1792 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1792 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between November 2 and December 5, 1792 as part of the 1792 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President. South Carolina, unanimously cast its eight electoral votes for incumbent George Washington during its first presidential election
1968 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1968 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 5, 1968. All 50 states and the District of Columbia were part of the 1968 United States presidential election. South Carolina voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted more or less for the candidates, resulting in Republican candidate Richard Nixon of California and his running mate Vice President Spiro Agnew of Maryland receiving a plurality of the votes as opposed to a majority. Nixon carried South Carolina with 38.09% of the vote to American Independent Party candidate George Wallace’s 32.30% and Democratic candidate Hubert Humphrey's 29.61%, a victory margin of 5.79%
Thomas R. Marshall
Thomas Riley Marshall was an American politician who served as the 28th vice president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A prominent lawyer in Indiana, he became an active and well known member of the Democratic Party by stumping across the state for other candidates and organizing party rallies that helped him win election as the 27th governor of Indiana. In office, he proposed a controversial progressive change to the Constitution of Indiana. Marshall's popularity as Indiana governor, the state's status as a critical swing state, helped him secure the Democratic vice presidential nomination on a ticket with Wilson in 1912 and win the subsequent general election. An ideological rift developed between the two men during their first term, leading Wilson to limit Marshall's influence in the administration, his brand of humor caused Wilson to move Marshall's office away from the White House. During Marshall's second term he delivered morale-boosting speeches across the nation during World War I and became the first U.
S. vice president to hold cabinet meetings. As he was President of the United States Senate, a small number of anti-war Senators kept it deadlocked by refusing to end debate. To enable critical wartime legislation to be passed, Marshall had the body adopt its first procedural rule allowing filibusters to be ended by a two-thirds majority vote—a variation of this rule remains in effect. Marshall's vice presidency is most remembered for a leadership crisis following a stroke that incapacitated Wilson in October 1919; because of their personal dislike for him, Wilson's advisers and wife Edith sought to keep Marshall uninformed about the president's condition to prevent him from assuming presidential powers and duties. Many people, including cabinet officials and Congressional leaders, urged Marshall to become acting president, but he refused to forcibly assume Wilson's powers and duties for fear of setting a precedent. Without strong leadership in the executive branch, the administration's opponents defeated the ratification of the League of Nations treaty and returned the United States to an isolationist foreign policy.
Marshall is the only known Vice President of the United States to have been targeted in an assassination attempt while in office. Marshall was the first Vice President since Daniel D. Tompkins, nearly a century earlier, to serve two full terms. Marshall was known for his sense of humor. After his terms as vice president, he opened an Indianapolis law practice, where he authored several legal books and his memoir, Recollections, he continued to speak publicly. Marshall died while on a trip after suffering a heart attack in 1925. Thomas Marshall's paternal grandfather, Riley Marshall, immigrated to Indiana in 1817 and settled on a farm in present-day Whitley County, he became wealthy. The money allowed him to purchase a modest estate and spend the rest of his life as an active member of the Indiana Democratic Party, serving as an Indiana State Senator, party chairman, financial contributor, he was able to send his only child, Daniel, to medical school. Marshall's mother, Martha Patterson, was orphaned at age thirteen while living in Ohio and moved to Indiana to live with her sister on a farm near the Marshalls' home.
Martha was known for her wit and humor, as her son would be. Martha and Daniel met and married in 1848. Thomas Riley Marshall was born in North Manchester, Indiana, on March 14, 1854. Two years a sister was born, but she died in infancy. Martha had contracted tuberculosis, which Daniel believed to be the cause of their infant daughter's poor health. While Marshall was still a young boy, his family moved several times in search of a good climate for Daniel to attempt different "outdoor cures" on Martha, they moved first to Quincy, Illinois in 1857. While the family was living in Illinois, Daniel Marshall, a supporter of the American Union and a staunch Democrat, took his four-year-old son, Thomas, to the Lincoln and Douglas debate in Freeport in 1858. Marshall recalled that during the rally he sat on the laps of Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln, alternating between the two candidates when they were not speaking, remembered it as one of his earliest and most cherished memories; the family moved to Osawatomie, Kansas, in 1859, but the frontier violence caused them to move to Missouri in 1860.
