Minister of Finance (New Zealand)
The Minister of Finance, originally known as Colonial Treasurer, is a senior figure within the government of New Zealand. The position is considered to be the most important cabinet post after that of the Prime Minister. The current Minister of Finance is Steven Joyce, there are two Associate Minister roles. They are currently held by Amy Adams and Simon Bridges, the Minister of Finance is responsible for producing an annual New Zealand budget outlining the governments proposed expenditure. According to Parliaments Standing Orders, the Minister of Finance may veto any bill which would have a significant impact on the governments budget plans. The Minister of Finance supervises the Treasury, which is the primary advisor on matters of economic. As such, the Minister of Finance has broad control of the spending, making the position quite powerful. Some analysts, such as Jonathan Boston, claim that the Minister of Finance can sometimes hold more influence than the Prime Minister, gordon Coates, Finance Minister in the early 1930s, was sometimes such a figure.
The office of Minister of Finance has existed since 1841, apart from the office of Prime Minister itself, the only other cabinet posts to have existed since the first cabinet are those of Attorney-General and Minister of Internal Affairs. Originally, the holder of the post was designated Colonial Treasurer and this occurred in 1907, during the cabinet of Joseph Ward. In the past, several Prime Ministers took on the post of Minister of Finance themselves, robert Muldoon, the last person to concurrently serve as Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, created considerable controversy by doing so. It is more common, for a Deputy Prime Minister to serve as Minister of Finance, bob Tizard, Michael Cullen and the current Prime Minister Bill English served as Deputy Prime Minister when in the position as Minister of Finance. After the 1996 elections, the role of the Minister of Finance was split between two portfolios – that of Minister of Finance and that of Treasurer. The position of Treasurer was senior to that of the Minister of Finance and it was established especially for Winston Peters, leader of New Zealand First, who demanded it as part of the deal
Sir Joseph George Ward, 1st Baronet, GCMG, PC was the 17th Prime Minister of New Zealand on two occasions in the early 20th century. Ward was born in Melbourne on 26 April 1856 to a Roman Catholic family of Irish descent and his father, who is believed to have been an alcoholic, died in 1860, aged 31 – Ward was raised by his mother, Hannah. In 1863, the moved to Bluff, in New Zealands Southland region, seeking better financial security – Hannah Ward established a shop. Ward received his education at primary schools in Melbourne and Bluff. He did not go to secondary school and he did, read extensively, and picked up a good understanding of business from his mother. In 1869, Ward found a job at the Post Office, with the help of a loan from his mother, Ward began to work as a freelance trader, selling supplies to the newly established Southland farming community. Ward became involved in local politics very quickly and he was elected to the Campbelltown Borough Council in 1878, despite being only 21 years old – at age 25 he became Mayor, the youngest in New Zealand.
He served on the Bluff Harbour Board, eventually becoming its chairman, in 1887, Ward stood for Parliament, winning the seat of Awarua. Politically, Ward was a supporter of such as Julius Vogel and Robert Stout. Ward became known as a strong debater on economic matters, in 1891, when the newly founded Liberal Party came to power, the new Prime Minister, John Ballance, appointed Ward as Postmaster General. Later, when Richard Seddon became Prime Minister after Ballances death, Wards basic political outlook was that the state existed to support and promote private enterprise, and his conduct as Treasurer reflects this. Wards increasing occupation with government affairs led to neglect of his own interests, however. In 1896, a judge declared Ward hopelessly insolvent and this placed Ward, as Treasurer, in a politically difficult situation, and he was forced to resign his portfolios on 16 June. In 1897, he was forced to file for bankruptcy, which legally obligated him to resign his seat in Parliament, a loophole meant that there was nothing to stop him contesting it again, however.
