History of Liechtenstein
Political identity came to the territory now occupied by the Principality of Liechtenstein in 814, with the formation of the subcountry of Lower Rhætia. Liechtensteins borders have remained unchanged since 1434, when the Rhine established the border between the Holy Roman Empire and the Swiss cantons, Roman villas have been excavated in Schaanwald and Nendeln. The late Roman influx of the Alemanni from the north is memorialized by the remains of a Roman fort at Schaan, the area, part of Raetia, was incorporated into the Carolingian empire, and divided into countships, which became subdivided over the generations. Because the duchy of Swabia lost its duke in 1268 and was never restored, until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German gained ground, and in 1300 an Alemannic population called the Walsers entered the region. In the 21st century, the village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect. The medieval county of Vaduz was formed in 1342 as a subdivision of the Werdenberg county of the dynasty of Montfort of Vorarlberg.
The 15th century brought three wars and some devastation, over the centuries, the family acquired huge landed estates, mostly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria. All of these territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords, particularly under various lines of the Habsburg family. Liechtenstein was invaded by both Austrian and Swedish troops during the Thirty Years War of 1618–1648, during the 17th century the country was afflicted by a plague and by a witch hunt, in which more than 100 persons were persecuted and executed. Prince Johann Adam Andreas of Liechtenstein bought the domain of Schellenberg in 1699 and this Prince of Liechtenstein had wide landholdings in Austria and Moravia, but none of his lands were held directly from the Emperor. Thus, the prince was barred entry to the Council of Princes. The territory took the name of the family now ruled it. The French under Napoleon occupied the country for a few years, soon afterward, Liechtenstein joined the German Confederation.
Then, in 1818, Johann I granted a constitution, although it was limited in its nature,1818 saw the first visit of a member of the house of Liechtenstein, Prince Alois. However, the first visit by a prince would not occur until 1842. In 1862, a new Constitution was promulgated, which provided for a Diet representative of the people, in 1868, after the German Confederation dissolved, Liechtenstein disbanded its army of 80 men and declared its permanent neutrality, which was respected during both World Wars. Liechtenstein did not participate in World War I, claiming neutrality, until the end of the war, Liechtenstein was closely tied to Austria. In response, the Allied Powers imposed an embargo on the principality
Salomon Arvid Achates Lindman was a Swedish rear admiral and conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1906 to 1911 and again from 1928 to 1930. His two tenures as Prime Minister, from 1906 to 1911 and from 1928 to 1930, spanned the introduction of parliamentarianism, Lindman married Annie Almström in 1888, with whom he had three children. He was a cousin of Alex Lindman, Arvid Lindman was born in Österbybruk, the son of managing director Achates Lindman and Ebba Dahlgren. His career as a naval officer 1882-92 reached its peak in 1907 when he was appointed as Rear Admiral in the naval reserve, during his political career following this he became known primarily as the Admiral. Lindman was CEO of Iggesunds Bruk from 1892 to 1903 and of Strömbacka bruks AB between 1903 and 1923, in 1904 he became Director-general of Televerket. Through great political skill Lindman managed to enact suffrage for male citizens according to the principle of double proportionality - in both chambers of parliament - in 1907-09.
His six-year government oversaw a number of reforms in the areas of industry, schools, a defence committee was appointed, decisions were made to build up the navy, and the international position of Sweden was confirmed in the Nordic and Baltic Sea agreements. Political and economic opposition resulted in the strike of 1909, but the strike failed. Lindman transferred to the chamber where he was chairman for the second-chamber right 1912-35. Among other innovations he hired an airplane to take him on speaking tours of the country, the GEU lost its status as largest party in 1917 to the Social Democrats, which has retained it since. Among the things this government did, the calling of the conference on peace in the workplace in 1928 is worth mentioning. The government resigned in 1930 after the Freeminded and the Social Democrats blocked the proposition for raised customs duty on grain, no party or union commanded a majority, which made the 1920s and early 1930s notoriously turbulent. Lindman was a kind of party leader, who with involvement.