Daniel succeeded in curing Martha's disease. As the American Civil War neared, violence spread into Missouri during the Bleeding Kansas incidents. In October 1860 several men led by Duff Green demanded that Daniel Marshall provide medical assistance to the pro-slavery faction, but he refused, the men left; when the Marshalls' neighbors warned that Green was planning to return and murder them, the family packed their belongings and escaped by steamboat to Illinois. The Marshalls remained in Illinois only before relocating to Indiana, farther from the volatile border region. On settling in Pierceton, Marshall began to attend public school, his father and grandfather became embroiled in a dispute with their Methodist minister when they refused to vote Republican in the 1862 election. The minister threatene
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Charles Evans Hughes
Charles Evans Hughes Sr. was an American statesman, Republican Party politician, the 11th Chief Justice of the United States. He was the 36th Governor of New York, the Republican presidential nominee in the 1916 presidential election, the 44th United States Secretary of State. Born to a Welsh immigrant preacher and his wife in Glens Falls, New York, Hughes pursued a legal career in New York City. After working in private practice for several years, in 1905 he led successful state investigations into public utilities and the life insurance industry, he implemented several progressive reforms. In 1910, President William Howard Taft appointed Hughes as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. During his tenure on the Supreme Court, Hughes joined Associate Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. in voting to uphold state and federal regulations. Hughes served as an Associate Justice until 1916, when he resigned from the bench to accept the Republican presidential nomination. Though Hughes was viewed as the favorite in the race against incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson, Wilson won a narrow victory.
After Warren G. Harding won the 1920 presidential election, Hughes accepted Harding's offer to serve as Secretary of State. Serving under Harding and Calvin Coolidge, Hughes negotiated the Washington Naval Treaty, designed to prevent a naval arms race among the United States and Japan. Hughes left office in 1925 and returned to private practice, becoming one of the most prominent attorneys in the country. In 1930, President Herbert Hoover appointed Hughes to succeed Chief Justice Taft. Along with Associate Justice Owen Roberts, Hughes emerged as a key swing vote on the bench, positioned between the liberal Three Musketeers and the conservative Four Horsemen; the Hughes Court struck down several New Deal programs in the early and the mid-1930s, but 1937 marked a turning point for the Supreme Court and the New Deal as Hughes and Roberts joined with the Three Musketeers to uphold the Wagner Act and a state minimum wage law. That same year saw the defeat of the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court.
Hughes served until 1941, when he was succeeded by Associate Justice Harlan F. Stone. Hughes's father, David Charles Hughes, migrated from Wales to the United States in 1855 after he was inspired by the autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. David became a Baptist preacher in Glens Falls, New York, married Mary Catherine Connelly, whose family had been in the United States for several generations. Charles Evans Hughes, the only child of David and Mary, was born in Glens Falls on April 11, 1862; the Hughes family moved to Oswego, New York in 1866, but relocated soon after to Newark, New Jersey and to Brooklyn. With the exception of a brief period of attendance at Newark High School, Hughes received no formal education until 1874, instead being educated by his parents. In September 1874, he enrolled in New York City's prestigious Public School 35, graduating the following year. At the age of 14, he enrolled at Madison University transferred to Brown University, he graduated third in his class at the age of 19, having been elected to Phi Beta Kappa in his junior year.
During his time at Brown, Hughes volunteered for the successful presidential campaign of Republican nominee James A. Garfield and served as the editor of the college newspaper. After graduating from Brown, Hughes spent a year working as a teacher in New York. Hughes next enrolled in Columbia Law School, he passed the New York bar exam in 1884, with the highest score awarded by the state. In 1888, Hughes married Antoinette Carter, the daughter of the senior partner of the law firm where he worked, their first child, Charles Evans Hughes Jr. was born the following year, Hughes purchased a house in Manhattan's Upper West Side neighborhood. Hughes and his wife would have three daughters, their youngest child, Elizabeth Hughes Gossett, was one of the first humans injected with insulin, served as president of the Supreme Court Historical Society. Hughes took a position with the Wall Street law firm of Chamberlain, Carter & Hornblower in 1883, focusing on matters related to contracts and bankruptcies.
He was made a partner in the firm in 1888, the firm changed its name to Carter, Hughes & Cravath. Hughes left the firm and became a professor at Cornell Law School from 1891 to 1893, he returned to Carter, Hughes & Cravath in 1893. He joined the board of Brown University and served on a special committee that recommended revisions to New York's Code of Civil Procedure. Responding to newspaper stories run by the New York World, Governor Frank W. Higgins appointed a legislative committee to investigate the state's public utilities in 1905. On the recommendation of a former state judge, impressed by Hughes's performance in court, the legislative committee appointed Hughes to lead the investigation. Hughes was reluctant to take on the powerful utility companies, but Senator Frederick C. Stevens, the leader of the committee, convinced Hughes to accept the position. Hughes decided to center his investigation on Consolidated Gas, which controlled the production and sale of gas in New York City. Though few expected the committee to have any impact on public corruption, Hughes was able to show that Consolidated Gas had engaged in a pattern of tax evasion and fraudulent bookkeeping.
To eliminate or mitigate those abuses, Hughes drafted and convinced the state legislature to pass bills that established a commission to regulate public utilities and lowered
1788–89 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1789 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between December 15, 1788 – January 10, 1789 as part of the 1789 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose seven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President. South Carolina, which had become the 8th state on May 23, 1788, unanimously cast its seven electoral votes for incumbent George Washington during its first presidential election
United States presidential election
The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U. S. states or in Washington, D. C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U. S. Electoral College, known as electors; these electors in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; the Electoral College and its procedure are established in the U. S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4. Under Clause 2, each of the states casts as many electoral votes as the total number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, per the Twenty-third Amendment ratified in 1961, Washington, D. C. casts the same number of electoral votes as the least-represented state, three.
Under Clause 2, the manner for choosing electors is determined by each state legislature, not directly by the federal government. Many state legislatures selected their electors directly, but over time all of them switched to using the popular vote to help determine electors, which persists today. Once chosen, electors cast their electoral votes for the candidate who won the plurality in their state, but at least 21 states do not have provisions that address this behavior. In modern times and unpledged electors have not affected the ultimate outcome of an election, so the results can be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote. Presidential elections occur quadrennially with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the first Tuesday after November 1; this date coincides with the general elections of various other federal and local races. The Electoral College electors formally cast their electoral votes on the first Monday after December 12 at their respective state capitals.
Congress certifies the results in early January, the presidential term begins on Inauguration Day, which since the passage of the Twentieth Amendment has been set at January 20. The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was not specified in the Constitution, but was developed over time by the states and political parties; these primary elections are held between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. Though not codified by law, political parties follow an indirect election process, where voters in the 50 U. S. states, Washington, D. C. and U. S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party may choose a vice presidential running mate to join the ticket, either determined by choice of the nominee or by a second round of voting; because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election.
Article Two of the United States Constitution established the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College. This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, those who preferred a national popular vote; each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in 1961, the District of Columbia is granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state. However, U. S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College. Constitutionally, the manner for choosing electors is determined within each state by its legislature. During the first presidential election in 1789, only six of the 13 original states chose electors by any form of popular vote. Throughout the years, the states began conducting popular elections to choose their slate of electors.
In 1800, only five of the 16 states chose electors by a popular vote. This gradual movement toward greater democratization coincided with a gradual decrease in property restrictions for the franchise. By 1840, only one of the 26 states still selected electors by the state legislature. Under the original system established by Article Two, electors could cast two votes to two different candidates for president; the candidate with the highest number of votes became the president, the sec