In the resulting by-election he was elected with an increased majority, Ward rebuilt his businesses, and paid off his creditors. Seddon, still Prime Minister, quickly reappointed him to Cabinet where he served as Minister of Railways, Ward gradually emerged as the most prominent of Seddons supporters, and was seen as a possible successor. As Seddons long tenure as Prime Minister continued, some suggested that Ward should challenge Seddon for the leadership, Ward was in London at the time. It was generally agreed in the party that Ward would succeed him, Ward was sworn in on 6 August 1906
Whanganui, spelt Wanganui, is a city on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The Whanganui River, New Zealands longest navigable waterway, runs from Mount Tongariro to the sea, Whanganui is part of the Manawatu-Wanganui region. Like several New Zealand centres, it was designated a city until administrative reorganisation in 1989. Whanganui is located on the South Taranaki Bight, close to the mouth of the Whanganui River and it is 200 kilometres north of Wellington and 75 kilometres northwest of Palmerston North, at the junction of State Highways 3 and 4. Most of the lies on the rivers northwestern bank, due to the greater extent of flat land. Much of the town is on the rivers northwest bank, the river is crossed by four bridges – Cobham Bridge, City Bridge, Dublin Street Bridge and Aramoho Railway Bridge. Suburbs of the include, Castlecliff, Springvale, St. Johns Hill, Aramoho, Wanganui East, Bastia Hill, Durie Hill. Of these, all except Wanganui East, Bastia Hill, Durie Hill, both Mount Ruapehu and Mount Taranaki can be seen from Durie Hill and other vantage points around the city.
The area around the mouth of the Whanganui river was a site of pre-European Māori settlement. The pā named Pūtiki was and is home to the Ngāti Tūpoho hapū of the iwi Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi and it took its name from the legendary explorer Tamatea-pōkai-whenua, who sent a servant ashore to find flax for tying up his topknot. In the 1820s coastal tribes in the area assaulted the Kapiti Island stronghold of Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha, Te Rauparaha retaliated in 1830 sacking Pūtiki and slaughtering the inhabitants. The first European traders arrived in 1831, followed in 1840 by missionaries Octavius Hadfield, on 20 June 1840, the Revd John Mason, Mrs Mason, Mr Richard Matthews and his wife Johanna arrived to establish a mission station of the Church Missionary Society. Revd Richard Taylor joined the CMS mission station in 1843, the Revd Mason drowned on 5 January 1843 while crossing the Turakina River. By 1844 the brick built by Mason was inadequate to meet the needs of the congregation. A new church was built under the supervision of Taylor, with the timber supplied by each pā on the river in proportion to its size, after the New Zealand Company had settled Wellington it looked for other suitable places for settlers.
The settlement was threatened in 1846 by Te Mamaku, a chief from up the Whanganui River, the British military arrived on 13 December 1846 to defend the township. Two stockades, the Rutland and York, were built to defend the settlers, two minor battles were fought on 19 May and 19 July 1847 and after a stalemate the up river iwi returned home. By 1850 Te Mamaku was receiving Christian instruction from Revd Taylor, there were further incidents in 1847 when four members of the Gilfillan family were murdered and their house plundered
Mayor of Dunedin
The Mayor of Dunedin is the head of the municipal government of Dunedin, New Zealand, and presides over the Dunedin City Council. The Mayor is directly elected, using the Single Transferable Vote system in 2007, the current Mayor is Dave Cull who was first elected in 2010 and confirmed in 2013. The mayor has always elected at large, with the inaugural election in 1865. Up until 1915, the term of mayor was for one year only, from 1915 to 1935, the term was two years. Since the 1935 mayoral election, the term has been three years, the role of Deputy Mayor was established in 1917. City Of Dunedin, A Century of Civic Enterprise, DCC website - election results DCC website - councillors since 1865
Thomas William Hislop
Thomas William Hislop was the Mayor of Wellington from 1905 to 1908, and had represented two South Island electorates in the New Zealand Parliament. He was born in Kirknewton, West Lothian in 1850 and his father, John Hislop, was the first secretary for Education in New Zealand. The family left Scotland in 1856 on the Strathmore and landed in Port Chalmers and he was educated by his father until the age of twelve, and attended John Shaws Grammar School, Dunedin High School and University of Otago, where he studied law. He was admitted as a barrister and solicitor in 1871, only a few months after his teacher from Shaws Grammar and he practised as a lawyer in Oamaru, in which town he resided until 1890. After the 1890 election defeat, he moved to Wellington, where he became a partner in the firm of Brandon. He was first elected for the Waitaki electorate in the 1876 general election and he resigned on 28 April 1880 for private reasons. He represented Oamaru from an 1885 by-election to 1889, when he resigned from his two portfolios and his parliamentary seat over the Ward–Hislop Affair.
