History of tennis
The game that most people call tennis is the direct descendant of what is now known as real tennis or royal tennis. Most of the rules of the commonly known as tennis derive from real or royal tennis. It is reasonable to see both sports as variations of the same game, most historians believe that tennis originated in the monastic cloisters in northern France in the 12th century, but the ball was struck with the palm of the hand, hence the name jeu de paume. It was not until the 16th century that rackets came into use, and it was popular in England and France and Henry VIII of England was a big fan of the game, now referred to as real tennis. Many original tennis courts remain, including courts at Oxford, Falkland Palace in Fife where Mary Queen of Scots regularly played, many of the French courts were decommissioned with the terror that accompanied the French Revolution. The Tennis Court Oath was an event during the first days of the French Revolution. The Oath was a signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789.
Any history of tennis that ignores its origins in the game that was known as tennis until lawn tennis became popular in the nineteenth century is inaccurate. The Davis Cup, a competition between mens national teams, dates to 1900. Pyle created the first professional tour with a group of American. The most notable of these professionals were the American Vinnie Richards. Once a player turned pro he or she could not compete in the major tournaments, the word Tennis came into use in English in the mid-13th century from Old French, via the Anglo-Norman term Tenez, which can be translated as hold. A call from the server to his opponent indicating that he is about to serve, Tennis is mentioned in literature as far back as the Middle Ages. In The Second Shepherds Play shepherds gave three gifts, including a ball, to the newborn Christ. Sir Gawain, a knight of King Arthurs round table, plays tennis against a group of 17 giants in The Turke, by the 16th century, the glove had become a racquet, the game had moved to an enclosed playing area, and the rules had stabilized.
Real tennis spread in popularity throughout royalty in Europe, reaching its peak in the 16th century, francis I of France was an enthusiastic player and promoter of real tennis, building courts and encouraging play among the courtiers and commoners. His successor Henry II was an excellent player and continued the royal French tradition, in 1555 an Italian priest, Antonio Scaino da Salothe, wrote the first known book about tennis, Trattato del Giuoco della Palla. Two French kings died from tennis related episodes—Louis X of a chill after playing
The Australian Open is a major tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia. First held in 1905, the tournament is chronologically the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events of the year – the other three being the French Open and the US Open. It features mens and womens singles, mens and mixed doubles and juniors championships, as well as wheelchair, the Australian Open typically has high attendances and occasionally exceeding the US Open. The tournament holds the record for the highest attendance at a Grand Slam event, the Australian Open is managed by Tennis Australia, formerly the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, and was first played at the Warehousemans Cricket Ground in Melbourne in November 1905. This facility is now known as the Albert Reserve Tennis Centre, the tournament was first known as the Australasian Championships and became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Hastings.
Though started in 1905, the tournament was not designated as being a championship until 1924. The tournament committee changed the structure of the tournament to include seeding at that time, in 1972, it was decided to stage the tournament in Melbourne each year because it attracted the biggest patronage of any Australian city. The tournament was played at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club from 1972 until the move to the new Melbourne Park complex in 1988, the new facilities at Melbourne Park were envisaged to meet the demands of a tournament that had outgrown Kooyongs capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an success, with a 90 percent increase in attendance in 1988 on the previous year at Kooyong. Because of Australias geographic remoteness, very few foreign players entered this tournament in the early 20th century, in the 1920s, the trip by ship from Europe to Australia took about 45 days. The first tennis players who came by boats were the US Davis Cup players in November 1946, even inside the country, many players could not travel easily.
When the tournament was held in Perth, no one from Victoria or New South Wales crossed by train, in Christchurch in 1906, of a small field of 10 players, only two Australians attended and the tournament was won by a New Zealander. The first tournaments of the Australasian Championships suffered from the competition of the other Australasian tournaments, before 1905, all Australian states and New Zealand had their own championships, the first organised in 1880 in Melbourne and called the Championship of the Colony of Victoria. In those years, the best two players – Australian Norman Brookes and New Zealander Anthony Wilding – almost did not play this tournament, Brookes came once and won in 1911, and Wilding entered and won the competition twice. Their meetings in the Victorian Championships helped to determine the best Australasian players, even when the Australasian Championships were held in Hastings, New Zealand, in 1912, though three times Wimbledon champion, did not come back to his home country.
It was a problem for all players of the era. Brookes went to Europe only three times, where he reached the Wimbledon Challenge Round once and won Wimbledon twice
James Cecil Parke
James Cecil Parke was an Irish rugby player, tennis player and Olympic medallist. Parke was born in Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland and he played rugby with both Monkstown and Dublin University and between 1901 and 1908 played ten times for Leinster. Between 1903 and 1909, he won twenty Ireland caps, as a tennis player he won the Wimbledon Mixed Doubles title in 1912 and 1914. He won the Australian Mens singles and doubles titles in 1912. He was Singles Champion of Europe in 1907 and played for Britain in the Davis Cup, in 1908 he won an Olympic Silver medal in Mens Doubles. He won eight Irish Lawn Tennis Singles titles, four doubles, Parke was ranked World No.3 for 1912 by Karoly Mazak, and in both 1913 and 1920 he was ranked World No.4 by A. Wallis Myers of The Daily Telegraph. He won the depleted Australasian Championships in 1912 and he played golf for Ireland in 1906 and was a top-class track and field sprinter and a cricketer. He played chess for the Clones team when he was nine years old, frank Stoker James Cecil Parke at the Association of Tennis Professionals James Cecil Parke at the International Tennis Federation James Cecil Parke at the Davis Cup
Charles P. Dixon
Charles Percy Dixon was a male tennis player from Great Britain. He was a four-time Olympic medallist and led a successful British team to victory in the Davis Cup and he was born on 7 February 1873 in Grantham, Lincolnshire. At the 1908 Summer Olympics in London he won a medal in the mens doubles event. In the 1912 Summer Olympics he won three medals in the tennis events, gold in the mixed doubles, silver in mens singles. From 1929 to 1932 he represented the International Club of Great Britain against France at Queens, after retiring from tournaments, he coached juniors and umpired at Wimbledon, becoming President of the Umpires Association. He died on 29 April 1939, Dixon was born in 1873, the year that Major Walter Clopton Wingfield defined the first rules for lawn tennis. Dixon participated in games played during those early years and his early career included victories in international tournaments overseas,1905 Ostend International tournament - won 1908 Doubles at the Championship of Dieppe - won partnering with M. J. G.
Ritchie 1911 Surrey Championship, defeating Anthony Wilding in four sets and he was a member of the English Drive Club team in South Africa in 1910-1911, and reached the final of the Wimbledon Tennis Championship that year. He was runner-up to Herbert Roper Barrett, his partner in the Davis Cup and he won the 1913 Doubles title at the Russian Open Tennis Championship, partnering Albert D Prebble, and was runner up in the singles. He represented Haileybury and Cambridge at racquets, winning the medal in 1891. He was a keen prize-winning golfer, and represented Britain in international fencing in Paris and his brother, J A Dixon, was captain of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. In 1897 he married Louise Robinson, and until his death they lived at Chestnut Road and he died on 29 April 1939 in West Norwood, London. After cremation his ashes were buried nearby at the Robinson family plot in West Norwood Cemetery, Charles P. Dixon at the International Tennis Federation Charles P. Dixon at the Davis Cup Charles P.
Dixon at Sports Reference
Sir Norman Everard Brookes was an Australian tennis player. Brookes was a world No.1 ranked player and president of the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, during his career he won three Grand Slam singles titles, Wimbledon in 1907 and 1914 and the Australasian Championships in 1911. Brookes was part of the Australasian Davis Cup team that won the title on six occasions, the Australian Open mens singles trophy, the Norman Brookes Challenge Cup, is named in his honour. Brookes was born in Melbourne, to a father, William Brookes and he received a private education at Melbourne Grammar School. On leaving school, he went to work as a clerk at the Australian Paper Mills Co, ltd where his father was managing director, and was on the board himself within eight years. Brookes married 20-year-old Mabel Balcombe Emmerton, the daughter of Harry Emmerton, during World War I he served as commissioner of the Australian branch of the British Red Cross in Egypt. He died in South Yarra, Victoria in 1968, Brookes was the first non-British player and the first left-hander to win the mens singles title at Wimbledon.
He won the singles twice, first in 1907 and again in 1914. He won the doubles in each of years with New Zealander Anthony Wilding. He was a figure in establishing the Australian Open, which he won in 1911. Brookes is considered to have been a World No.1 player in the 1900s, Brookes played 39 Davis Cup matches for Australia/New Zealand and the Australian Davis Cup Team between 1905 and 1920. In May 1914 he won the title at the Surrey Lawn Championships in Surbiton. Brookes was instrumental in the development of Kooyong as a tennis centre, in 1926 he became the first president of the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, a post he held for the next 29 years until his retirement in June 1955. Brookes was an Australian rules footballer in his youth, particularly for Melbourne Grammar School, Norman Brookes was knighted in recognition of service to public service in 1939. His wife, Lady Brookes became Dame Mabel Brookes in 1955 for her work in charities, the trophy for mens singles at the Australian Open, the Norman Brookes Challenge Cup, is named in his honour.
He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1977, in 1981 he was honoured on a postage stamp issued by Australia Post depicting a cartoon image by Tony Rafty. The Wizard, The story of Norman Brookes, Australias first Wimbledon champion
Arthur Lowe (tennis)
Arthur Holden Lowe was an English tennis player. Lowe competed in the 1912 Summer Olympics in both singles and doubles and he was ranked World No.7 in 1914 by A. Wallis Myers of The Daily Telegraph. Lowe won three titles at the Queens Club, the tournament, winning his first two back-to-back in 1913-14, and his third over 10 years in 1925. In 1919 Lowe was runner-up in the Australian Open Mens Doubles with his partner James Anderson and his brother Gordon Lowe was a tennis player, and another brother John played first-class cricket. Arthur Lowe at the Association of Tennis Professionals Arthur Lowe at the International Tennis Federation Arthur Lowe at the Davis Cup
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Francis Frank Marion Bates Fisher was a New Zealand Member of Parliament from Wellington. He was known as Rainbow Fisher for his frequent changes of political allegiance and he was an internationally successful tennis player. Fisher was the son of George Fisher, a member of parliament, Francis Fisher was a Captain in the 10th New Zealand Contingent to the South African Second Boer War in 1902. His eldest daughter Esther Fisher became an international pianist, Fisher represented two Wellington electorates in the New Zealand House of Representatives for nine years from a 1905 by-election to the 1914 general election. Initially from 6 April 1905 he represented the multi-member City of Wellington electorate and his initial intention in early 1905 was to stand in a Christchurch electorate at the 1905 general election. In mid February 1905, he held his first meeting with electors in Christchurch and this changed, when his father died in mid March, and a request was put to him to stand in the City of Wellington electorate to fill the vacancy.
In his speeches to Wellington electors, he stressed the need for the Liberal Party, of which he was a member, the by-election was contested by Fisher, Charles Hayward Izard and John Hutcheson, with Fisher being successful. After his election, he helped form the New Liberal Party, the party was formed at a meeting in the Christchurch suburb of Papanui in June 1905. The allegations were disproven, and the New Liberals suffered considerable public backlash, Fisher had not consulted his colleagues before making the accusation, and it strained relations between party members. Fisher was the only New Liberal MP re-elected in 1905, the New Liberal Party was defunct by 1908. In the 1908 general election he stood as an Independent, by 1910, he had joined the Reform Party. The 1911 general election required a ballot if no candidate could achieve an absolute majority in the first round. The election was contested by Fisher, Robert Fletcher, W. S, young and F. Freeman, with Fisher having a majority of one vote over Fletcher.
In the second ballot a week later, Fisher beat Fletcher with a majority of 150 votes, by the next general election in 1914, the incumbent Fisher as a government minister contested Wellington Central against Fletcher again, and he was decisively beaten by 2677 votes to 4910. This spelled an end to Fishers political career in New Zealand, after the war, in 1919, he stood as the Conservative candidate in the Widnes by-election in Cheshire, where he was defeated by Labours Arthur Henderson. He was known as Rainbow Fisher because of his frequent changes of political colour, Fisher was Minister of Customs and Minister of Marine from 10 July 1912 to 7 January 1915 in the Reform Government. He won the New Zealand Mens Championship Doubles in 1901–02, 1902–03, 1909–10 and 1910–11, Fisher died on 24 July 1960 and was buried at Kauae Cemetery in Ngongotaha. Wood, G. Anthony, ed. Ministers and Members, Francis Fisher at the Association of Tennis Professionals Francis Fisher at the International Tennis Federation Francis Fisher at the Davis Cup
Alfred Ernest Beamish was an English tennis player born in Richard, England. He finished runner-up to James Cecil Parke in the Mens Singles final of the Australasian Championships, Beamish partnered Charles Dixon to win the Bronze medal in the indoor doubles event at the 1912 Stockholm Olympics. He was runner up in one of tennis early majors, the World Covered Court Championship and he competed at the 1920 Summer Olympics. Alfred Beamish at the Association of Tennis Professionals Alfred Beamish at the International Tennis Federation Alfred Beamish at the Davis Cup
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Glossary of tennis terms
This page is a glossary of tennis terminology. Ace, Serve where the ball lands inside the service box and is not touched by the receiver, thus. Aces are usually powerful and generally land on or near one of the corners at the back of the service box, initially the term was used to indicate the scoring of a point. Action, Synonym of spin ad, Used by the umpire to announce the score when a player has the advantage. See scoring in tennis ad court, Left side of the court of each player, When one player wins the first point from a deuce and needs one more point to win the game, not applicable when using deciding points. Advantage set, Set won by a player or team having won at least six games with an advantage over the opponent. Final sets in the draws of the Australian Open, the French Open and the tennis Olympic event. The Davis Cup was until 2015, when it switched to tie breaks, Used by the chair umpire to announce scores when both players have the same number of points or the same number of games.
When both players are at 40, the term is deuce. All-Comers, Tournament in which all took part except the reigning champion. The winner of the All-Comers event would play the title holder in the Challenge Round, all-court, Style of play that is a composite of all the different playing styles, which includes baseline and serve and volley styles. Alley, Area of the court between the singles and the sidelines, which together are known as tramlines. Approach shot, A groundstroke shot used as a setup as the approaches the net. ATP, Acronym for Association of Tennis Professionals, the organizing body of mens professional tennis. ATP Champions Race, ATP point ranking system starts at the beginning of the year. The top eight players at the end of the qualify for the ATP World Tour Finals. ATP World Tour Finals, Formerly known as the Tennis Masters Cup, Australian formation, In doubles, a formation where the server and partner stand on the same side of the court before starting the point. Backhand, Stroke in which the ball is hit with the back of the hand facing the ball at the moment of contact