1911 FA Cup Final

The 1911 FA Cup Final was the 40th FA Cup final. It was contested by Newcastle United; the first game resulted in a goalless draw at Crystal Palace. A single goal scored by Jimmy Speirs for Bradford won the replay at Old Trafford. Newcastle were defending the cup they had won the year before by defeating Barnsley 2–0, they faced a Bradford City side. Newcastle's preparations were upset by long-term injuries to England international centre-forward Albert Shepherd and Peter McWilliam. Bradford's team showed just one surprise with Scottish centre-half Willie Gildea drafted in for just his 10th game for the club; the first match at Crystal Palace ended goalless after extra time meaning for the second successive year the final went to a replay. City made one change to their team for the replay with Bob Torrance coming in for Gildea, who never played for City again. Newcastle's team remained unchanged; the replay, which took place at Old Trafford, was settled by a single goal for Bradford, a header scored by captain Jimmy Speirs.

It was a new trophy. The cup triumph remains Bradford's only major honour. Frost, Terry. Bradford City A Complete Record 1903–1988. Breedon Books Sport. Pp. 46–49. ISBN 0-907969-38-0. Match report at 1911 FA Cup winners... FA Cup Final kits

Emotional bias

An emotional bias is a distortion in cognition and decision making due to emotional factors. For example, a person might be inclined: to attribute negative judgements to neutral events or objects. Emotional bias is the effect of dispositional emotionality that an individual has before the occurrence of events that could cause these emotions; these states were linked to the dysregulation in opioid receptor systems and are known as temperament traits The examples are dispositional dysphoria, withdrawal, or dispositional good and relaxed moods. These dispositions create emotional biases in cognition. Studies of meaning attribution in 24 groups contrasted by various temperament traits showed that people with high neuroticism, high emotionality and weak endurance perceived neutral abstract concepts more negatively than people with low neuroticism and strong endurance. Effects of emotional biases can be similar to those of a cognitive bias, it can be considered as a subcategory of such biases; the specificity is that the cause lies in one's desires or fears, which divert the attention of the person, more than in one's reasoning.

Neuroscience experiments have shown how emotions and cognition, which are present in different areas of the human brain, interfere with each other in decision making process, resulting in a primacy of emotions over reasoningEmotional bias might help explain the tendency towards over-optimism or over-pessimism when evidence for a more rational conclusion is available. Emotions have a small to large impact on the decisions; some of the most influential emotions for decision-making are sadness and guilt. Anger differs the most from fear and sadness in decision-making contexts. Fear is associated with uncertainty, while sadness is associated with a perception that outcomes are due to the situation. Angry decision-makers tend to make choices and are unlikely to analyze their decisions. Stress can play a role in decision-making. Acute stress can alter the response to moral dilemmas. On the other hand, stress does not always alter moral decision-making. One study looked at the role emotions play in adolescents' moral decision-making.

In a hypothetical, prosocial behavioral context, positively charged self-evaluative emotions most predict moral choice. In anti-social behaviors, negatively charged, critical emotions most predict moral choice. Regret and disappointment are emotions experienced after a decision. In some cases, regret has created a stronger desire to switch choices than disappointment. Emotions affect different types of decisions. Emotions have a strong influence on economic decision-making. In some behavioral anomalies, certain emotions related to some tasks can have an increased impact. In one experiment, researchers looked at what emotions manifest the disposition effect, where individuals sell winning shares and hold losing ones, they found that elation for winners and regret for losers are necessary emotions that can cause the effect to occur. In regards to patients making a medical decision and one's motivational goals, play a part as well. One study looked at the elements of coping behaviors; the first two elements have to do with the need to control the cognitive and emotional elements of the health threat.

Brain damage can cause changes in normal decision-making processes. The amygdala is an area in the brain involved in emotion. Studies have found that patients with bilateral amygdala damage, damage in both hemispheres of the amygdala region in the brain, are deficient in decision-making; when an initial choice is made in decision-making, the result of this choice has an emotional response, controlled by the amygdala


Kimnyole was the Nandi Orkoiyot who predicted the arrival of Europeans and the railways. He is noted for the prophesies he made and is famous for being the father of Koitalel Arap Samoei, the leader of the Nandi Resistance, he was the father of Kipchomber Arap Koilege, the first Kipsigis Orkoioyot, grandfather of Barsirian Arap Manyei, Kenya's longest serving political detainee. Kimnyole was born to the third Nandi Orkoiyot. During Kimnyole's reign, internecine conflicts of the 1870s and 80's between the various Maasai factions saw the routing of the Uasin Gishu Maasai by a combined force of the Naivasha and Laikipia Maasai; the Nandi defeated the remnants of the Uasin Gishu at a battle in the Kipkaren Valley, as the Maasai had tried to reassert their claim to the plateau. Shortly after, the Laikipiak were defeated by the Naivasha such that the latter were left as the only military power strong enough to contest the grazing rights to the Uasin Gishu plateau with the rising Nandi. Several inconclusive skirmishes took place between the two until the Naivasha were routed at Siwa and chased back into the Rift Valley.

Thus the Nandi had unchallenged access to the pastures and salt licks throughout the extensive Uasin Gishu plateau. Cattle and captives swelled human populations. Trouble began for Kimnyole in the late 1880s, starting about 1888, when disaster struck the Nandi in the form of rinderpest cattle disease, spreading round Kenya at this time. Kimnyole was blamed for not having warned the warriors who went out to raid and brought back rinderpest, it was noted. He was accused of sanctioning a combined raid of Nandi bororiosiek that had resulted in disaster when large numbers of Nandi warriors were killed. Kimnyole Arap Turukat was thus sentenced to death in 1890 and was clubbed to death by representatives of some bororiosiek. Kimnyole's death led to a succession dispute between his two sons. Factions formed around the two aspirants and minor skirmishes took place between their supporters but this did not extend to full-scale war; the dispute ended with the defeat of Kipchomber Arap Koilege in 1895, after which he fled to the Kipsigis with his supporters, becoming the first Kipsigis Orgoiyot