1913 in Italy

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Years: 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916

See also: 1912 in Italy, other events of 1913, 1914 in Italy.


Events from the year 1913 in Italy.

Kingdom of Italy[edit]

Events[edit]

Italian immigrant women at Ellis Island. In 1913 872,598 Italians left the country of which 376,776 migrated to the United States.

The First Balkan War (October 1912 – May 1913) of the Balkan League (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire. As a result of the war, the allies captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albanian state. Despite its success, Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, which provoked the start of the Second Balkan War (June–August 1913).
After the withdrawal of the Ottoman army from Libya after the Italo-Turkish War the Italians could easily extend their occupation of the country, seizing East Tripolitania, Ghadames, the Djebel and Fezzan with Murzuk during 1913.[1]

April[edit]

May[edit]

  • May 6 – The Hague Court of Arbitration ordered the Kingdom of Italy to pay $32,800 damages to France for seizing the steamers Carthage and Manouba during the Italo–Turkish War.[3]
  • May 16 – At Sidi Garba in Tripolitania, 1,000 Italian soldiers were killed or wounded in fighting with the Libyan natives. After forcing a group of Libyans to retreat, the men rested and were surrounded and attacked. General Ganbretti would later describe the loss as "the bloodiest day in the whole Italo-Turkish War".[4]

June[edit]

August[edit]

  • August 9 – A diplomat from Austria-Hungary told representatives from Italy and Germany that his Empire intended to plan an invasion of Serbia. The private discussion would be revealed on December 5, 1914, by Italian Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti, who said that Italy refused to participate.[6] Austria-Hungary and Italy strongly opposed the arrival of Serbian army on the Adriatic Sea because they perceived it as a threat to their domination of the Adriatic and feared that Serbian Adriatic port could become a Russian base.[7]
  • August 11 – The London ambassadors conference, of Europe's six "Great Powers" (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, the United Kingdom), settled on the boundaries of the new Principality of Albania, created from former Turkish territory by the Balkan League during the First Balkan War.

October[edit]

  • October 26 – First round of Italian general election. Changes in the electoral law made in 1912 widened the voting franchise to include all literate men aged 21 or over who had served in the armed forces. For those over 30 the literacy requirement was abolished.[8] This raised the number of eligible voters from 2,930,473 in 1909 to 8,443,205.[9] Due to the Gentiloni pact, a secret deal in the run-up to the 1913 general election between Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti and Ottorino Gentiloni, the president of the Catholic Electoral Union, Catholic voters supported Giolitti's Liberal candidates in return for support for Catholic policies, especially funding of Catholic private schools and opposition to a law permitting divorce.[10][11] It was estimated that over 200 deputies were elected through the Pact, sufficient to provide a majority for Giolitti.[10][12]

November[edit]

Sports[edit]

Births[edit]

  • July 22 – Gorni Kramer, Italian bandleader and songwriter (d. 1995)
  • August 22 – Bruno Pontecorvo, Italian nuclear physicist and Soviet spy who defected to the USSR in 1950 (d. 1993)
  • September 29 – Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (d. 1996)
  • October 24 – Tito Gobbi, Italian operatic baritone (d. 1984)

Deaths[edit]

  • March 1 – Mario Pieri, Italian mathematician (b. 1860)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bertarelli (1929), p. 206.
  2. ^ (in Italian) XXIII Legislatura del Regno d'Italia dal 24 marzo 1909 al 29 settembre 1913, Camera dei deputati, Portale storico (retrieved 28 May 2016)
  3. ^ "Decides Against Italy", New York Times, May 7, 1913
  4. ^ "Italians Lost 1,000 in Tripoli Fight", New York Times, May 24, 1913; A. Adu Boahen, General History of Africa: 1880–1935 (University of California Press, 1990) p. 50
  5. ^ "Italians Rout Arabs", New York Times, June 21, 1913
  6. ^ J. Holland Rose, The Origins of the War (Cambridge University Press, 1914) p188
  7. ^ Hall, The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913, p. 54
  8. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, Elections in Europe, p. 1031
  9. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, Elections in Europe, p. 1050
  10. ^ a b Gilbert & Nilsson, The A to Z of Modern Italy, pp. 203–4
  11. ^ Sarti, Italy: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present, p. 308
  12. ^ Killinger, The History of Italy, p. 134
  13. ^ Piergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia, Zanichelli, Bologna 2009