Tan Yankai was a Chinese politician. Tan Yankai was born on 25 January 1880 in Hangzhou during the waning decades of the Qing dynasty, he was the son of the Qing minister Tan Zhonglin. A member of Liang Qichao's Constitutionalist Party, he campaigned for a parliament and restrained monarchy; as the party renamed itself the Progressive Party after the Xinhai Revolution, he was a major leader. He became military governor of his home province, he remained neutral during Sun Yatsen's attempt to overthrow President Yuan Shikai in the 1913 Second Revolution, but Yuan removed him anyway. He returned to power after Yuan's death and led his province into resisting the Beiyang Army in 1917's Constitutional Protection War, which saved Sun's Guangdong base. After a brief attempt at spearheading federalism, his subordinates forced him to resign; when Chen Jiongming was driven out of Guangzhou, Tan was made home minister by Sun. He served as Chairman of the National Government during the first half of the Northern Expedition and again during its conclusion.
He was a member of Wang Jingwei's Wuhan faction and was the first internationally recognized head of state of the Nanjing-based Kuomintang government. The United States was the first major power to give recognition on October 1, 1928, though they had given de facto recognition back in July. After the Organic Law came to effect on the Double Ten Day, he was succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek. Tan became premier, a post he would hold until he died in office, he is entombed in the grounds near the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing. His daughter, Tan Xiang, married Chen Cheng. Nationalist Government
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, Shandong for a short section in the north. Anhui is the 22nd largest Chinese province based on area, the 8th most populous, the 12th most densely-populated region of all 34 Chinese provincial regions. Hefei is second largest city; the name "Anhui" derives from the names of two cities: Anqing and Huizhou. The abbreviation for Anhui is "Chinese: 皖; the administration of Anhui is composed of the provincial administrative system, led by the Governor, Provincial Congress, The People's Political Consultative Conference, Provincial Higher people's Court. Anhui is known as a province with political tradition in China's government system. Aside from managing provincial government departments, the provincial government manages 16 cities, 62 counties, 43 county-level districts and 1,522 townships.
By the end of 2016, the population registered in Anhui was 70.27 million. The total GDP of Anhui Province is listed as 12th of all 31 provincial regions in 2017. Anhui Province was established in the sixth year of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty; the province has another name, "Wan", during the Spring and Autumn Period, a small country named "Wan" was here and a mountain called "Wanshan" is in the province. Before Anhui was established, this land had a long history. Two million years ago, human beings inhabited this area, proven by some findings in Fanchang County. Archaeologists have identified the cultural domains of Yangshao and Longshan, dated to the Neolithic Age. In relation to these cultures, archeologists have discovered through excavation a 4500-year-old city called the Nanchengzi Ruins in Guzhen County, after they discovered a Neolithic city wall and a moat, part of a much larger and integrated city in the region during their 2013 disinterment. There are many historic sites found in the province from the period of the Xia dynasty to the Warring Kingdoms.
After the Qin dynasty unified China, this area belonged to different prefectures such as the Jiujiang, Zhang and Sishui Prefectures. Anhui became parts of Yang, Yu, Xu prefectures during Han dynasties. In the period of the Three Kingdoms, Anhui was separately dominated by the Wu Wei State. During the Jin dynasty and Southern dynasties and the Sui dynasty, Anhui was part of Yang, Xu and Yu prefectures, respectively. On, the Hui area flourished and the economy and culture of Hui Prefecture created great influence during Song Dynasty. During the Yuan dynasty, ruled by the Mongolian emperor, Anhui area was a part of Henan province. During the Ming dynasty, the area was directly managed by the administration of the Capital of Nanjing. Shortly after the Qing dynasty was established, this area and Jiangsu province were merged as one province until the sixth year of the Kangxi Emperor's reign in the Qing dynasty. During the Qing dynasty, Anhui played an important role in the Self-Strengthening Movement led by Li Hongzhang, an important Prime Minister during the Qing Dynasty.
At this time, many western weapons and modern government concepts were introduced into China. Over the next 50 years, Anhui became one of the most aggressive areas with liberal thought. Within this environment, many ideologists appeared in Anhui. Several of them impacted the future of China including, Hu Shih, a Chinese philosopher and diplomat, Chen Duxiu, founder of the Chinese Communist Party and the first General Secretary of the CCP. In 1938, the north and central areas of the province were damaged because Chiang Kai-shek, the then-President of the Republic of China, broke the dam of Yellow River, hoping this strategy could slow down the invasion by the Imperial Japanese Army. Within only ten days of the dam breaking, the water and sands drowned all of north and middle area of this province, 500,000 to 900,000 Chinese lives were lost, along with an unknown number of Japanese soldiers; the flood prevented the Japanese Army from taking Zhengzhou. With the establishment of People’s Republic of China in 1949, the capital city of Anhui province moved to what was a small town, Hefei.
At the same time, the provincial government spent a lot of energy and money to develop this new capital city which has become China Top 25 city in 2010s. After 1949, the government launched many Water Projects to solve the hurt during World War II. In addition, many other areas of China supported Anhui’s development. In the 1990s, the province has become one of the fastest growing provinces in China. In 2010s, the province became a part of China Yangtze River Delta Economic Area, the most developed area of China, and the capital city, Hefei, is set as the sub-central city of this Economic Area, only after Shanghai and Hangzhou. In terms of culture, Northern Anhui was a part of the North China Plain together with modern-day Henan province, northern Jiangsu and southern Shandong provinces. Central Anhui was densely populated and constituted of fertile land from the Huai River watershed. In contrast, the culture of Southern Anhui, bordered along the Yangtze, was closer to Jiangxi and southern Jiangsu provinces.
The hills of southeastern Anhui formed a
Guangxi (. A province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of China's history; the current name "Guang" means "expanse" and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in 226 AD. It was given provincial level status during the Yuan dynasty, but into the 20th century it was considered an open, wild territory; the abbreviation of the region is "桂", which comes from the name of the city of Guilin, the provincial capital during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The current capital is Nanning. "Guǎng" means "expanse" or "vast", has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. Guangxi and neighboring Guangdong mean "expanse west" and "expanse east". Together and Guangdong are called Loeng gwong. During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Xīlù and Guǎngnán Dōnglù, which became abbreviated as Guǎngxī Lù and Guǎngdōng Lù.
Inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue, the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. In 214 BC, the Han Chinese general Zhao Tuo claimed most of southern China for Qin Shi Huang before the emperor's death; the ensuing civil war permitted Zhao to establish a separate kingdom at Panyu known as Nanyue. Alternatively submissive to and independent of Han dynasty control, Southern Yue expanded colonization and sinicization under its policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue" until its collapse in 111 BC during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty; the name "Guangxi" can be traced to the "Expansive" or "Wide" province of the Eastern Wu, who controlled southeastern China during the Three Kingdoms period. Guilin formed one of its commanderies. Under the Tang dynasty, the Zhuang moved to support Piluoge's kingdom of Nanzhao in Yunnan, which repulsed imperial armies in 751 and 754. Guangxi was divided into an area of Zhuang ascendancy west of Nanning and an area of Han ascendancy east of Nanning.
After the collapse of the Southern Zhao, Liu Yan established the Southern Han in Xingwangfu. Although this state gained minimal control over Guangxi, it was plagued by instability and annexed by the Song dynasty in 971; the name "Guangxi" itself can be traced to the Song, who administered the area as the Guangnanxi Circuit. Harassed by both Song and the Jiaozhi in modern Vietnam, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people, his independent kingdom was short-lived and the tattooed Song general Di Qing returned Guangxi to China. The Yuan dynasty established control over Yunnan during its conquest of the Dali Kingdom in 1253 and eliminated the Southern Song following the Battle of Yamen in 1279. Rather than ruling Lingnan as a subject territory or military district, the Mongolians established Guangxi as a proper province; the area nonetheless continued to be unruly, leading the Ming dynasty to employ the different local groups against one another.
At the Battle of Big Rattan Gorge between the Zhuang and the Yao in 1465, 20,000 deaths were reported. During the Ming and Qing dynasty, parts of Guangxi were ruled by the powerful Cen clan; the Cen were recognized as tusi or local ruler by the Chinese emperors. The Qing dynasty left the region alone until the imposition of direct rule in 1726, but the 19th century was one of constant unrest. A Yao revolt in 1831 was followed the Jintian Uprising in January 1851 and the Da Cheng Rebellion in April 1854; the execution of St. Auguste Chapdelaine by local officials in Guangxi provoked the Second Opium War in 1858 and the legalization of foreign interference in the interior. Although Louis Brière de l'Isle was unable to invade its depot at Longzhou, the Guangxi Army saw a great deal of action in the 1884 Sino-French War. Ineffective within Vietnam, it was still able to repulse the French from China itself at the Battle of Zhennan Pass on 23 March 1885. Following the Wuchang Uprising, Guangxi seceded from the Qing Empire on 6 November 1911.
The Qing governor, Shen Bingdan remained in place, but was subsequently removed by a mutiny commanded by General Lu Rongting. General Lu's Old Guangxi clique overran Hunan and Guangdong as well and helped lead the National Protection War against Yuan Shikai's attempt to re-establish an imperial government. Zhuang loyalty made his Self-Government Army cohesive but reluctant to move far beyond its own provinces. Subsequent feuding with Sun Yat-sen led to defeat in the 1921 Guangdong -- Guangxi War. After a brief occupation by Chen Jiongming's Cantonese forces, Guangxi fell into disunity and profound banditry for several years until Li Zongren's Guangxi Pacification Army established the New Guangxi clique dominated by Li, Huang Shaohong, Bai Chongxi. Successful action in Hunan against Wu Peif
Hunan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of 210,000 km2, it is China's 7th most populous and the 10th most extensive province-level by area; the name Hunan means "south of the lake". The lake, referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province, its capital and largest city is Changsha, which abuts the Xiang River. Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia and Yao peoples; the province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, the Han dynasty. At this time, for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains.
The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu. Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723. Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River, it was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China; the land produced grain so abundantly. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings.
Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850; the rebellion spread into Hunan and further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. It was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864. Hunan was quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist's Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927, it was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war, they defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou.
Hunan was unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more; as Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976. In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji. Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres, making it the 10th largest provincial-level division; the east and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, the Luoxiao Mountains to the east.
Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng. The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan; the center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River. Lake Dongting is the second largest freshwater lake of China; the Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure
Zhili romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty until the region was dissolved in 1911 and converted as a province and renamed as Hebei in 1928. The name Zhili means "directly ruled" and indicates regions directly ruled by the imperial government of China. Zhili province was first constituted during the Ming Dynasty when the capital of China was located at Nanjing along the Yangtze River. In 1403, the Ming Yongle Emperor relocated the capital to Beiping, subsequently renamed Beijing; the region known as North Zhili was composed of parts of the modern provinces of Hebei, Shandong, including the provincial-level municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. There was another region located around the "reserve capital" Nanjing known as South Zhili that included parts of what are today the provinces of Jiangsu and Anhui, including the provincial-level municipality of Shanghai. During the Qing Dynasty, Nanjing lost its status of the "second capital" and Southern Zhili was reconstituted as a regular province, while Northern Zhili was renamed Zhili Province.
In the 18th century the borders of Zhili province were redrawn and spread over what is today Beijing and the provinces of Hebei, Western Liaoning, Northern Henan, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. After the collapse of Qing Dynasty, in 1911, the National Government of the Republic of China converted Zhili into a province as Zhili Province. In 1928 the National Government assigned portions of northern Zhili province to its neighbors in the north and renamed the remainder Hebei Province. Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It's the most populous city in Central China, one of the nine National Central Cities of China, it lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River's intersection with the Han river. Arising out of the conglomeration of three cities, Wuchang and Hanyang, Wuhan is known as'China's Thoroughfare'; because of its key role in domestic transportation, Wuhan is sometimes referred to as "the Chicago of China" by foreign sources. Holding sub-provincial status, Wuhan is recognized as the political, financial, cultural and transportation center of central China. In 1927, Wuhan was the capital of China under the left wing of the Kuomintang government led by Wang Jingwei; the city served as the wartime capital of China in 1937 for 10 months. The Wuhan Gymnasium held the 2011 FIBA Asia Championship and will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup; the 7th Military World Games will be hosted from Oct. 18 to 27, 2019 in Wuhan.'Wuhan' is derived from the pinyin romanization of the Standard Mandarin pronunciation of the name of the city'武汉'.
The Chinese'武汉' is a portmanteau: The'Wu' in'Wuhan' is derived from the'Wu' in'Wuchang'. Wuchang was the name given to the area in AD 221 when warlord Sun Quan moved the capital of Eastern Wu to È county, renamed È to Wuchang. The'han' in'Wuhan' comes from the'Han' in'Hankou', which means "Mouth of the Han", from its position at the confluence of the Han with the Yangtze River. In 1926, the Northern Expedition reached the Wuhan area and it was decided to merge Hankou and Hanyang into one city in order to make a new capital for Nationalist China. On January 1, 1927, the resulting city was proclaimed as'武漢', simplified as'武汉'. With a 3,500-year-long history, Wuhan is one of the most ancient and populated metropolitan cities in China. Panlongcheng, an archaeological site associated with the Erligang culture, is located in modern-day Huangpi District. During the Western Zhou, the State of E controlled the present-day Wuchang area south of the Yangtze River. After the conquest of the E state in 863 BC, the present-day Wuhan area was controlled by the State of Chu for the rest of the Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou periods.
During the Han dynasty, Hanyang became a busy port. The Battle of Xiakou in AD 203 and Battle of Jiangxia five years were fought over control of Jiangxia Commandery. In the winter of 208/9, one of the most famous battles in Chinese history and a central event in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms—the Battle of Red Cliffs—took place in the vicinity of the cliffs near Wuhan. Around that time, walls were built to protect Wuchang; the latter event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD 223, the Yellow Crane Tower, one of the Four Great Towers of China, was constructed on the Wuchang side of the Yangtze River by order of Sun Quan, leader of the Eastern Wu; the tower become a sacred site of Taoism. Due to tensions between the Eastern Wu and Cao Wei states, in the autumn of 228, Cao Rui, grandson of Cao Cao and the second emperor of the state of Cao Wei, ordered the general Man Chong to lead troops to Xiakou. In 279, Wang Jun and his army conquered strategic locations in Wu territory such as Xiling and Wuchang.
In fall 550, Hou Jing sent Ren Yue to attack both Xiao Xiao Fan's son Xiao Si. Ren killed Xiao Si in battle, Xiao Daxin, unable to resist, allowing Hou to take his domain under control. Meanwhile, Xiao Guan, who had by now settled at Jiangxia, was planning to attack Hou, but this drew Xiao Yi's ire—believing that Xiao Guan was intending to contend for the throne—and he sent Wang to attack Xiao Guan. In summer 567, Chen Xu commissioned Wu Mingche as the governor of Xiang Province and had him command a major part of the troops against Hua, along with Chunyu Liang; the opposing sides met at Zhuankou. The city has long been renowned for intellectual studies. Cui Hao, a celebrated poet of the Tang dynasty, visited the building in the early 8th century. In spring 877, Wang Xianzhi captured E Prefecture, he returned north, joining forces with Huang again, they surrounded Song Wei at Song Prefecture. In winter 877, Huang Chao pillaged Huang Prefectures. Before Kublai Khan arrived in 1259, word reached him.
Kublai decided to keep the death of his brother secret and continued the attack on the Wuhan area, near the Yangtze. While Kublai's force besieged Wuchang, Uryankhadai joined him; the present-day Wuying Pagoda was constructed at the end of the Song Dynasty between attacks by the Mongolian forces. Under the Mongol rulers, the Wuchang prefecture, headquartered in the town, became the capital of Hubei province. Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing, was under
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of China. Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to the northwest, Jiangxi to the west, Fujian to the south. To the east is the East China Sea, beyond which lie the Ryukyu Islands of Japan; the province's name derives from the Zhe River, the former name of the Qiantang River which flows past Hangzhou and whose mouth forms Hangzhou Bay. It is understood as meaning "Crooked" or "Bent River", from the meaning of Chinese 折, but is more a phono-semantic compound formed from adding 氵 to phonetic 折, preserving a proto-Wu name of the local Yue, similar to Yuhang and Jiang. Kuahuqiao culture was an early Neolithic culture that flourished in the Hangzhou area in 6,000-5,000 BC. Zhejiang was the site of the Neolithic cultures of the Liangzhu; the area of modern Zhejiang was outside the major sphere of influence of the Shang civilization during the second millennium BC. Instead, this area was populated by peoples collectively known as the Ouyue.
The kingdom of Yue began to appear in the chronicles and records written during the Spring and Autumn period. According to the chronicles, the kingdom of Yue was in northern Zhejiang. Shiji claims; the "Song of the Yue Boatman" was transliterated into Chinese and recorded by authors in north China or inland China of Hebei and Henan around 528 BC. The song shows that the Yue people spoke a language, mutually unintelligible with the dialects spoken in north and inland China; the Sword of Goujian bears bird-worm seal script. Yuenü was a swordswoman from the state of Yue. To check the growth of the kingdom of Wu, Chu pursued a policy of strengthening Yue. Under King Goujian, Yue recovered from its early reverses and annexed the lands of its rival in 473 BC; the Yue kings moved their capital center from their original home around Mount Kuaiji in present-day Shaoxing to the former Wu capital at present-day Suzhou. With no southern power to turn against Yue, Chu opposed it directly and, in 333 BC, succeeded in destroying it.
Yue's former lands were annexed by the Qin Empire in 222 BC and organized into a commandery named for Kuaiji in Zhejiang but headquartered in Wu in Jiangsu. Kuaiji Commandery was the initial power base for Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu's rebellion against the Qin Empire which succeeded in restoring the kingdom of Chu but fell to the Han. Under the Later Han, control of the area returned to the settlement below Mount Kuaiji but authority over the Minyue hinterland was nominal at best and its Yue inhabitants retained their own political and social structures. At the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era, Zhejiang was home to the warlords Yan Baihu and Wang Lang prior to their defeat by Sun Ce and Sun Quan, who established the Kingdom of Wu. Despite the removal of their court from Kuaiji to Jianye, they continued development of the region and benefitted from influxes of refugees fleeing the turmoil in northern China. Industrial kilns were established and trade reached as far as Manchuria and Funan. Zhejiang was part of the Wu during the Three Kingdoms.
Wu known as Eastern Wu or Sun Wu, had been the economically most developed state among the Three Kingdoms. The historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms records that Zhejiang had the best-equipped, strong navy force; the story depicts how the states of Wei and Shu, lack of material resources, avoided direct confrontation with the Wu. In armed military conflicts with Wu, the two states relied intensively on tactics of camouflage and deception to steal Wu's military resources including arrows and bows. Despite the continuing prominence of Nanjing, the settlement of Qiantang, the former name of Hangzhou, remained one of the three major metropolitan centers in the south to provide major tax revenue to the imperial centers in the north China; the other two centers in the south were Chengdu. In 589, Qiantang was renamed Hangzhou. Following the fall of Wu and the turmoil of the Wu Hu uprising against the Jin dynasty, most of elite Chinese families had collaborated with the non-Chinese rulers and military conquerors in the north.
Some may have lost social privilege, took refugee in areas south to Yangtze River. Some of the Chinese refugees from north China might have resided in areas near Hangzhou. For example, the clan of Zhuge Liang, a chancellor of the state of Shu Han from Central Plain in north China during the Three Kingdoms period, gathered together at the suburb of Hangzhou, forming an exclusive, closed village Zhuge Village, consisting of villagers all with family name "Zhuge"; the village has intentionally isolated itself from the surrounding communities for centuries to this day, only came to be known in public. It suggests that a small number of powerful, elite Chinese refugees from the Central Plain might have taken refugee in south of the Yangtze River. However, considering the mountainous geography and relative lack of agrarian lands in Zhejiang, most of these refugees might have resided in some areas in south China beyond Zhejiang, where fertile agrarian lands and metropolitan resources were available southern Jiangsu, eastern Fujian, Hunan and provinces where less cohesive, organized r