Mendocino County, California
Mendocino County is a county located on the north coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 87,841; the county seat is Ukiah. Mendocino County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located west of the Central Valley. The county is noted for its distinctive Pacific Ocean coastline, its location along California's "Lost Coast", Redwood forests, wine production and liberal views about the use of cannabis and support for its legalization. In 2009 it was estimated that one-third of the economy was based on the cultivation of marijuana; the notable historic and recreational attraction of the "Skunk Train" connects Fort Bragg with Willits in Mendocino County via a steam-locomotive engine, along with other vehicles. Mendocino County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Due to an minor white American population, it did not have a separate government until 1859 and was under the administration of Sonoma County prior to that.
Some of the county's land was given to Sonoma County between 1850 and 1860. The county derives its name from Cape Mendocino, named in honor of either Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain, 1535–1542, or Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, Viceroy from 1580 to 1583. Mendocino is the adjectival form of the family name of Mendoza. Neither Spanish nor Mexican influence extended into Mendocino County beyond establishing two Mexican land grants in southern Mendocino County: Rancho Sanel in Hopland, in 1844 and Rancho Yokaya that forms the majority of the Ukiah Valley, in 1845. In the 19th century, despite the establishment of the Mendocino Indian Reservation and Nome Cult Farm in 1856, the county witnessed many of the most serious atrocities in the extermination of the Californian Native American tribes who lived in the area, like the Yuki, the Pomo, the Cahto, the Wintun; the systematic occupation of their lands, the reduction of many of their members into slavery and the raids against their settlements led to the Mendocino War in 1859, where hundreds of Indians were killed.
Establishment of the Round Valley Indian Reservation in March 30, 1870, did not prevent the segregation that continued well into the 20th century. Other tribes from the Sierra Nevada mountains were relocated to the Round Valley Indian Reservation during the "California Trail Of Tears", where the Natives were forced to march in bad conditions to their new home in Round Valley. Many of these tribes thrown together were not friends with the other tribes they were forced to live with on the reservation, resulting in tensions still evident today. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,878 square miles, of which 3,506 square miles is land and 372 square miles is water. Humboldt County - north Trinity County - north Tehama County - northeast Glenn County - east Lake County - east Sonoma County - south The 2010 United States Census reported that Mendocino County had a population of 87,841; the racial makeup of Mendocino County was 67,218 White, 622 African American, 4,277 Native American, 1,450 Asian, 119 Pacific Islander, 10,185 from other races, 3,970 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19,505 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 86,265 people, 33,266 households, 21,855 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 36,937 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.8% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 4.8% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 8.6% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. 16.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.2% were of German, 10.8% English, 8.6% Irish, 6.1% Italian and 5.6% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 84.4% spoke English and 13.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 33,266 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,996, the median income for a family was $42,168. Males had a median income of $33,128 versus $23,774 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,443. About 10.9% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. As of 2018, the district attorney of Mendocino County is C. David Eyster, the elected sheriff-coroner is Thomas D. Allman, the chief executive officer is Carmel J. Angelo. Mendocino County is legislatively governed by a board of five supervisors, each with a separate district.
The first district is represented by Carre Brown, serves the central-eastern region of the county, including Potter Valley, Redwood Valley and Talmage. The second district, represented by John McCowen, serves Ukiah; the third district, in the nort
Del Norte County, California
Del Norte County is a county at the far northwest corner of the U. S. state of California, along the Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Oregon border. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,610; the county seat and only incorporated city is Crescent City. Del Norte was pioneered and settled by Azorean Portuguese explorers and dairy farmers, which may account for the local pronunciation of the county name. Residents pronounce the county name as Del Nort, not Del Nor-teh as would be expected in Spanish. Del Norte County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area; the rural county is notable for forests containing giant Coast Redwoods, with some attaining heights over 350 feet. This northernmost county on the California coast has scores of unique plants and flowers, dozens of species of coastal birds and fish, rocky primitive beaches and sea stacks, pristine rivers, historic lighthouses. Del Norte is known among Bigfoot enthusiasts as the location of the famous Patterson–Gimlin film, as well as being the location of some of the forest scenes used in Return of the Jedi.
