1914–1918 Inter-Allied Victory medal (France)

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1914–1918 Inter-Allied Victory medal (France)
Interalliée 14-18-recto.jpgInteralliée 14-18.jpg
Obverse and reverse of the 1914–1918 Inter-Allied Victory medal
Awarded by  France
TypeCommemorative Medal
EligibilityAllied military forces, and attached civilians
Awarded forParticipation in World War I
StatusNo longer awarded
Statistics
Established20 July 1922
Precedence
Next (higher)Médaille commémorative du Maroc (1909)
Next (lower)Médaille commémorative de la bataille de Verdun
RelatedMédaille commémorative de la guerre 1914–1918
World War I Victory Medal ribbon.svg
Ribbon of the 1914–1918 Inter-Allied Victory medal

The 1914–1918 Inter-Allied Victory medal (French: "Médaille Interalliée de la Victoire 1914–1918") was a French commemorative medal established on 20 July 1922. It was the French version of a common allied campaign medal where each allied nation issued a Victory Medal to their own nationals, all issues having certain common features, including the same ribbon, a winged figure of victory on the obverse and a similar inscription on the reverse, the French version reading "LA GRANDE GVERRE POUR CIVILISATION 1914-1919".

It was awarded to all soldiers who served three months, consecutive or not, between 2 August 1914 and 11 November 1918 in the war zone. It was also awarded to civilian nurses, aliens (civilian or military) who served directly under French command, Marshals and generals who had a command for at least three months, prisoners of war from Alsace and Lorraine who then served in the French forces. Article 10 of the establishing law states: "The right to the medal is also granted to soldiers who were killed by the enemy or died from wounds of war and those (....) who died of disease or injury incurred in service."[1] The next of kin of those killed or died were required to procure the medal at their own expense.[2]

International award[edit]

In response to a proposal first made by the French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, supreme commander of the Allied Forces during the First World War, most allied nations issued a Victory Medal following a common design, thereby avoiding any need for countries to exchange campaign medals.[3] Each country produced their own version, following certain common criteria. The medal was to be in bronze with a 36 mm diameter, having a winged figure of victory on the obverse, a common inscription on the reverse and suspension by a double rainbow design ribbon.[4] Japan and Siam replaced the figure of victory, since a winged victory symbol was not culturally relevant.[5]

The following versions were finally awarded:[6] It should be noted that at the start of the war in 1914, the countries of Poland and Czechoslovakia were parts of the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires respectively.

Country Designer Manufacturer Number issued
Belgium Paul Du Bois (1859–1938) ----- 300,000 – 350,000
Brazil Jorge Soubre (1890–1934) approximately 2,500
Cuba Charles Charles
  • Etablissements Chobillon
6,000 – 7,000
Czechoslovakia Otakar Španiel (1881–1955)
  • Kremnice Mint
approximately 89,500
France Pierre-Alexandre Morlon (1878–1951)
  • Monnaie de Paris
approximately 2,000,000
France[7] Charles Charles
  • Etablissements Chobillon
-----
France[7]
  • M. Pautot
  • Louis Octave Mattei
----- -----
Great Britain[8] William McMillan (1887–1977)
  • Woolwich Arsenal
  • Wright & Son
5,725,000 plus[9]
Greece Henry-Eugène Nocq (1868–1944)
  • V. Canale
approximately 200,000
Italy Gaetano Orsolini (1884–1954)
  • Sacchini-Milano
  • S.Johnson-Milano
  • F.M.Lorioli & Castelli-Milano
approximately 2,000,000
Japan[10] Shoukichi Hata
  • Osaka Mint
approximately 700,000
Poland[11] ... Vlaitov
  • Mint Kremnica
-----
Portugal João Da Silva (1880–1960)
  • Da Costa
approximately 100,000
Rumania ... Kristesko ----- approximately 300,000
Siam (Thailand) Itthithepsan Kritakara (1890–1935) ----- approximately 1,500
South Africa[12] William McMillan (1887–1977)
  • Woolwich Arsenal
approximately 75,000
United States James Earle Fraser (1876–1953)
  • Arts Metal Works Inc.
  • S.G.Adams Stamp & Stationary Co.
  • Jos. Mayer Inc.
approximately 2,500,000

(Main source : The interallied victory medals of world war I by Alexander J. Laslo, Dorado Publishing, Albuquerque. 1986 Edition )

Award certificate[edit]

A certificate confirming the award was given to each recipient confirming his right to wear the medal.

Certificate confirming the award of the inter-allied victory medal

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Champenois, Marc (24 December 2011), "Médaille interalliée dite Médaille de la Victoire", France-phaleristique.com (in French), retrieved 6 June 2011
  2. ^ Niels Stevnsborg. Three brothers, two casualties, one award. Orders & Medals Research Society Journal, December 2018, page 157.
  3. ^ Captain H. Taprell Dorling. Ribbons and Medals. p. 90-1. Published A.H.Baldwin & Sons, London. 1956.
  4. ^ The Type I Victory Medal 1914-19. Richard Flory. Orders & Medals Research Society Journal, September 2009, page 145
  5. ^ "Inter-allied Victory Medals". Retrieved 2018-07-09.
  6. ^ "The interallied victory medals of World War I" by Alexander J. Laslo, Dorado Publishing, Albuquerque. 1986 Edition.
  7. ^ a b Unofficial type.
  8. ^ Awarded not only to British combatants but as well to those from the dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and those from the Empire of India.
  9. ^ Joslin, Litherland and Simpkin. British Battles and Medals. pp. 231. Published Spink, London. 1988.
  10. ^ On the obverse the winged figure of Victory was replaced by a warrior holding a spear.
  11. ^ Poland did not proceed with the manufacture of the medal at their mint. The medal shows a clearly visible "MK" ( Mint Kremnica). The medal may be an unofficial strike by a veteran's group.
  12. ^ The text on the reverse is in English and Dutch.