England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Dorothea Douglass Lambert Chambers
Dorothea Lambert Chambers was a British tennis player. She won seven Wimbledon Womens Singles titles and a medal at the 1908 Summer Olympics. In 1900 Douglass made her singles debut at Wimbledon and, after a bye in the first round, three years later, she won her first of seven ladies singles titles. On 6 April 1907 she married Robert Lambert Chambers and was known by her married surname Lambert Chambers. In 1908 she won the medal in the womens singles event at the 1908 Summer Olympics after a straight-sets victory in the final against compatriot Dora Boothby. She wrote Tennis for Ladies, which was published in 1910, the book contained photographs of tennis techniques and contained advice on attire and equipment. In 1911 Lambert Chambers won the final at Wimbledon against Dora Boothby 6–0, 6–0. The only other player who won a Grand Slam singles final without losing a game was Steffi Graf when she defeated Natalia Zvereva in the 1988 French Open final. In 1919 Lambert Chambers played the longest Wimbledon final up to time,44 games against Frenchwoman Suzanne Lenglen.
Lambert Chambers held two match points at 6–5 in the set but eventually lost to Lenglen 8–10, 6–4. Lambert Chambers only played sporadic singles after 1921 but continued to compete in doubles until 1927 and she made the singles quarter-finals of the US Open in 1925 and, from 1924 to 1926, she captained Britains Wightman Cup team. In the 1925 Wightman Cup edition she played, at the age of 46, in 1928 she turned to professional coaching. Lambert Chambers was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1981, in addition to playing tennis Lambert Chambers was one of the leading badminton players at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1903,1904 and 1907 she was the runner-up at the event of the All England Badminton Championships. Dorothea Douglass Lambert Chambers at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Works by Lambert Chambers at Project Gutenberg Book Lawn Tennis for Ladies at Archive. org
All England Open Badminton Championships
The All England Open Badminton Championships is the worlds oldest badminton tournament, held annually in England. With the introduction of the BWFs latest grading system, it was given Superseries status in 2007, although the inaugural edition consisted of just the doubles format, the singles were introduced from the second edition onward. There were two instances when it was halted – from 1915 to 1919 and from 1940 to 1946, the tournament has been held at eight venues, and is now played at the Barclaycard Arena, Birmingham. Mens singles Womens singles Mens doubles Womens doubles Mixed doubles Below is the list of the most successful players in the All England Open Badminton Championships, Official website
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with teams, the most common forms of the game are singles and doubles. Badminton is often played as an outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing half of the court. Each side may only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net, play ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor or if a fault has been called by the umpire, service judge, or the opposing side. The shuttlecock is a feathered or plastic projectile which flies differently from the used in many other sports. In particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly, shuttlecocks have a high top speed compared to the balls in other racquet sports. The game developed in British India from the game of battledore. European play came to be dominated by Denmark but the game has very popular in Asia.
Since 1992, badminton has been a Summer Olympic sport with five events, mens singles, womens singles, mens doubles, womens doubles, at high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness, players require aerobic stamina, strength and precision. It is a sport, requiring good motor coordination. The name derives from the Duke of Beauforts Badminton House in Gloucestershire, as early as 1860, a London toy dealer named Isaac Spratt published a booklet titled Badminton Battledore—A New Game but unfortunately no copy has survived. An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, the game may have originally developed among expatriate officers in British India, where it was very popular by the 1870s. Early on, the game was known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town of Pune, where it was particularly popular. By 1875, returning officers had started a club in Folkestone. Initially, the sport was played with sides ranging from 1–4 players, the shuttlecocks were coated with India rubber and, in outdoor play, sometimes weighted with lead.
Although the depth of the net was of no consequence, it was preferred that it should reach the ground, the sport was played under the Pune rules until 1887, when the J. H. E. Hart of the Bath Badminton Club drew up revised regulations, in 1890, Hart and Bagnel Wild again revised the rules
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Sir George Thomas, 7th Baronet
Sir George Alan Thomas, 7th Baronet was a British badminton and chess player. He was twice British Chess Champion and a 21-time All-England Badminton champion and he reached the quarterfinals of the singles and the semifinals of the mens tennis doubles at Wimbledon in 1911. Badmintons world mens team championships cup, equivalent to tennis Davis Cup, is named Thomas Cup after him, Thomas lived most of his life in London and Godalming. He never married, so the hereditary Thomas baronetcy ended on his death, Thomas was admired for his fine sportsmanship. Four of those titles were in singles, nine in mens doubles. He won his titles both before and after a hiatus in the competition from 1915 to 1919 due to World War I, in 1934 he was co-founder of the International Badminton Federation, of which he was president from 1934 to 1955. Inspired by tennis Davis Cup, first held in 1900, and footballs World Cup, first held in 1930, in 1939 his idea was well received at the general meeting of the International Badminton Federation.
In the same year, Sir George presented the Thomas Cup, officially known as The International Badminton Championship Challenge Cup, produced by Atkin Bros of London at a cost of US$40,000. The Cup stands 28 inches high and 16 inches across at its widest, the first tournament was originally planned for 1941-1942, but due to World War II was not realized until 1948-1949, when ten national teams participated in the first Thomas Cup competition. Despite its British origins, Englands best finish in the Thomas Cup has been a place in 1984. Thomas was inducted into the World Badminton Hall of Fame as an Inaugural Member in 1996, Thomas was British Chess Champion in 1923 and 1934. For Capablanca, this had been the first loss in tournament play for four years, in Hastings, eleven years later, Euwe would become the third world chess champion to be defeated by Thomas in a game. His lifetime scores against the elite were however less flattering, he had minuses against Emanuel Lasker, Alekhine, Efim Bogoljubov, Flohr.
He fared badly against Edgard Colle, Thomas made even scores with Botvinnik, Richard Réti and Siegbert Tarrasch. Against Géza Maróczy, the balance was in Thomas favour, at age 69, he gave up competitive chess. Sir George Thomas by Bill Wall at the Wayback Machine,445 chess games of Sir George Thomas