The area, now known as Del Norte was and still is inhabited by the Yurok and Tolowa Nations of indigenous peoples. The first European American to explore this land was pioneer Jedediah Smith in the mid-19th century, he was the first European American to reach the area overland on foot in a time before the European Americans knew anything about such a distant territory. For him it was "Land's End" — where the American continent ended at the Pacific Ocean. In 1855 Congress authorized the building of a lighthouse at "the battery point", still functioning as a historical landmark. Del Norte County was established in 1857, from part of the territory of Klamath County following the great California Gold Rush. Klamath County itself ceased to exist in 1874. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,230 square miles, of which 1,006 square miles is land and 223 square miles is water; the mountainous terrain associated with the Coastal Range and the Klamath Mountains dominates Del Norte County's geography.
Elevation ranges from sea level to over 6,400 feet. Although much of the county is made up of steep terrain, there are small patches of flat terrain along the coast and in isolated mountain valleys. There are 37 miles of coastline in the county, forming a coastal zone that covers 51,000 acres. A broad coastal plain can be found in the northwest portion of the county with the western edge of the Klamath Mountains as its easterly boundary. Rising abruptly from the coastal plain, the Klamath Mountains extend north into Oregon and are situated between the Cascade Range to the east and the Coast Range to the north. Curry County, Oregon - northwest Josephine County, Oregon - northeast Siskiyou County - east Humboldt County - south Pelican State Beach Smith River National Recreation Area Klamath - one of the longest in California. Smith - a crown jewel of the National Wild and Scenic River program. Castle Rock National Wildlife Refuge Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park Redwood National Park Tolowa Dunes State Park Ruby Van Deventer County Park Florence Keller County Park There is a diversity of flora and fauna within Del Norte County.
Vegetative plant associations feature several forest types including mixed oak forest. The California endemic Blue oak, Quercus douglasii is at the northernmost part of its range in Del Norte County; the Black Oak and Douglas-fir are found in Del Norte County. The 2010 United States Census reported that Del Norte County had a population of 28,610; the racial makeup of Del Norte County was 21,098 White, 993 African American, 2,244 Native American, 965 Asian, 32 Pacific Islander, 1,980 from other races, 1,298 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5,093 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 27,507 people, 9,170 households, 6,290 families residing in the county. The population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 10,434 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.9% White, 4.3% Black or African American, 6.4% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races.
13.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.2% were of German, 11.3% English, 9.1% Irish and 7.4% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 91.6% spoke English and 6.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 9,170 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families. 25.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.08. The age distribution was 25.1% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 123.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 130.3 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,642, the median income for a family was $36,056.
Males had a median income of $40,072 versus $22,212 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,573. About 16.4% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.7% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Del Norte County is home to a satellite ca
San Diego County, California
San Diego County the County of San Diego, is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313. Making it California's second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States, its county seat is the eighth-most populous city in the United States. It is the southwesternmost county in the 48 contiguous United States. San Diego County comprises the San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the 17th most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 18th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. San Diego is part of the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico. Greater San Diego ranks as the 38th largest metropolitan area in the Americas. San Diego County has more than 70 miles of coastline; this forms the most densely populated region of the county, which has a mild Mediterranean to semiarid climate and extensive chaparral vegetation, similar to the rest of the western portion of southern California.
Precipitation and temperature extremes increase to the east, with mountains that receive frost and snow in the winter. These lushly forested mountains receive more rainfall than average in southern California, while the desert region of the county lies in a rain shadow to the east, which extends into the Desert Southwest region of North America. There are 16 naval and military installations of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, the U. S. Coast Guard in San Diego County; these include the Naval Base San Diego, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Naval Air Station North Island. From north to south, San Diego County extends from the southern borders of Orange and Riverside Counties to the Mexico-U. S. Border and Baja California. From west to east, San Diego County stretches from the Pacific Ocean to its boundary with Imperial County; the area, now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 12,000 years by Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians and their local predecessors.
In 1542, the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who may have been born in Portugal but sailed on behalf of Spain, claimed San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire, he named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. European settlement in what is now San Diego County began with the founding of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spanish soldiers and clerics in 1769; this county was part of Alta California under the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the Mexican declaration of independence. From 1821 through 1848 this area was part of Mexico. San Diego County became part of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the Mexican–American War; this treaty designated the new border as terminating at a point on the Pacific Ocean coast which would result in the border passing one Spanish league south of the southernmost portion of San Diego Bay, thus ensuring that the United States received all of this natural harbor.
