1911 Schubart

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1911 Schubart
Discovery [1]
Discovered by P. Wild
Discovery site Zimmerwald Obs.
Discovery date 25 October 1973
Designations
MPC designation (1911) Schubart
Named after
Joachim Schubart
(German astronomer)[2]
1973 UD · 1928 DW
1933 UX1 · 1941 SU1
1951 AH1 · 1952 DS2
1960 EF · 1968 FM
1972 RO · 1972 TY4
main-belt · (outer)[1]
Hilda · Schubart[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 89.27 yr (32,606 days)
Aphelion 4.6512 AU
Perihelion 3.3013 AU
3.9762 AU
Eccentricity 0.1697
7.93 yr (2,896 days)
136.84°
0° 7m 27.48s / day
Inclination 1.6431°
284.84°
181.75°
Jupiter MOID 0.5059 AU
TJupiter 3.0310
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 64.66±23.84 km[4]
67.476±0.504 km[5]
80.09±2.0 km[6]
80.11 km (derived)[7]
80.13±1.25 km[8]
7.91±0.02 h[9]
11.915±0.002 h[10]
0.0249±0.001[6]
0.025±0.001[8]
0.0316 (derived)[7]
0.035±0.001[5]
0.04±0.01[5]
0.04±0.03[4]
Tholen = P[1][7] · C/P[5]
B–V = 0.701[1]
U–B = 0.217[1]
9.85[7][11] · 10.11[1][4][6][8]

1911 Schubart, provisional designation 1973 UD, is a dark Hildian asteroid and parent body of the Schubart family, located in the outermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 70 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 25 October 1973, by Swiss astronomer Paul Wild at Zimmerwald Observatory, near Bern, Switzerland.[12] The asteroid was named after German astronomer Joachim Schubart.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

With an diameter of 65–80 kilometers, it is one of the largest members of the Hilda group of asteroids, which are in 3:2 orbital resonance with the gas-giant Jupiter. More specifically, it is the parent body and namesake of the Schubart family (002),[3] one of two asteroid families within the Hilda group (the other one is the Hilda family itself).[13][14]:23 It is the darkest P-type asteroid with a very low geometric albedo of 0.0249.[1]

The body's observation arc begins with its first identification as 1928 DW at Heidelberg Observatory in February 1928, more than 45 years prior to its official discovery observation at Zimmerwald .[12]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification, Schubart is a primitive P-type asteroid.[1][7] The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) characterized it as both P- and C-type asteroid.[5]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Schubart measures between 64.66 and 80.13 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.0249 and 0.04.[4][5][6][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0316 and a diameter of 80.11 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.85.[7]

Rotation period[edit]

Two rotational lightcurves of Schubart were obtained from photometric observations by Johan Warell and Robert Stephens in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 7.91 and 11.915 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.11 and 0.22 in magnitude, respectively (U=2/2).[9][10]

Naming[edit]

The minor planet is named in after German ARI-astronomer Joachim Schubart (born 1928), who is also a discoverer of minor planets, namely 2000 Herschel and 4724 Brocken. He studied in detail members of the Hilda family, as he developed an averaging techniques for observing the long-term motions of asteroids.[2] Schubart has also been an active member on several commissions of the International Astronomical Union.[15] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3937).[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1911 Schubart (1973 UD)" (2017-07-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1911) Schubart. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 153. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; et al. (January 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Hilda Population: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 744 (2): 15. arXiv:1110.0283Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...744..197G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/197. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1911) Schubart". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Warell, Johan (October 2017). "Lightcurve Observations of Nine Main-belt Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 44 (4): 304–305. Bibcode:2017MPBu...44..304W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D. (October 2016). "Asteroids Observed from CS3: 2016 April - June". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (4): 336–339. Bibcode:2016MPBu...43..336S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  11. ^ Dahlgren, M.; Lahulla, J. F.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lagerros, J.; Mottola, S.; Erikson, A.; et al. (June 1998). "A Study of Hilda Asteroids. V. Lightcurves of 47 Hilda Asteroids". Icarus. 133 (2): 247–285. Bibcode:1998Icar..133..247D. doi:10.1006/icar.1998.5919. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  12. ^ a b "1911 Schubart (1973 UD)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  13. ^ Brož, M.; Vokrouhlický, D. (October 2008), "Asteroid families in the first-order resonances with Jupiter", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: 715–732, arXiv:1104.4004Freely accessible, Bibcode:2008MNRAS.390..715B, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13764.x 
  14. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  15. ^ "Individual members: Joachim Schubart". IAU – International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  16. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 

External links[edit]