He won the resulting 1889 by-election, but was defeated by Thomas Young Duncan at the general election in 1890. He contested the 1896 general election in the Wellington Suburbs electorate, an election petition was filed one month after the election, accusing Wilford of bribery, illegal practices and not being properly registered as a voter himself. Therefore, it was argued, that only Hislop was properly registered, wilfords election was declared invalid, but a by-election was called. Hislop declared that he would not stand in the by-election in favour of the opposition candidate Arthur Richmond Atkinson, Charles Wilson from the Liberal Party narrowly defeated Atkinson in the 1897 by-election, though. He was a member of the Atkinson Ministry from 1887 to 1891, holding posts as Colonial Secretary, the education portfolio filled Hislop with great pleasure, as he was thus following in his fathers footsteps, as he had been the author of the Education Act. Hislop drafted the Fair Rent Bill, which was introduced by the fifth Atkinson Ministry and he introduced labour bills and shop hours, and employers’ liability bills, building liens and the Truck Act, however, were not passed.
He was successful in passing the Shipping and Seamens Act and he affected some useful legal reforms, and introduced the Representation Bill, a measure based on the Hare system, but this was withdrawn. Hislops political views were on the left of the spectrum, as a minister, he was involved in the 1889 Paris Exposition. For that, and for his services to education in general, Hislop unsuccessfully contested the three-member Wellington electorate in the 1899 election. He contested the Newtown electorate in both the 1902 and 1905 elections, in 1902, the electorate was contested by William Henry Peter Barber, Charles Luke, William Chapple and William George Tustin. They received 1385,1357,1100,1017 and 159 votes, John Crewes had initially contested the election, but he withdrew his nomination before polling day
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
William Ferguson Massey, often known as Bill Massey or Farmer Bill, was the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand, from 1912 to 1925, and the founder of the Reform Party. He is widely considered to have one of the more skilled politicians of his time. After Richard Seddon, he is the second-longest-serving Prime Minister of New Zealand, Massey was born in 1856 into a Protestant farming family, and grew up in Limavady, County Londonderry in Ireland. His father John Massey and his mother Marianne née Ferguson were tenant farmers and his family arrived in New Zealand on 21 October 1862 on board the Indian Empire as Nonconformist settlers, although Massey remained in Ireland for a further eight years to complete his education. After arriving on 10 December 1870 on the City of Auckland, Massey worked as a farmhand for some years before acquiring his own farm in Mangere, south Auckland, in 1882 Massey married his neighbours daughter, Christina Allan Paul. Massey gradually became prominent in his community.
This was partly due to his involvement in the school board, the debating society. Because of his prominence in these circles, he involved in political debate. In 1893 Massey stood as a candidate in the election in the Franklin electorate, losing to the Liberal candidate. In early 1894 he was invited to contest a by-election in the electorate of Waitemata. In the 1896 election he stood for the Franklin electorate, which he represented until he died in 1925, Massey joined the ranks of the independent MPs opposing the Liberal Party, led by Richard Seddon. They were poorly organised and dispirited, and had little chance of unseating the Liberals, William Russell, the Leader of the Opposition, was able to command only 15 votes. Massey brought increased vigour to the conservative faction, while the conservatives rallied for a time, support for the Liberals increased markedly during the Second Boer War, leaving the conservatives devastated. Masseys political career survived the period, despite a challenge by William Herries, after Seddons death the Liberals were led by Joseph Ward, who proved more vulnerable to Masseys attacks.
In particular, Massey made gains by claiming that alleged corruption and his conservative politics benefited him when voters grew concerned about militant unionism and the supposed threat of socialism. In February 1909, Massey announced the creation of the Reform Party from his New Zealand Political Reform League, the party was to be led by him and backed by his conservative colleagues. In the 1911 election the Reform Party won more seats than the Liberal Party, the Liberals, relying on support from independents who had not joined Reform, were able to stay in power until the following year, when they lost a vote of confidence. Massey was sworn in as Prime Minister on 10 July 1912, two days it was reported in the press on 12 July that he had accepted the appointment of Honorary Commandant of the Auckland District of the Legion of Frontiersmen
Leader of the Opposition (New Zealand)
The Leader of the Opposition in New Zealand is the politician who, at least in theory, commands the support of the non-government bloc of members in the Parliament of New Zealand. In the debating chamber the Leader of the Opposition sits directly opposite the Prime Minister, the current Leader of the Opposition is Andrew Little, the Leader of the Labour Party. By convention, the Leader of the Opposition is the leader of the largest party of the Opposition, the Leader of the Opposition does not have a large official role, as most of the posts functions are ceremonial. Nevertheless, there are ways in which the Leader of the Opposition participates directly in affairs of state. The Leader of the Opposition receives a higher salary than other members of the Opposition, for much of the countrys early history, the role was not a formal one. It was only when the Liberal Party was formed that any unified leadership appeared in Parliament, john Ballance, leader of the Liberals is usually considered the first Leader of the Opposition in the modern sense.
When Ballance led the Liberals into government in 1891, they faced no opposition in a party sense. However, their opponents gradually coalesced around a leader, William Massey, who became Opposition leader in 1903, and in 1909 became the first leader of the new Reform Party. After this, the Leader of the Opposition would always be the leader of the largest party in the House of Representatives that had not undertaken to support the Government of the day. One notable exception to this was during World War I, when the opposition Liberal Party accepted the governing Reform Partys offer to form a wartime coalition, Prime Minister Massey extended the offer to the new Labour Party who rejected it. This made Labour the largest party not in government, however their leader Alfred Hindmarsh was not recognized as the Leader of the Opposition, joseph Ward, who became Deputy Prime Minister in the wartime cabinet still retained the title, albeit in name only. During the 1910s and 1920s, the role of Opposition alternated between the Liberal and Reform parties, after the 1925 Election there was no official Leader of the Opposition until Rex Mason of Labour won the seat of Eden in the by-election held on 15 April 1926.
Labour became superseded the Liberals as the opposition and their leader Harry Holland became Leader of the Opposition. The 1928 General Election put United in government for the last time, Reform became the Opposition, however in 1931 Reform entered into coalition with the Liberals, and Labour became the Opposition, despite being the third party. With the introduction of the MMP voting system, first used in the 1996 general elections, though the leader of the largest non-Government party still becomes the Leader of the Opposition, there will usually be several parties who are in opposition. An example of this arose after the 2002 general elections, when the National Party gained only 27 seats and this prompted calls from a number of parties, notably New Zealand First and the Greens, for the abolition or reform of the post. It was argued by these parties that the position had become an anachronism in the modern multi-party environment, with the resurrection of the National Party in the 2005 general election, a more traditional relationship between Government and Opposition has been restored.
A table of Leaders of the Opposition is below, the table begins in 1891, when the first real political party was founded
Governor-General of New Zealand
The Governor-General of New Zealand is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The office is mandated by letters patent and the officeholder is formally titled the Governor-General, when travelling abroad, the governor-general is seen as the representative of New Zealand, and of the Queen of New Zealand. For this reason, the governor-general is viewed by some as the de facto head of state, under the Niue Constitution Act, the governor-general represents the monarch in Niue. The governor-general initially represented the British monarch and the government of the United Kingdom, many officeholders have been British statesmen. In 1972, Sir Denis Blundell became the first New Zealand resident to be appointed to the office, governors-general are not appointed for a specific term, but are generally expected to serve for five years. The current Governor-General is Dame Patsy Reddy, who has served since 28 September 2016, administrative support for the governor-general is provided by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet.
Appointment to the Office is made by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister of New Zealand, the Prime Ministers advice has sometimes been the result of a decision by Cabinet, although there is no requirement for this. The appointment of Anand Satyanand met with the approval of every leader in the House of Representatives, by convention the Leader of the Opposition is consulted on the appointment, however this too has not always been the case. This suggestion was in turn criticised by the Government, as Sir Edmund had backed Labour in 1975 as part of the Citizens for Rowling campaign, the right granted by the convention was not exercised directly by a New Zealand Prime Minister until 1967. Although non-partisan while in office, there have been a number of appointments of Governors-General to the office that have attracted considerable controversy, despite their political backgrounds, neither of these appointments could be said to have discharged their duties in a partisan way. There has often been speculation that a member of the Royal Family might take up the position, before the Governor-General enters office, his or her commission of appointment is publicly read in the presence of the Chief Justice of New Zealand and the members of the Executive Council.
The Governor-General must take the Oath of Allegiance and the oath for the due execution of the office, from time to time, there have been proposals to elect the Governor-General. When first drafted by Governor George Grey, the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 contained provision for the Governor to be elected by New Zealands Parliament. This provision was removed from the enactment, probably because the Colonial Office wanted to keep a check on New Zealands colonial government. In 1887 Sir George Grey, by also a former Premier, the Bill was narrowly defeated 46–48, being opposed by the government of Harry Atkinson. In 2006 political commentator Colin James suggested that the Governor-General could be elected by a 60% majority of votes cast in Parliament, James argued that the New Zealand public should be given the ability to choose the Queens representative, and that the current system is undemocratic and not transparent. National MP Nikki Kaye queried whether several one-member parties in parliament could veto the decision, the Republican Movement responded that the method would ensure appointments were made that most MPs and parties found acceptable.
The Governor-General holds office at the pleasure of the Queen, under clause II of the Letters Patent
Dunedin Public Libraries
Dunedin Public Libraries is a network of five libraries and two bookbuses in Dunedin, New Zealand and operated by the Dunedin City Council. The libraries collection includes over 700,000 items, and around 30,000 books, members can borrow or return items from any library or bookbus in the network. Dunedin Public Libraries operates five libraries and two bookbus services, dunedins first free public library opened on 2 December 1908, funded by a £10,000 grant from American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. Services were expanded through the 1930s, in the 1950s, the bus service was launched. The library received its first major donation in 1913 when Dr Robert McNab presented some 4,200 volumes of New Zealand history, the vast size of the Reed Collection, in addition to the librarys continual expansion, necessitated the librarys removal to a new location. Plans for the new site were sketched in 1973, with construction commencing in 1978. The new building, at 230 Moray Pl, opened in 1981, the first functioning library in Mosgiel was established in 1881 by the Athanaeum Committee.
A new library administered by the Mosgiel Borough Council was opened in 1959, in 1989 the library joined the Dunedin Public Libraries network as a result of local council amalgamation. In addition to library resources, the Mosgiel Library operates the Mosgiel branch of the Dunedin City Council Customer Services Centre. Port Chalmers Mechanics Institute started in 1864, and became the Port Chalmers Public Library under the control of the Borough Council in 1943. The library was housed in the Municipal Building. In 1989 the library joined the Dunedin Public Libraries network as a result of local council amalgamation, in 2004 the Port Chalmers Library and Service Centre was completely refurbished by the Dunedin City Council. Extensive consultation with the Historic Places Trust meant the historic facade, a number of art works have been added to the library collection, including some by Ralph Hotere, David Elliot, Robyn Belton, and Pamela Brown. The Waikouaiti Library was founded in 1862 by the Rev A Fenton and Miss Emily Orbell and began with 100 books and they were housed in the school room in Beach Street.
Fentons successor the Rev A Dasent took charge in 1863 and was Chairman of the committee for 11 years. The Library moved to Mechanics Hall in 1875 and from time a committee of seven was elected annually by the subscribers. In 1905 a new book room 24 feet by 9 feet was built as a connection between the cottage and the hall on the north side. By 1913 there were 107 subscribers and over 3000 books, in the late nineteen sixties the County Council took over responsibility for the Hall and the Library
Cinema of New Zealand
New Zealand cinema, can refer to films made by New Zealand-based production companies in New Zealand. However, it may refer to films made about New Zealand by filmmakers from other countries. In addition, due to the small size of its film industry. Film has a history in New Zealand. The first public screening of a picture was in 1896, a 1900 documentary is the oldest surviving New Zealand film -. However, although there was a small-scale industry during the 1920s-1960s, in October 1978 the New Zealand Film Commission was formalised by Parliament under the Third National Government. Section 18 of the Act, entitled Content of Films, would serve to define which aspects a film had to have in order for it to be labelled as a New Zealand Film. The impact of the New Zealand Film Commission on the industry was in getting films made, coming to a definition of NZ Film, most New Zealand films are made by independent filmmakers, often on a low budget and with sponsorship from public funds. Relatively few New Zealand-made films have been commissioned for the international market by international film distributors.
Private funding for New Zealand films has often been in short supply, although for a period in the early eighties resulted in a rush of money. The first public screening of a picture was on 13 October 1896 at the Opera House. The first screening of a film was on Christmas Eve in 1911. It was a showing at the Globe Picture Theatre, Queen Street. The first filmmaker in New Zealand was Alfred Whitehouse, who made ten films between 1898 and mid-1900, the oldest surviving New Zealand film is Whitehouses The Departure of the Second Contingent for the Boer War. The first feature made in New Zealand is arguably Hinemoa. It premiered on 17 August 1914 at the Lyric Theatre, New Zealands oldest surviving cinema is the Roxburgh cinema, located in Central Otago. It was opened on 11 December 1897 and is still open, New Zealand film was a small-scale industry during the 1920s-1960s. During the 1920s and 1930s, director Rudall Hayward made a number of films on New Zealand themes
1908 in art
February – The Ashcan School give their first and only exhibition, opening at the Macbeth Gallery in New York. March 20–May 2 – Salon des Indépendants in Paris gives rise to the term Cubism, may – Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky produces a color photographic portrait of Leo Tolstoy. July – Allied Artists Association holds its first exhibition, at the Royal Albert Hall in London, july 29 – The Whitworth Art Gallery building in Manchester is formally opened. November – Georges Braque exhibits at Daniel-Henry Kahnweilers Paris gallery, critic Louis Vauxcelles describes him as reducing everything, hugh Lane founds the Dublin City Gallery, the worlds first to display only modern art. Paul Ranson founds the Académie Ranson in Paris, the British Medical Association Building, designed by Charles Holden with eighteen controversial nude sculptures by Jacob Epstein, is completed. Wassily Kandinsky settles in the Bavarian town of Murnau am Staffelsee, the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna rejects Adolf Hitlers application to study painting.
Australian painter Arthur Streeton marries violinist Nora Clench, W. M. W. February 28 – William Coldstream, English realist painter. July 22 – Claire Falkenstein, American sculptor and painter, august 22 – Henri Cartier-Bresson, French photographer. August 28 Edith Tudor Hart, born Edith Suschitzky, Austrian-born photojournalist and communist agent in Britain, roger Tory Peterson, American naturalist, ornithologist and educator. August 30 – Leonor Fini, Argentine surrealist painter, september 6 – Korczak Ziolkowski, Polish American sculptor. September 14 – Peter Watson, English arts benefactor October 1 – Nicholas Marsicano, October 21 – Jorge Oteiza, Spanish sculptor, painter and writer. October 27 – Lee Krasner, American abstract expressionist painter, november 4 – EQ Nicholson, born Elsie Q. Myers, English textile designer and painter, november 19 – Gisèle Freund, born Gisela Freund, German-born photographer. December 3 – Victor Pasmore, English artist and architect, december 23 – Yousuf Karsh, Armenian-Canadian photographer.
Myron Stout, American abstract painter Umaña, Colombian artist