San Diego County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of California statehood in 1850. At the time of its establishment in 1850, San Diego County was large, included all of southernmost California south and east of Los Angeles County, it included areas of what are now Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, as well as all of what are now Riverside and Imperial Counties. During the part of the 19th century, there were numerous changes in the boundaries of San Diego County, when various areas were separated to make up the counties mentioned above; the most recent changes were the establishments of Riverside County in 1893 and Imperial County in 1907. Imperial County was the last county to be established in California, after this division, San Diego no longer extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River, it no longer covered the entire border between California and Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,526 square miles, of which 4,207 square miles is land and 319 square miles is water.
The county is larger in area than the combined states of Rhode Delaware. San Diego County has a varied topography. On its western side is more than 70 miles of coastline. Most of San Diego between the coast and the Laguna Mountains consists of hills and small canyons. Snow-capped mountains rise with the Sonoran Desert farther to the east. Cleveland National Forest is spread across the central portion of the county, while the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park occupies most of the northeast. Although the county's western third is urban, the mountains and deserts in the eastern two-thirds are undeveloped backcountry. Most of these backcountry areas are home to a native plant community known as chaparral. San Diego County contains more than a million acres of chaparral, twice as much as any other California county. North San Diego County is known as North County; the eastern suburbs are collectively known as East County, though most still lie in the western third of the county. The southern suburbs and southern detached portion of the city of San Diego, extending to the Mexican border, are collectively referred to as South Bay.
Periodically the area has been subject to wildfires th
United States Secretary of War
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War", had been appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and Henry Knox held the position; when Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving as Secretary of War. The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department. At first, he was responsible including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, the scope of responsibility for this office was reduced to the affairs of the United States Army. From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tem of the Senate and the Secretary of State.
In 1947, with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, the Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet subordinates under the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Army's office is considered the direct successor to the Secretary of War's office although the Secretary of Defense took the Secretary of War's position in the Cabinet, the line of succession to the presidency; the office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britain's Secretary at War, William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, at the time of the American Revolution. The office of Secretary at War was meant to replace both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia; the Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, Adjutant General served on the Secretary's staff. However, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men.
Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Confederate States Secretary of War Bell, William Gardner. Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005: Portraits and Biographical Sketches. Washington, D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet 1789-2010. Armenia, New York: Greyhouse Publishing. King, Archibald. Command of the Army. Military Affairs. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Judge Advocate General's School, U. S. Army
1908 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1908 was the 31st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1908. Secretary of War and Republican Party nominee William Howard Taft defeated three-time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan. Popular incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt honored his promise not to seek a third term, persuaded his close friend, Taft, to become his successor. With Roosevelt's support, Taft won the presidential nomination of the 1908 Republican National Convention on the first ballot. Having lost the 1904 election badly, the Democratic Party re-nominated Bryan, defeated in 1896 and 1900 by Republican William McKinley. Despite his two previous defeats and the waning of the Free Silver issue, Bryan remained popular among the more liberal and populist elements of the Democratic Party. Bryan ran a vigorous campaign against the nation's business elite, but the Democrat suffered the worst loss of his three presidential campaigns. Taft carried most states outside of the Solid South.
Taft's triumph gave Republicans their fourth straight presidential election victory. Two third party candidates, Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party and Eugene W. Chafin of the Prohibition Party, each took over 1% of the popular vote. Republican candidates: Charles W. Fairbanks, Vice President of the United States Joseph B. Foraker, Senator from Ohio Philander C. Knox, Senator from Pennsylvania Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Senator from Wisconsin L. M. Shaw, former Secretary of the Treasury William Howard Taft, Secretary of War The Republican nomination contest marked the introduction of the presidential preference primary; the idea of the primary to nominate candidates was sponsored by anti-machine politicians such as New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes and Senator Albert B. Cummins; the first state to hold a presidential primary to select delegates to a national convention was Florida in 1904, when Democratic Party voters held a primary among uninstructed candidates for delegate. Early in 1908, the only two Republican contenders running nationwide campaigns for the presidential nomination were Secretary of War William Howard Taft and Governor Joseph B.