Both as an industrialist and as a politician he was energetic and he was a pragmatic conservative without losing his principles and an effective political peace-broker, who sought a policy of compromise with his adversaries. During the growth of the movements in Europe he acted as a guardian for the principles of government by the people. When his partys youth organisation started organising uniformed fascist action groups in the 1930s, Lindman died in an aircraft crash on 9 December 1936, when the Douglas DC-2 in which he was travelling crashed into houses near Croydon Airport just after taking off in thick fog
Gustaf V of Sweden
Gustaf V was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death in 1950. He was the eldest son of King Oscar II of Sweden and Sophia of Nassau, a half-sister of Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Reigning from the death of his father Oscar II in 1907 until his own death 43 years later, he holds the record of being the oldest monarch of Sweden and the second-longest reigning after Magnus IV. He was the last Swedish monarch to exercise his royal prerogatives and he was the first Swedish king since the High Middle Ages not to have a coronation and hence never wore a crown, a tradition continuing to date. Following his death at age 92, he was implicated as a homosexual in the Haijby affair and his supposed lover – career criminal and accused pedophile Kurt Haijby – was imprisoned in 1952 for blackmail of the court in the 1930s. An avid hunter and sportsman, he presided over the 1912 Olympic Games, most notably, he represented Sweden as a competitive tennis player, keeping up competitive tennis until his 80s, when his eyesight deteriorated rapidly.
He died from flu complications and was succeed by his son, Gustaf V was born in Drottningholm Palace in Ekerö, Stockholm County, the son of Prince Oscar and Princess Sofia. At birth Gustaf was created Duke of Värmland, upon his fathers accession to the throne in 1872, Gustaf became crown prince of both Sweden and Norway. On 8 December 1907, he succeeded his father on the Swedish throne, on 20 September 1881 he married Princess Victoria of Baden in Karlsruhe, Germany. She was the granddaughter of Princess Sophie of Sweden, and her marriage to Gustaf V united, by a blood link. When he ascended the throne, Gustaf V was, at least on paper, the 1809 Instrument of Government made the king both head of state and head of government, and ministers were solely responsible to him. However, his father had forced to accept a government chosen by the majority in Parliament in 1905. Since then, prime ministers had been according to parliamentary support. At first, Gustaf V seemed to be willing to accept parliamentary rule, after the Liberals won a massive landslide in 1911, Gustaf appointed Liberal leader Karl Staaff as Prime Minister.
However, during the runup to World War I, the elites objected to Staaffs defence policy, in February 1914, a large crowd of farmers gathered at the royal palace and demanded that the countrys defences be strengthened. In his reply, the so-called Courtyard Speech—which was actually written by explorer Sven Hedin, Staaff was outraged, telling the king parliamentary rule called for the Crown to stay out of partisan politics. He was angered that he had not been consulted in advance of the speech, Gustaf retorted that he still had the right to communicate freely with the Swedish people. The Staaff government resigned in protest, and Gustaf appointed a government of civil servants headed by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld in its place, to date, it is the last time that a Swedish king directly intervened in the governing of the country
The 1930s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1930, and ended on December 31,1939. In response, authoritarian regimes emerged in countries in Europe and South America. The 1930s saw a proliferation of new technologies, especially in the fields of aviation, radio. Colombia–Peru War – fought between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of Peru, Chaco War – the war was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over the disputed territory of Gran Chaco resulting in an overall Paraguayan victory in 1935. An agreement dividing the territory was made in 1938, officially ending outstanding differences, saudi–Yemeni War – was a war between Saudi Arabia and Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. Second Sino-Japanese War – fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, the Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War, World War II breaks out on September 1,1939 Chinese Civil War - The ruling Kuomintang and the rebel Communist Party of China fight a civil war for control of China.
The Communists consolidated territory in the early 1930s and proclaimed a short-lived Chinese Soviet Republic that collapsed upon Kuomintang attacks, the Kuomintang and Communists attempted to put away their differences after 1937 to fight the Japanese occupation of China, but intermittent clashes continued through the remainder of the 1930s. Spanish Civil War – Germany and Italy back anti-communist Falange forces of Francisco Franco, the Soviet Union and international communist parties back the left-wing republican faction in the war. The war ends in April 1939 with Francos nationalist forces defeating the republican forces, Franco becomes Head of State of Spain, President of Government and de facto dictator. The Republic gives way to the Spanish State, an authoritarian dictatorship, Hitler pulls Germany out of the League of Nations, but hosts the 1936 Summer Olympics to show his new reich to the world as well as the supposed superior athleticism of his Aryan troops/athletes. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, attempts the appeasement of Hitler in hope of avoiding war by allowing the dictator to annex the Sudetenland, signing the Munich Agreement and promising constituents Peace for our time.
