of-the-line, but her steam engines could give her a speed of 12 knots, regardless of the wind condition.
This was a decisive advantage in a naval engagement. The introduction of steam accelerated the growth in size of battleships, the adoption of steam power was only one of a number of technological advances which revolutionized warship design in the 19th century. The ship of the line was overtaken by the ironclad, powered by steam, protected by metal armor, and armed with guns firing high-explosive shells. In the Crimean War, six ships and two frigates of the Russian Black Sea Fleet destroyed seven Turkish frigates and three corvettes with explosive shells at the Battle of Sinop in 1853
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and treatment of disease and injury in non-human animals. The scope of medicine is wide, covering all animal species. Veterinary medicine is practiced, both with and without professional supervision. Professional care is most often led by a physician. This can be augmented by other paraprofessionals with specific specialisms such as animal physiotherapy or dentistry, Veterinary science helps human health through the monitoring and control of zoonotic disease, food safety, and indirectly through human applications from basic medical research. They help to maintain food supply through livestock health monitoring and treatment, Veterinary scientists often collaborate with epidemiologists, and other health or natural scientists depending on type of work. Ethically, veterinarians are obliged to look after animal welfare. The Egyptian Papyrus of Kahun and Vedic literature in ancient India offer one of the first written records of veterinary medicine, first Buddhist Emperor of India edicts of Asoka reads, Everywhere King Piyadasi made two kinds of medicine available, medicine for people and medicine for animals.
Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought, the first attempts to organize and regulate the practice of treating animals tended to focus on horses because of their economic significance. In the Middle Ages from around 475 CE, farriers combined their work in horseshoeing with the general task of horse doctoring. This ultimately led to the establishment of the Worshipful Company of Farriers in 1674, Carlo Ruinis book Anatomia del Cavallo, was published in 1598. It was the first comprehensive treatise on the anatomy of a non-human species, the first veterinary college was founded in Lyon, France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, the Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, and played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain. A founding member, Thomas Burgess, began to take up the cause of animal welfare and campaign for the more humane treatment of sick animals.
A1785 Society meeting resolved to promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles. ”The physician James Clark wrote a treatise entitled Prevention of Disease in which he argued for the professionalization of the trade. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with contributions from Sir John McFadyean. In the United States, the first schools were established in the early 19th century in Boston, New York, in 1879, Iowa Agricultural College became the first land grant college to establish a school of veterinary medicine
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016.
As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order.
The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
City Hall, Cardiff
City Hall is a civic building in Cathays Park, Wales, serving as Cardiffs centre of local government since it opened in October 1906. Built of Portland stone, it is an important early example of the Edwardian Baroque style, the complex replaced Cardiffs fourth town hall, built by architect Horace Jones c. The competition to design Cardiffs fifth town hall and adjacent law courts was won in 1897 by the firm of Lanchester, construction was carried out by local builders E. Turner and Sons. Turned and Sons used the worlds first all-electrically operated building site, the total building cost was £129,708. As Cardiff received its city charter in 1905 while construction was underway, the distinctive clock tower is 59 m in height has a 3.7 m-diameter gilded dial on each of its four faces. The clock mechanism includes a bell and four quarter bells which are each inscribed with mottoes in English or Welsh. In front of the portico is a rectangular pool with fountains. They were created in July 1969 to mark the investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales, the memorial on the left is dedicated to Polish soldiers and sailors who gave their lives during the Second World War 1939-1945.
The one on the right is dedicated to victims of the war, the first floor landing of City Hall is decorated with statues in Pentelicon marble of famous figures from Welsh history. These were funded by a gift from David Alfred Thomas, 1st Viscount Rhondda, the Marble Hall was unveiled by David Lloyd George, Secretary of State for War, on October 27,1916. It is used for ceremonies and events during the year. It is decorated with mouldings picked out in leaf, of mermaids. Three large bronze chandeliers are contemporary to the architects design. This is located above the entrance portico and directly below the main dome of the building. The chamber was designed to host Cardiffs Council meetings, the dome of City Hall is supported by four massive pillars of Italian marble. The chamber is panelled throughout in oak, the cover of the Catatonia single Mulder and Scully has a UFO above the building similar to the movie poster for Independence Day. Grade I listed buildings in Cardiff List of tallest buildings in Cardiff Official website The history of the Marble Hall
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free-trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American, by the end of the nineteenth century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite splitting over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to power in 1906 with a landslide victory, by the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives main rival. The party went into decline and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections, apart from notable by-election victories, the partys fortunes did not improve significantly until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 General Election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, at the 1987 General Election, its vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989 and it was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Lib Dems diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes, the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II, and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of reducing the power of the Crown, although their motives in this were originally to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs gradually came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake. The great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple, after decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832. The Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs demise. As early as 1839 Russell had adopted the name of Liberals, the leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act.
They favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances, for a century, free trade remained the one cause which could unite all Liberals. This allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s, a leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, who was a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments. The formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and this was brought about by Palmerstons death in 1865 and Russells retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government Gladstone won a victory at the 1868 election. The establishment of the party as a membership organisation came with the foundation of the National Liberal Federation in 1877. John Stuart Mill was a Liberal MP from 1865 to 1868, for the next thirty years Gladstone and Liberalism were synonymous. William Ewart Gladstone served as prime minister four times, called the Grand Old Man in life, Gladstone was always a dynamic popular orator who appealed strongly to the working class and to the lower middle class
Vauxhall Bridge is a Grade II* listed steel and granite deck arch bridge in central London. It crosses the River Thames in a south–east north–west direction between Vauxhall on the bank and Pimlico on the north bank. The original bridge was built on the site of a former ferry, the building of both bridges was problematic, with both the first and second bridges requiring several redesigns from multiple architects. The original bridge, the first iron bridge over the Thames, was built by a private company and operated as a toll bridge before being taken into public ownership in 1879. The second bridge, which eight years to build, was the first in London to carry trams. With the exception of alterations to the layout and the balustrade. The bridge today is an important part of Londons road system, in the early 13th century, Anglo-Norman mercenary Falkes de Breauté built a manor house in the empty marshlands of South Lambeth, across the River Thames from Westminster. The lands surrounding his Lambeth manor house continued to be known as Falkes Hall, in 1809 a new bill was presented to Parliament, and the proprietors of Battersea Bridge agreed to allow it to pass and to accept compensation.
The Bill incorporated the Vauxhall Bridge Company, allowing it to raise up to £300,000 by means of mortgages or the sale of shares, and to keep all profits from any tolls raised. From these profits, the Vauxhall Bridge Company was obliged to compensate the proprietors of Battersea Bridge for any drop in revenue caused by the new bridge, dodd submitted a scheme for a bridge at Vauxhall of 13 arches. However, soon after the 1809 Act was passed, he was dismissed by the Vauxhall Bridge Company, john Rennie was commissioned to design and build the new bridge, and a stone bridge of seven arches was approved. On 9 May 1811, Lord Dundas laid the stone of the bridge on the northern bank. Rennie submitted a new design for a bridge of eleven spans. Rennies design was rejected, and instead construction began on a nine arch iron bridge designed by Samuel Bentham, concerns were raised about the construction of the piers, and engineer James Walker was appointed to inspect the work. On 4 June 1816, over five years after construction began, the opened, initially named Regent Bridge after George, Prince Regent.
The bridge cost £175,000 to build, with the costs of approach roads and compensation payments, exemptions were granted for mail coaches, soldiers on duty and parliamentary candidates during election campaigns. However, the area around the failed to develop as expected. Meanwhile, the large Millbank Penitentiary was built near the end of the bridge