Foraker, both of Ohio. In the nomination contest, four states held primaries to select national convention delegates. In Ohio, the state Republican Party held a primary on February 11. Candidates pledged to Taft were printed on the ballot in a Taft column, candidates pledged to Foraker were printed in a column under his name. Taft won a resounding victory in Ohio; the three states holding primaries to select delegates without the preference component were split: California chose a slate of delegates that supported Taft. La Follette, Sr. and Pennsylvania elected a slate that supported its Senator Philander C. Knox; the 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago between June 16 and 19. William Howard Taft was nominated with 702 votes to 68 for Knox, 67 for Hughes, 58 for Cannon, 40 for Fairbanks, 25 for La Follette, 16 for Foraker, 3 for President Roosevelt, one abstention. Representative James S. Sherman from New York received the vice-presidential nomination; as the 1908 election approached, William Jennings Bryan was the front-runner for the Democratic presidential nomination.
Bryan's most formidable challenger for the nomination was Minnesota Governor John Albert Johnson. Johnson's rags-to-riches story, reformist credentials, ability to win in a Republican state made him popular within the Democratic Party. In March, the Minnesota Democratic State Convention endorsed Johnson for president. By the end of June, Bryan had amassed more than the requisite two-thirds of the delegates needed for nomination; the 1908 Democratic National Convention was held in Denver between July 7 and 10. Johnson, aware of the fact that Bryan's nomination was a foregone conclusion, released his delegates, thereby allowing Bryan to win the nomination on the first ballot. Bryan left the choice of vice-president to the delegates. John W. Kern from Indiana was unanimously declared the candidate for vice-president without a formal ballot after the names of Charles A. Towne, Archibald McNeil, Clark Howell were withdrawn from consideration. Kern was two-time gubernatorial candidate. In response to nomination of Bryan and Kern, The New York Times disparagingly pointed out that the Democratic national ticket was consistent because "a man twice defeated for the Presidency was at the head of it, a man twice defeated for governor of his state was at the tail of it."
Independence candidates: John T. Graves, Journalist from New York William Randolph Hearst, former U. S. representative and newspaper magnate from New York Thomas L. Hisgen and former Gubernatorial candidate from Massachusetts Milford W. Howard, former U. S. representative from Alabama Reuben R. Lyon, Lawyer from New York Disappointed with his performance in the 1904 Democratic presidential nomination campaign, disillusioned as to his chances of attaining it in 1908, William Randolph Hearst decided to run instead on the ticket of a third party of his own making. Borne from the Municipal Ownership League, a vehicle for Hearst's unsuccessful bid for the mayoralty of New York in 1905, it was Hearst's intention to fuse it with the remnants of the Populist Party led by Thomas Watson, a former Representative from Georgia, its presidential nominee in 1904. However, these intentions were dashed when every candidate that the Independence Party put forth in elections held in New York was elected except Hearst himself, despite an endorsement by the Democratic Party.
Devastated, Hearst declared his
San Mateo County, California
San Mateo County the County of San Mateo, is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451; the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Calif.. Metropolitan Statistical Area, is part of the San Francisco Bay Area, the nine counties bordering San Francisco Bay, it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the northern end of the county, Silicon Valley begins at the southern end; the county's built-up areas are suburban with some areas being urban, are home to several corporate campuses. San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the state's 18 original counties since California's statehood in 1850, was split apart; until 1856, San Francisco's city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, south to 20th Street. In response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county.
A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain. Everything south of the line became the new San Mateo County while everything north of the line became the new consolidated City and County of San Francisco, to date the only consolidated city-county in California; the consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by a bill introduced by Horace Hawes, signed by the governor on 19 April 1856. San Mateo County was organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G. Phelps; the 1857 bill defined the southern boundary of San Mateo County as following the south branch of San Francisquito Creek to its source in the Santa Cruz Mountains and thence due west to the Pacific Ocean, named Redwood City as the county seat. San Mateo County annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by "unblushing frauds... perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco" named Belmont the county seat.
