England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Plymouth Argyle F.C. Player of the Year
Plymouth Argyle Football Club is an English association football club based in Plymouth, Devon. Founded in 1886 as Argyle Football Club, they became a club in January 1903. Argyle won their first Football League championship, and promotion to the Second Division for the first time, as of 2010, the club has won five championships in the Football League, gained promotion on eight occasions, and been relegated eight times. Four of those championships were won in the third tier. Argyle have made one appearance at Wembley Stadium, in which won the 1996 Third Division play-off final. The club has achieved moderate success in domestic cup competitions, they reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup in 1984. Argyle have also reached the semi-finals of the League Cup twice, the Plymouth Argyle Player of the Year award is voted for annually by the clubs supporters. It recognises the best overall performance by a player through the course of the season. Each year, the winner is presented with the trophy on the pitch at Home Park before the clubs last home game of the season. This is the more prestigious of the two made by Plymouth Argyle itself, with the other being the Young Player of the Year accolade. Since its inception in 1966, thirty-nine different players have won the award, six of these players have lifted the award for a second time, the most recent being Welsh international Carl Fletcher. As of the 2010–11 season, only striker Tommy Tynan has received the award for a third time, three players have lifted the trophy in consecutive seasons, the first was Paul Mariner in 1976. Steve McCall matched that feat in the 1994, and Carl Fletcher became the third in 2011, seven winners of the award have represented their country at international level. Six winners have gone on to become the clubs manager, the 2012–13 winner was Onismor Bhasera, who made 46 appearances in all competitions during the campaign. Top goalscorer Reuben Reid won the award the season, becoming the first forward to win the award since Mickey Evans. As of end of 2015-16 season, general Specific Plymouth Argyle F. C. official website Plymouth Argyle F. C. archive
Home Park is an all-seater football stadium in the Central Park area of Plymouth, England, and is the home of Football League Two club Plymouth Argyle. The ground, given the nickname the Theatre of Greens by the supporters, has been Argyles permanent residence since 1901. After undergoing considerable development in the 1920s and 1930s the ground suffered heavy damage during the Second World War, the ground remained relatively unchanged until 2001 when construction of three new all-seater stands commenced. The work was completed in February 2002, and after work the stadium became all-seated in the summer of 2007. The record average attendance for a season,23,290. The stadium was selected as part of Englands 2018 FIFA World Cup bid by the FA in December 2009, the ground has played host to England youth internationals in the past, and a UEFA Cup Winners Cup match between Saint-Étienne and Manchester United in 1977. Home Park was originally used by the now defunct Devonport Albion rugby team from 1893 to 1898, following a dispute with the grounds owners over rent, Albion left and the ground was not used for three years. In 1901 the Argyle Athletic Club obtained a lease on the ground, then an oval-shaped bowl and cinder track surrounded by allotments and farmland. The new owners staged their first event, a meeting, on Whit Monday in 1901. The club, formed in 1886, changed its name to Plymouth Argyle in 1903, Home Park played host to its first competitive match, against Northampton Town, on 5 September 1903 in front of a crowd of 4,438. At the time the ground had one wooden grandstand which could accommodate 2,000 people, while the three sides of the ground were surrounded by slag heap banking with a waist-high fence. When Argyle joined the Football League in 1920 several improvements were required to meet safety requirements, a pitched-roof was erected along the main entrance at the Devonport End of the ground to provide cover for supporters using that terrace. The new Grandstand incorporated players changing rooms and club offices, many of these facilities were built with funds provided by the official supporters club. By the 1930s the ground was regularly hosting crowds in excess of 20,000, a crowd of 43,596 were in attendance to watch the club play out a 2–2 draw with Aston Villa in the Football League Second Division. The ground continued to host Second Division football until the outbreak of war in 1939, the city of Plymouth was hit hard during the Second World War due to its strength as a military base, HMNB Devonport was the largest naval base in Western Europe. As the ground was so close to the city centre and Plymouth Sound, the Football League was abandoned three games into the 1939–40 season, but Home Park continued to host matches until summer 1940 in the hastily organised South West Regional League. In April 1941 there was a series of Luftwaffe bombing raids on the city, known as the Plymouth Blitz, Home Park did not escape. The Grandstand was all but destroyed after sustaining multiple hits and the pitch was littered with impact craters, several drastic measures were required to be ready for the resumption of a regionalised Football League in 1945
1996 Football League Third Division play-off Final
It was contested by Plymouth Argyle, who finished fourth in the Third Division table, and Darlington, who finished fifth. The teams reached the final by defeating Colchester United and Hereford United respectively in the two-legged semi-finals, Plymouth Argyle won the match 1–0 thanks to a headed goal from Ronnie Mauge to gain promotion back to the third tier of English football one season after being relegated. For the clubs manager, Neil Warnock, it was his success in the play-offs as a manager, having achieved it twice with Notts County. His counterpart, Jim Platt, would leave full-time management at the end of that year, Plymouth Argyle had finished the 1995–96 Football League season in fourth place in the Third Division, one place ahead of Darlington. In the play-off semi-finals, Darlington were paired with sixth-placed Hereford United, Darlington won their first leg tie 2–1 at Edgar Street courtesy of goals from Robbie Blake and Sean Gregan. They also won the leg by the same scoreline at Feethams with Matty Appleby. Plymouth Argyle lost the first leg of their semi-final tie 1–0 at Layer Road after a goal from Mark Kinsella, goals from Michael Evans, Chris Leadbitter and Paul Williams were enough to secure a 3–1 win and a 3–2 victory on aggregate. The results set up a first visit to Wembley Stadium for the supporters of both clubs, the two teams were competing for promotion to the third tier of the English football league system, at the time called the Second Division, a familiar place for both sides. In its previous 68 seasons as a Football League club, Plymouth Argyle competed exclusively in the second and third tiers, while Darlington had featured in the second tier just twice, competing in the third tier on 32 occasions and the fourth tier another 32 times. The official attendance of 43,431 was a record for a final at that level, beating the previous record set in 1994. The match was to be goalkeeper Steve Cherrys last for the club, the final would prove to be Man of the Match Matty Applebys last for Darlington. Adrian Littlejohn found space after a one-two with Michael Evans, but his first touch let him down, Darlingtons main threat was coming from attacking full back Appleby and he had their best chance of the match midway through the first half. He carved out the chance, having carried the ball half the length of the pitch. The hasty clearance from Argyle found its way back to Appleby, Plymouth Argyle came close to making their opponents pay for their profligacy in front of goal with Evans lifting a volley over the crossbar. Darlingtons captain Andy Crosby was proving to be a figure at the heart of his teams defence. A flick on by Evans presented Adrian Littlejohn with the opportunity to redeem his earlier miss, the pivotal moment arrived on 65 minutes after Martin Barlow had earnt a corner-kick on the right-hand side. Leadbitter played the short to full back Mark Patterson, whose well-measured cross was met firmly by the unmarked Mauge to head into the back of the net. As Darlington committed more players forward in search of an equaliser they left themselves exposed in defence which gave the side more space to launch counter-attacks
History of Plymouth Argyle F.C.
Plymouth Argyle Football Club is an English professional football club based in Plymouth, Devon. This article covers its history, from the formation in 1886 to the present day. The club was founded in 1886 as Argyle Football Club, the first match taking place on 16 October 1886 against Caxton, later that week Argyle won for the first time–beating Dunheved College in Launceston 2–1. In 1898, Argyle F. C. produced its first rulebook, the clubs ground was given as Marsh Mills, an area on the edge of the city of Plymouth, which still hosts sports. Much speculation surrounds the origin of the name Argyle, One explanation is that the club was named after the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, an army regiment with a strong football side of its own. The club adopted its current name when it became professional in 1903 joining the Southern League. Argyles first professional game was on 1 September 1903 against West Ham United resulting in a 2–0 win for Argyle with the first goal being scored by Jack Peddie. Their first home game as a professional club was on 5 September 1903 when they beat Northampton Town 2–0 in front of a crowd of 4,438. Argyle won the Southern League in 1913, then in 1920 entered the Football League Third Division as a founder member, in the summer of 1924, a Plymouth Argyle team visited South America to play some exhibition football in Uruguay and Argentina. Argyle thrashed Uruguay 4–0 in their first game before pulling off another shock by beating Argentina 1–0 and they then held Argentinean giants Boca Juniors to a credible 1–1 draw. Moses Russell captained the side and played in all nine matches, after a half hour delay, the referee restarted the match, but a further invasion was sparked when the referee awarded a penalty against the home side. When the match was restarted, the Argyle players had agreed that Patsy Corcoran would take the spot-kick and miss. However, the ultra-competitive Russell was not prepared to accept this and this prompted a further pitch invasion by the Boca fans and this time the match was abandoned. Back in England, uniquely, between 1921–22 and 1926–27, Argyle finished second in the Third Division South six seasons in a row, thereby missing promotion. Argyle eventually won promotion to Football League Division Two in 1929–30, manager Bob Jack resigned in 1937, having spent a grand total of 27 years in charge of the Pilgrims. He was also the first player to score at Wembley Stadium, after the Second World War Argyles 20-year stay in Division Two came to an end in 1950–despite the efforts of inspirational captain Jack Chisholm. However, they were back in Division Two before long, after winning the Third Division South in 1952. The closest they came to playing in the Football League First Division was in 1952–53
Plymouth Argyle F.C.
Plymouth Argyle Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Plymouth, Devon, England. They have played in League Two, the tier of the English football league system. They are one of two teams in Devon currently competing in the Football League, the other being Exeter City – Argyles local rivals, since becoming professional in 1903, the club has won five Football League titles, five Southern League titles and one Western League title. The 2009–10 season was the clubs 42nd in the tier of English football. The team set the record for most championships won in the tier, having finished first in the Third Division South twice, the Third Division once. The club takes its nickname, The Pilgrims, from an English religious group that left Plymouth for the New World in 1620, the club crest features the Mayflower, the ship that carried the pilgrims to Massachusetts. The club have played in dark green and white throughout their history, with a few exceptions in the late 1960s. The city of Plymouth is the largest in England never to have hosted top-flight football and they are the most southerly and westerly League club in England. Home Park is the 37th biggest stadium in England, the original ground of the professional club at Home Park was destroyed by German bombers during the Blitz on Plymouth in World War II. Having been rebuilt after the war, Home Park was largely demolished as part of a process of renovation. The new Devonport End was opened for the 2001 Boxing Day fixture with Torquay United, the other end, the Barn Park End, opened on the same day. The Lyndhurst stand reopened on 26 January 2002 for the game against Oxford United, plans are currently under discussion regarding the completion of the refurbishment of the ground with the replacement of the Mayflower stand. The ground is situated in Central Park, very near to the area of Peverell. Towards the end of the 2005–06 Championship season, the decided to buy the stadium for £2.7 million from Plymouth City Council. This purchase was concluded in December 2006, in December 2009 it was announced that the stadium was to be one of 12 chosen to host matches during the World Cup 2018, should Englands bid be successful. The then Argyle chairman Paul Stapleton stated that work on a new South Stand at Home Park would start in 2010, however, England failed to be chosen for the 2018 tournament, and Plymouth Argyle entered administration in March 2011. After selling the back to the council on 14 October 2011 for £1.6 million. The club was taken over by local business owner James Brent, who submitted fresh plans to build a new Mayflower Grandstand with a 5,000 seating capacity
Western Football League
The Western Football League is a football league in South West England, covering Bristol, Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, western Dorset, parts of Gloucestershire and Wiltshire. The leagues current main sponsor is Toolstation, so it is known as the Toolstation League. The champion club may apply for promotion to a Step 4 league, below the Western League are four local leagues covering smaller areas, the Gloucestershire County League, the Somerset County League, the Dorset Premier League and the Wiltshire League. The South West Peninsula League Premier Division is also a feeder to the Western League but due to having Step 6 status, Premier Division, Division One, The league was formed in 1892 as the Bristol & District League, and became the Western League in 1895. In the years before World War II, many teams played in both the Southern and Western Leagues, the Western League was considered as secondary to the Southern League. On four occasions, member clubs have lifted the FA Vase, Tiverton Town twice, Taunton Town once and most recently Truro City, totton in 2007 at the first final to be held at the new Wembley Stadium before a competition record crowd of 27,754. Truro City were the one of the three to win the FA Vase while in Division One, while none are current members of the Western League. Bedminster | Clevedon | Clifton Association | Eastville Rovers | Mangotsfield | St. George | Trowbridge Town | Warmley | Wells Official Site Western League -Fixtures, Results and Tables
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker