190th Mechanized Infantry Brigade (People's Republic of China)

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190th Division (1949–55)
1st Mechanized Division (1955–60)
190th Army Division (1960–85)
190th Motorized Infantry Division (1985–2003)
190th Mechanized Infantry Brigade (from 2003)
Active 1949.1 - Present
Country People's Republic of China
Branch People's Liberation Army, People's Volunteer Army
Type Brigade
Role Mechanized Infantry
Part of 39th Army
Garrison/HQ Benxi, Liaoning province
Nickname(s) Rainstorm division (Chinese: 暴风雨师)
Engagements Chinese Civil War, Korean War, Sino-Soviet border conflict
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Liu Jingsong
Wang Guosheng

The 190th Mechanized Infantry Brigade is a military formation of the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China. It is famous for being the first mechanized PLA division.

The 190th Division (Chinese: 第190师) was created in January 1949 under the Regulation of the Redesignations of All Organizations and Units of the Army, issued by Central Military Commission on November 1, 1948,[1] basing on the 10th Brigade, 4th Column of Jinchaji Military Region. Its history can be traced to 4th Military Sub-district of Jinchaji Military Region formed in November 1937. Under the command of 64th Corps it took part in many major battles during the Chinese civil war.

In February 1951 it moved into Korea to took part in the Korean War under the command of the Corps, since then it became a part of the People's Volunteer Army until August 1953.

In January 1953 the 395th Tank Self-propelled Artillery Regiment was formed and attached to the division.

By then the division was composed of:

  • 568th Infantry Regiment;
  • 569th Infantry Regiment;
  • 570th Infantry Regiment;
  • 395th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment;[2]
  • 570th Artillery Regiment;

In February 1955, when the 39th Army of Soviet Union pulled out from Lüda region, 190th division was ordered to take over the equipment left by Soviet 7th Mechanized Division and renamed 1st Mechanized Division (Chinese: 第1机械化师) and detached from the 64th Corps.

The division received 137 medium tanks (mainly T-34/85s, with some T-54s), 22 IS-2 heavy tanks, 24 SU-100, 45 ISU-152, 23 Armored vehicles, 110 artillery pieces and 878 motor vehicles.

By then the division was composed of:

  • 1st Mechanized Regiment (former 568th Regiment) -- received equipment from 17th Mechanized Regiment;
  • 2nd Mechanized Regiment (former 569th Regiment) -- received equipment from 63rd Mechanized Regiment;
  • 3rd Mechanized Regiment (former 570th Regiment) -- received equipment from 64th Mechanized Regiment;
  • 31st Tank Regiment (former 395th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment) -- received equipment from 41st Guards Tank Regiment;
  • 32nd Tank Regiment (former Independent Tank Regiment of Huabei Military Region) -- received equipment from 55th Heavy Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment;
  • 1st Howitzer Artillery Regiment (former 170th Artillery Regiment of 63rd Army Corps);
  • 2nd Artillery Regiment (former 570th Artillery Regiment);
  • Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment (newly formed).

In August 1961 32nd Tank Regiment and 1st Howitzer Artillery Regiment detached from the division. All tank battalions in mechanized regiments maintained,[3] and mechanized regiments were renamed motorized regiments, the 1st Mechanized Division renamed 190th Army Division (Chinese: 陆军190师)and returned to 64th Army Corps' control. After that the division maintained as a motorized army division.

By then the division was composed of:

  • 568th Motorized Infantry Regiment (former 1st Mechanized Regiment);
  • 569th Motorized Infantry Regiment (former 2nd Mechanized Regiment);
  • 570th Motorized Infantry Regiment (former 3rd Mechanized Regiment);
  • 395th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment (former 31st Tank Regiment);
  • 570th Artillery Regiment (former 2nd Artillery Regiment);
  • Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment.

From November 1968 to May 1970, Reconnaissance Company, 190th Army Division moved to Zhenbao Island for up-coming border conflict with the Soviet Army. However the company did not took part in direct engagement.[4]

In August 1969 395th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment was renamed Tank Regiment, 190th Division. 570th Artillery Regiment was renamed as Artillery Regiment, 190th Army Division. The division was not further affected in the re-designation during December 1969.

In 1985 the division was renamed 190th Motorized Infantry Division (Chinese: 摩托化步兵第190师), as a northern motorized infantry division, catalogue A, while its 568th Regiment became mechanized infantry.

The division took part in the enforced martial law and the crack down on protests in Beijing, June 1989.

In 1998 the division was reorganized as a motorized division: its 569th Motorized Infantry Regiment was disbanded, the Tank Regiment was renamed Armored Regiment. As 64th Army was disbanded, the division was transferred to 39th Army.

By then the division was composed of:

  • 568th Mechanized Infantry Regiment;
  • 570th Motorized Infantry Regiment;
  • Armored Regiment;
  • Artillery Regiment;
  • Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment.

In 2003 the division was reorganized as 190th Mechanized Infantry Brigade (Chinese: 机械化步兵第190旅).

References[edit]

  1. ^ 《中央军委关于统一全军组织及部队番号的规定》, http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_7254c7350100xb56.html
  2. ^ 50年代我军步兵师属坦克自行火炮团的组建和发展沿革, http://www.360doc.com/content/12/0203/16/1215760_183906874.shtml
  3. ^ 中国人民解放军陆军第六十四集团军军史, 第六十四集团军战史编研部, p.452
  4. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.469