The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, with land being donated from the original Pulgas Grant for the county government on 27 February 1858. Redwood City's status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the state supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875 and the county seat has been in Redwood City since. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew; as a place name, San Mateo appears as early as 1776 in the diaries of Font. Several local geographic features were designated San Mateo on early maps including variously: a settlement, an arroyo, a headland jutting into the Pacific, a large land holding; until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo. The Japanese first arrived in San Mateo county and were part of a group guided by Ambassador Tomomi Iwakura back in 1872.
There were a number of all male Japanese students who came to San Mateo to learn English and many other helpful skills to bring back to Japan. These students were some of the first Japanese to join American students in the Belmont school for boys; these students had to work for their housing and food in the evenings. Many of the first Japanese immigrants were able to find jobs as gardeners and landscapers In San Mateo. Most of them had good educational background from their homelands, but their lack of knowing the English language made it difficult for them to find other jobs in the beginning. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 741 square miles, of which 448 square miles is land and 293 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in California by land area. A number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the western county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio, Denniston Creek.
These streams originate along the northern spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. The northern and north-east parts of the county are heavy densely populated with urban and suburban areas, with many of its cities as edge-cities for the Bay Area, whilst the deep south and the west central parts of the county are less heavy densely populated with more rural environment and coastal beaches areas. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length; the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannah. There are numerous species of wildlife present along the San Francisco Bay estuarine shoreline, San Bruno Mountain, Fitzgerald Marine Reserve and the forests on the Montara Mountain block. Several creeks discharge to the San Francisco Bay including San Mateo Creek and Laurel Creek and several coastal streams discharge to the Pacific Ocean such as Frenchmans Creek and San Vicente Creek.
Año Nuevo State Marine Conservation Area and Greyhound Rock State Marine Conservation Area are two adjoining marine protected areas off the coast of San Mateo County. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems; the county is home to several endangered species including the San Francisco garter snake and the San Bruno elfin butterfly, b
Alameda County, California
Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, making it the 7th-most populous county in the state; the county seat is Oakland. Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area; the Spanish word alameda means either, "...a grove of poplars...or a tree lined street" a name used to describe the Arroyo de la Alameda. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early Spanish explorers of a road lined with trees. Although a strict translation to English might be "Poplar Grove Creek", the name of the principal stream that flows through the county is now "Alameda Creek." Alameda County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county was formed on March 25, 1853, from a large portion of Contra Costa County and a smaller portion of Santa Clara County; the county seat at the time of the county's formation was located at Alvarado, now part of Union City.
In 1856, it was moved to San Leandro, where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault. The county seat was re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, the county seat since 1873. Much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed as a trolley car suburb of San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the historical progression from Native American tribal lands to Spanish Mexican ranches to farms and orchards to multiple city centers and suburbs, is shared with the adjacent and associated Contra Costa County. The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton; the fair runs for three weekends from June to July. Attractions include horse racing, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, live bands. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 821 square miles, of which 739 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water.
The San Francisco Bay borders the county on the west, the City and County of San Francisco, has a small land border with the city of Alameda due to land filling. The crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary and reach into the center of the county. A coastal plain several miles wide lines the bay. Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county. Amador Valley continues west to the Pleasanton Ridge; the Hayward Fault, a major branch of the San Andreas Fault to the west, runs through the most populated parts of Alameda County, while the Calaveras Fault runs through the southeastern part of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Alameda County to be the fourth most racially diverse county in the United States—behind Aleutians West Census Area and Aleutians East Borough in Alaska, Queens County in New York—as well as the most diverse county in California; the 2010 United States Census reported that Alameda County had a population of 1,510,271.
The population density was 2,047.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alameda County was 649,122 White, 190,451 African American, 9,799 Native American, 394,560 Asian, 12,802 Pacific Islander, 162,540 from other races, 90,997 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339,889 persons: 16.4% Mexican, 0.8% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Cuban, 5.1% Other Hispanic. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,443,741 people, 523,366 households, out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living within them, 47.0% married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.31. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 33.9% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $55,946, the median income for a family was $65,857. Males had a median income of $47,425 versus $36,921 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,680. About 7.7% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, the largest denominational group was the Catholics; the largest religious bodies were Judaism. The Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Alameda. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments such as the Government of Alameda County, while municipalities such as the city of Oakland and the city of Berkeley provide additional non-essential services.
The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforceme