Pullman is the largest city in Whitman County, located in southeastern Washington state within the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest. The population was 29,799 at the 2010 census, estimated to have reached 31,682 in 2014, originally incorporated as Three Forks, the city was renamed after industrialist George Pullman. Pullman is noted as a fertile agricultural area known for its many miles of rolling hills. It is best known as the home to Washington State University, Pullman is located eight miles from Moscow, home to the University of Idaho, and is served by the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport. In 2011 Bloomberg Businessweek selected Pullman as the Best Place to Raise Kids in Washington, factors included affordability, safety, a family-friendly lifestyle, the quality of Pullman High School, the presence of Washington State University, and the natural beauty of the area. Within the year, Dan McKenzie and William Ellsworth arrived to stake claims for adjoining land and they named the first post office located here as Three Forks.
In the spring of 1881, Orville Stewart opened a general store, Pullman was incorporated 131 years ago in 1886 with a population of about 200 people. It was originally named Three Forks, after the three rivers that converge there, Missouri Flat Creek, Dry Fork, and the South Fork of the Palouse River. In 1884, Dan McKenzie and Charles Moore replatted the site, on March 28,1890, the Washington State Legislature established the states land grant college, but did not designate a location. Pullman leaders were determined to secure the new college and offered 160 acres of land for its campus, Idaho Territory had established its land grant college in 1889, the University of Idaho was to be located in neighboring Moscow. On April 18,1891, the site selection commission appointed by Washingtons governor chose Pullman, on January 13,1892, the institution opened with 59 students under the name Washington Agricultural College and School of Science. It was renamed the State College of Washington in 1905, more known as Washington State College.
In 1961, Pullman became a code city under the Mayor-Council form of government. The city has a mayor with an elected seven-member council and an appointed administrative officer. The WSU campus is located on College Hill, and part of the area is a district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The historic character of College Hill is manifest in its many early-twentieth century craftsman-style bungalows, see Red Brick Roads of Pullman, Washington. Companies associated with an expanding high-tech industry are located at the end of the city. The lab company was founded by Edmund Schweitzer, a Ph. D. graduate of WSU, SEL and other firms are located within the 107-acre Pullman Industrial Park, run by the Port of Whitman County
Whitman College is a private liberal arts college located in Walla Walla, Washington. Initially founded as a seminary by a legislative charter in 1859. Whitman College is accredited by the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges and competes athletically in the NCAA Division III Northwest Conference, the school offers 46 majors and 32 minors in the liberal arts and sciences, and has a student to faculty ratio of 9,1. Whitman was the first college in the Pacific Northwest to install a Phi Beta Kappa chapter, Whitman was ranked tied for 41st in the nation in the 2017 U. S. News & World Report list of Best Liberal Arts Colleges. Whitmans acceptance rate for 2015 was 41%, Marcus Whitman and Narcissa Whitman, along with 12 others were killed by a group of Cayuse Indians during the Whitman Massacre. While at the site, Eells became determined to establish a monument to his missionary colleagues in the form of a school for pioneer boys. Eells obtained a charter for Whitman Seminary, a pre-collegiate school, from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, he acquired the Whitman mission site.
Eells soon moved to the site with his family and began working to establish Whitman Seminary, despite Eellss desire to locate Whitman Seminary at the Whitman mission site, local pressure and resources provided a way for the school to open in the burgeoning town of Walla Walla. In 1866, Walla Wallas wealthiest citizen, Dorsey Baker, donated land near his house to the east of downtown, a two-story wood-frame building was quickly erected and classes began that year. The schools first principal, local Congregational minister Peasly B, resigned within a year and Cushing Eells was called upon to serve as principal, which he did until 1869. After Eellss resignation in 1869, the school struggled—and often failed—to attract students, pay teachers, Whitmans trustees decided in 1882 that while their institution could not continue as a prep school, it might survive as the areas only college. Alexander Jay Anderson, the president of the Territorial University, came to turn the institution into a college.
After modeling the institution after New England liberal arts colleges, Anderson opened the school on September 4,1882 with an enrollment of 60 students, in 1883, the school received a collegiate charter and began expanding with aid from the Congregational American College and Education Society. Despite local support for Whitman College and help from the Congregational community, after losing favor with some of the schools supporters, Anderson left Whitman in 1891 to be replaced by Reverend James Francis Eaton. The continuing recession of the 1890s increased the institutions financial worries, by popularizing Marcus Whitmans life and accomplishments, Penrose was able to gain support and resources for the college. Under his leadership, the faculty was strengthened and the first masonry buildings, Billings Hall, in 1907, Penrose began a plan called Greater Whitman which sought to transform the college into an advanced technical and science center. To aid fundraising, Penrose abandoned affiliation with the Congregational Church, the prep school was closed and fraternities and sororities were introduced to the campus.
Penrose iterated the schools purpose to be a college, with a limited number of students to whom it will give the finest quality of education
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
1913 Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team
The 1913 Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team represented the University of Notre Dame during the 1913 college football season. Jesse Harper became head coach in 1913 and remained so until he retired in 1917, during his tenure the Irish began playing only intercollegiate games and posted a record of 34 wins, five losses, and one tie. This period marked the beginning of the rivalry with Army, in an effort to gain respect for a regionally successful but small-time Midwestern football program, Harper scheduled games in his first season with national powerhouses Texas, Penn State, and Army. Notre Dame burst into the consciousness and helped to transform the collegiate game in a single contest. On November 1,1913, the Notre Dame squad stunned the Black Knights of the Hudson 35–13 in a game played at West Point and this game has been miscredited as the invention of the forward pass
Bozeman is a city in and the county seat of Gallatin County, United States, in the southwestern part of the state. The 2010 census put Bozemans population at 37,280 and the 2015 census estimate put the population at 43,405 making it the fourth largest city in the state. It is the city of the Bozeman, MT Micropolitan Statistical Area. It is the largest Micropolitan Statistical Area in Montana and is the third largest of all of Montana’s statistical areas, the city is named after John M. Bozeman who established the Bozeman Trail and was a key founder of the town in August 1864. The town became incorporated in April 1883 with a city form of government. Bozeman was elected an All-America City in 2001 by the National Civic League, Bozeman is a college town, home to Montana State University. The local newspaper is the Bozeman Daily Chronicle, and the city is served by Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, william Clark visited the area in July 1806 as he traveled east from Three Forks along the Gallatin River.
The party camped 3 miles east of what is now Bozeman, the journal entries from Clarks party briefly describe the future citys location. Red Clouds War closed the Bozeman Trail in 1868, but the fertile land attracted permanent settlers. In 1866 Nelson Story, a successful Virginia City, Story braved the hostile Bozeman Trail to successfully drive some 1000 head of longhorn cattle into Paradise Valley just east of Bozeman. Eluding the U. S. Army, who tried to turn Story back to protect the drive from hostile Indians, Story established a sizable ranch in the Paradise Valley and holdings in the Gallatin Valley. He donated land to the state for the establishment of Montana State University – Bozeman, Fort Ellis 45°39′16″N 110°56′35″W, el.4,987 feet was established in 1867 by Captain R. S. In addition to Fort Ellis, a fort, Fort Elizabeth Meagher, was established in 1867 by volunteer militiamen. The first library in Bozeman was formed by the Young Mens Library Association in a room above a drugstore in 1872 and it moved to the mayors office and was taken over by the city in 1890.
The first Grange meeting in Montana Territory was held in Bozeman in 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway reached Bozeman from the east in 1883. By 1900 Bozemans population reached 3,500, in 1892 the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries established a fish hatchery on Bridger Creek at the entrance to Bridger Canyon. Montana State University - Bozeman was established in 1893 as the states land-grant college, by the 1920s, the institution was known as Montana State College, and in 1965 it became Montana State University. Bozemans first high school, the Gallatin Valley High School, was built on West Main Street in 1902, in the early 20th century, over 17,000 acres of the Gallatin Valley were planted in edible peas harvested for both canning and seed