He was ousted in favor of Winston Churchill in May 1940, some 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked. Kristallnacht served as the pretext for the confiscation of firearms from German Jews. Germany and Italy pursue territorial expansionist agendas, Germany demands the annexation of the Federal State of Austria and of other German-speaking territories in Europe. Between 1935 and 1936, Germany recovers the Saar and remilitarizes the Rhineland and Italy improve relations by forming an alliance against communism in 1936 with the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact. Germany annexes Austria in the event known as the Anschluss, the annexation of the Sudetenland followed negotiations which resulted in the Munich Agreement of 1938. The Italian invasion of Albania in 1939 succeeds in turning the Kingdom of Albania into an Italian protectorate, the vacant Albanian throne was claimed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Royal Dramatic Theatre
The Royal Dramatic Theatre is Swedens national stage for spoken drama, founded in 1788. Around one thousand shows are put on annually on the theatres eight running stages, the theatre has been at its present location in the Art Nouveau building at Nybroplan, since 1908. The theatre was built by the architect Fredrik Lilljekvist, famous artists like Carl Milles and Carl Larsson were involved in making the decorations, and some of the interior decorations were made by Prince Eugen. The school was split off as an institution in 1967. The first Swedish theatre opened in Bollhuset and Lejonkulan in 1667, while the plays were sometimes open to the public, it remained more or less a court theatre. The first Swedish play, Den Svenska Sprätthöken, was performed in 1737 by the first Swedish theatre company, the Swedish theatre was turned out of their playhouse by Queen Louisa Ulrika of Prussia after the 1753-54 season, and the playhouse was given to a French company. In 1773, king Gustav III fired the French company and encouraged Swedish talents, and thus, a theatre of spoken drama was founded in the same building in 1787, but was not to last long.
In 1788 the director fled the country to escape his creditors, so the actors formed a company and asked for the kings protection, Swedens national stage for dramatic art was established by King Gustav III in 1788. It was that the Royal Theatre in Sweden was officially split in two, and the Royal Theatre became thereafter solely an opera stage, for spoken drama a new theatre was built specifically, called Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern—the Royal Dramatic Theatre, to distinguish it from the Royal Theatre. In 1798, the theatres and operas of Stockholm were united by a monopoly. In 1825, the old Palace building of the theatre caught fire, the theatre was now located in the same building as the Opera, an arrangement that was to continue for almost forty years. The middle of the 19th century was to mean changes both within and without the theatre and this time, the strike was broken by the government, which gave some of them raised salaries and fired the others with pensions. There was much criticism about the sharing of localities between the opera and the theatre, as the localities of the Opera were built for singing and considered unsuitable for spoken drama.
In 1863, the Royal Dramatic Theatre purchased the playhouse of an old theatre, Mindre teatern. But at the beginning of the 20th century, the playhouse was rundown and in desperate need of renovation, there was lively debate in the press on the subject of refurbishing the national stage at Kungsträdgården. Many different kinds of restoration were proposed, but King Oscar II was not satisfied any of the suggestions. Instead, the decision was made to completely tear down the old theatre building and to build a new, fresher. From the 1850s onwards, Stockholm as a city and as Swedens definitive capital had changed considerably as had its centre, Fredrik Lilljekvist was appointed head architect, and on February 18,1908 the national stages new theatre building at Nybroplan opened with Strindbergs new play Mäster Olof
Swedish Police Authority
The Swedish Police Authority is the central administrative authority for the police in Sweden, responsible for law enforcement, general social order and public safety within the country. The agency is headed by the National Police Commissioner, who is appointed by the Government and has the responsibility for all activities of the police. Although formally organised under the Ministry of Justice, the Swedish police is—similar to other authorities in Sweden—essentially autonomous, the standard equipment includes a handgun, pepper spray and an expandable baton. Concurrent with this change, the Swedish Security Service formed its own agency, the new authority was created to address shortcomings in the division of duties and responsibilities, and to make it easier for the Government to demand greater accountability. The agency is organized into seven regions and eight national departments. It is one of the largest government agencies in Sweden, with more than 28,500 employees and it takes two and a half years to become a police officer in Sweden, including six months of paid workplace practice.
Approximately a third of all students are women, and in 2011 women accounted for 40 percent of all employees. The first modern police force in Sweden was established in the mid-1800s, prior to that, police work werent carried out by a law enforcement agency in the modern sense. In rural areas, the kings bailiff were responsible for law, in the cities, local government were made responsible for law and order, by way of a royal decree issued by Magnus III in the 13th century. The cities financed and organized various watchmen, who patrolled the streets, in the late 1500s in Stockholm the paroling duties were in large part taken over by a special corps of salaried city guards. The city guard was organized and armed like a military unit, responsible for interventions against various crimes and these guards were assisted by the military, fire patrolmen, and a civilian unit that didnt wear a uniform, but instead wore a small badge around their neck. The civilian unit monitored compliance with city ordinances relating to—for example—sanitation issues, traffic, in 1776, Gustav III ushered in a fundamental change in how police work was organized in Stockholm, modelled after how law enforcement was organized in Paris at the time.
The reform was considered a success, as it made the streets safer, the system of fire patrolmen and the city guard was still kept intact and administered separately. In the mid-1800s, during a time of social unrest. In 1848, the March Unrest, broke out on the streets of Stockholm, large crowds vandalized the city, shouting slogans of reform and calling for the abolition of monarchy. King Oscar I responded with force, killing thirty. Simultaneously in the areas, local county administrators was in charge of law and order. The office was a mixture of police chief, tax official and lower-level prosecutor, their time was spent on tax matters, instead of doing actual police work
The 1900s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1900, and ended on December 31,1909. The term nineteen-hundreds can equally be used for the years 1900–1999, the Edwardian era covers a similar span of time. There are several varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in English. Using 1906 as an example, they are nineteen-oh-six, nineteen-six, which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, nineteen-oh-six is the most common, nineteen-six is less common, nineteen-ought-six is recognized, the strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an ohs or aughts decade. Russo-Japanese War establishes the Empire of Japan as a world power, battle of Riyadh was a minor battle of the Unification of Saudi Arabia. Battle of Dilam was a battle of the Unification War between Rashidi and Saudi rebels. First Saudi–Rashidi War was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh versus the Emirate of Hail, demand for Home Rule for Ireland Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa.
January 1,1901, British colonies in Australia federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia May 20,1902 — Cuba gains independence from the United States, june 7,1905 — The Norwegian Parliament declares the union with Sweden dissolved, and Norway achieves full independence. October 5,1908 — Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire, April 19,1902 — A magnitude 7.5 earthquake rocks Guatemala, killing 2,000. May 8,1902 — In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre, April 7,1906 — Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. September 18,1906 — A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong, January 14,1907 — An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000. December 28,1908 — An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina and Calabria, April 26,1900 — The Great Lumber Fire of Ottawa–Hull kills 7 and leaves 15,000 homeless. The fire began on a wharf and spread to the adjacent piers, may 3,1901 — The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL, USA.
July 10,1902 – The Rolling Mill Mine disaster in Johnstown, August 10,1903 — Paris Métro train fire. December 30,1903 — A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, February 7,1904 — The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, USA destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. June 15,1904 — A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York Citys East River kills 1,021, june 28,1904 — The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants. January 22,1906 — The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, the 1900s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts, July 29,1900 — King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci
History of Monaco
Part of Ligurias history since the fall of the Roman Empire, from the 14th to the early 15th century the area was contested for primarily political reasons. Since that point, excepting a period of French occupation. The Rock of Monaco served as a shelter for the early humans from the end of the Paleolithic period, approximately 400,000 BC. Phocaeans from Massalia founded the colony of Monoikos, the Roman emperor Julian wrote of Herculess construction of Monacos port and a coastal road. The road was dotted with altars to Hercules, and a dedicated to him was established on the Rock of Monaco. The name Port Hercules was subsequently used for the ancient port, monoeci meaning Single One or Monoikos meaning Single House could be a reference to Hercules or his temple, or the isolated community inhabiting the area around the rock. According to the travels of Hercules theme, documented by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, after the Gallic Wars, which served as a stopping-point for Julius Caesar on his way to campaign in Greece, fell under Roman control as part of the Maritime Alps province.
The Roman poet Virgil called it that castled cliff, Monoecus by the sea, either because Hercules drove off everyone else and lived there alone, or because in his temple no other of the gods is worshipped at the same time. No temple to Hercules has been found at Monaco, although the rocky ground, the port is mentioned in Pliny the Elders Natural History and in Tacitus Histories, when Fabius Valens was forced to put into the port. Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the city was under the domain of Odoacer until his fall at the hands of the Ostrogoths in the late 5th century. Monaco was recaptured by the Romans during the reign of Justinian in the century and was held until its capture by the Lombards in the 7th century. Monaco passed hands between the Lombards and Franks, though these raids left the area almost entirely depopulated, the Saracens were expelled in 975, and by the 11th century the area was again populated by Ligurians. In 1191, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI granted suzerainty over the area to the city of Genoa, on June 10,1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco.
This date is cited as the beginning of Monacos modern history. The Grimaldis, descended from Otto Canella and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family, francesco Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dynasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Menton in 1346 and Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions, in 1338 Monegasque ships under the command of Carlo Grimaldi participated, along with those of France and Genoa, in the English Channel naval campaign. Plunder from the sack of Southampton was brought back to Monaco, honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, and from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne. The principality was re-established in 1814, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe