Margaret Higgins Sanger was an American birth control activist, sex educator and nurse. Sanger popularized the term control, opened the first birth control clinic in the United States. Sanger used her writings and speeches primarily to promote her way of thinking and she was prosecuted for her book Family Limitation under the Comstock Act in 1914. She was afraid of what would happen, so she fled to Britain until she knew it was safe to return to the US, Sangers efforts contributed to several judicial cases that helped legalize contraception in the United States. Sanger, who has criticized for supporting negative eugenics, remains an admired figure in the American reproductive rights movement. Her subsequent trial and appeal generated controversy, Sanger felt that in order for women to have a more equal footing in society and to lead healthier lives, they needed to be able to determine when to bear children. She wanted to prevent so-called back-alley abortions, which were common at the time because abortions were illegal in the United States and she believed that while abortion was sometimes justified it should generally be avoided, and she considered contraception the only practical way to avoid them.
In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League, which became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In 1929, she formed the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control, from 1952 to 1959, Sanger served as president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She died in 1966, and is regarded as a founder of the modern birth control movement. Sanger was born Margaret Louise Higgins in 1879 in Corning, New York, to Michael Hennessey Higgins, an Irish-born stonemason and free-thinker, and Anne Purcell Higgins, a Catholic Irish-American. Michael Hennessey Higgins had emigrated to the USA at age 14 and joined the U. S. Army as a drummer at age 15, after leaving the army, Michael studied medicine and phrenology, but ultimately became a stonecutter, making stone angels and tombstones. Michael H. Higgins was a Catholic who became an atheist and her parents brought the family to Canada during the Potato Famine. Anne Higgins went through 18 pregnancies in 22 years before dying at the age of 49, Sanger was the sixth of eleven surviving children, and spent much of her youth assisting with household chores and caring for her younger siblings.
Supported by her two sisters, Margaret Higgins attended Claverack College and Hudson River Institute, before enrolling in 1900 at White Plains Hospital as a nurse probationer. In 1902, she married the architect William Sanger and gave up her education, though she was plagued by a recurring active tubercular condition, Margaret Sanger bore three children, and the couple settled down to a quiet life in Westchester, New York. In 1911, after a fire destroyed their home in Hastings-on-Hudson, Margaret Sanger worked as a visiting nurse in the slums of the East Side, while her husband worked as an architect and a house painter. Already imbued with her husbands leftist politics, Margaret Sanger threw herself into the radical politics, by the standards of the day, Sangers articles were extremely frank in their discussion of sexuality, and many New York Call readers were outraged by them
Georges Charles Guillain was a French neurologist born in Rouen. He studied medicine in Rouen and Paris, where he learned clinical education at several hospitals and he developed an interest in neurology, and his first important scientific work involved lesions of the plexus brachialis. He earned his doctorate at Paris in 1898. He became chef de clinique for nervous disease, and in 1910 acquired his agrégation, after the end of World War I, he worked at Charité Hospital in Paris, followed by a professorship of neurology at the Salpêtrière. In 1920 with his friend Jean Barré, he published a work titled Travaux neurologiques de guerre. He was a member of French and Japanese academies of science and his daughter, Andrée, married the aircraft manufacturer, Claude de Cambronne. Guillain-Laroche-Léchelle reaction, Réaction au benjoin colloidal, guillain–Barré–Strohl syndrome, the most common form of acquired inflammatory polyneuropathy. Guillain-Thaon syndrome, syndrome rare due to syphilis of the nervous system.
Georges Charles Guillain @ Who Named It
Brownsville is a residential neighborhood located in eastern Brooklyn in New York City. The 1. 163-square-mile area that comprises Brownsville has 58,300 residents as of the 2010 United States Census, part of Brooklyn Community Board 16, Brownsville is generally considered part of greater East New York, though it is not actually a part of East New York itself. Founded in its current incarnation in 1858, it has been characterized as a slum through most of its existence, initially a settlement composed of Jewish factory workers, Brownsville underwent a major demographic change in the 1950s that saw an influx of African-American and Latino residents. Since then, it has held one of the highest poverty. The area that would become Brownsville was first used by the Dutch for farming, as well as manufacturing stone slabs, in 1823–1824, the Dutch founded the New Lots Reformed Church in nearby New Lots because the corresponding church in Flatbush was too far away. The church, which has its own cemetery that was built in 1841, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, in 1858, William Suydam parceled the land into 262 lots, providing simple two- to four-room accommodations for workers who were living there.
However, Suydam vastly underestimated how undesirable the area was, there were 250 houses in Browns Village by 1883, most of them occupied by factory workers who commuted to Manhattan. In the 1880s, the area was a floodplain that was used as a dumping ground. Fumes from the factories along Jamaica Bay would usually blow upwind into Brownsville. This place was far enough from Manhattan that the affluent refused to move to Brownsville. Brownsville was predominantly Jewish from the 1880s until the 1950s, kaplan built a factory and accommodations for his workers, placed a synagogue, named Ohev Sholom, in his own factory. Other manufacturers that created low-tech products like food and metals followed suit throughout the next decade and this led to much more housing being built there. The area bounded by present-day Dumont and Liberty Avenues, and Junius Street, quickly became populated, with factories, workshops. By 1900, an estimated 25,000 people lived in Brownsville, many of these buildings were grossly overcrowded, with up to eight families living in some of these two-family houses.
Many of these houses lacked amenities like running water, and their wood construction made these houses susceptible to fires, New brick-and-stone houses erected in the early 1900s were built with indoor plumbing and less prone to fire. The quality of life was decreased by the fact that the unpaved roads were used as open sewers. Within twenty years of the development, the area acquired a reputation as a vicious slum. Indeed, as of 1904,22 out of 25 housing units in Brownsville were tenement housing, rising to 24 out of 25 units by 1907 and it became as dense as the very densely packed Lower East Side, according to one account
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
1916 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1916. January – The Journal of Negro History is founded by Carter G. Woodson, march 1 – Transfer of the National Library of Wales at Aberystwyth into its purpose-built premises is completed. March 22 – Marriage of J. R. R. Tolkien and Edith Bratt at St. Mary Immaculate Roman Catholic Church and they will serve as the inspiration for the fictional characters Beren and Lúthien. Tolkien leaves for military service in France at the beginning of June, april–June – Katherine Mansfield and John Middleton Murry live as neighbours to D. H. and Frieda Lawrence at Higher Tregerthen, near Zennor in Cornwall. Of the seven leaders of the Rising, Thomas MacDonagh, Patrick Pearse and Joseph Plunkett are all poets and James Connolly a balladeer, the event is the theme of W. B. Yeats poem Easter,1916, first published this September, may 16 – Natsume Sōsekis novel Light and Darkness begins serialization in the Tokyo and Osaka editions of the newspaper Asahi Shimbun but will remain unfinished at the authors death on December 9.
Future Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan, wounded in Septembers Battle of Flers–Courcelette and sheltering in a slit trench, yeats makes his fifth and final proposal of marriage to the newly widowed Maud Gonne in France. Summer – In the United States 15-year-old Margaret Mitchell writes the manuscript of a novella called Lost Laysen in two notebooks and she will give the manuscript to a boyfriend and the book remains lost until rediscovered in the mid-1990s and published in 1996. Meanwhile, Mitchell will go on to write Gone with the Wind, September – Joseph Conrads novella The Shadow Line commences serialization in both The English Review and the Metropolitan Magazine. October 19 – New building for the German National Library opens in Leipzig, December 29 – James Joyces semi-autobiographical novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is first published complete in book form in New York. July 1–12 – Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916, partial inspiration for Peter Benchleys novel Jaws, November – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyns novel November 1916 is set in the lead-up to the Russian Revolution
Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, the human species use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The steady progress of technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class, many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earths environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and raise new questions of the ethics of technology, examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the condition or worsens it.
The use of the technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, the term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term technology rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution, the terms meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into technology. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which translates both terms as technology. By the 1930s, technology referred not only to the study of the industrial arts and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lecture, gave another definition of the concept, it is practice, the way we do things around here. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics.
Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time,1, defines technology in two ways, as the pursuit of life by other than life, and as organized inorganic matter. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems and it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as software and business methods. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as a means to fulfill a human purpose
Menstruation, known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina. The first period usually begins between twelve and fifteen years of age, a point in time known as menarche, periods may occasionally start as young as eight years old and still be considered normal. The average age of the first period is in the developing world. The typical length of time between the first day of one period and the first day of the next is 21 to 45 days in young women, bleeding usually lasts around 2 to 7 days. Menstruation stops occurring after menopause, which occurs between 45 and 55 years of age. Periods stop during pregnancy and typically do not resume during the months of breastfeeding. Up to 80% of women report having some symptoms prior to menstruation, common signs and symptoms include acne, tender breasts, feeling tired and mood changes. These may interfere with life, therefore qualifying as premenstrual syndrome. In 3 to 8%, symptoms are severe, a lack of periods, known as amenorrhea, is when periods do not occur by age 15 or have not occurred in 90 days.
Other problems with the cycle include painful periods and abnormal bleeding such as bleeding between periods or heavy bleeding. Menstruation in other animals occurs in primates, such as apes and monkeys, as well as bats, the menstrual cycle occurs due to the rise and fall of hormones. This cycle results in the thickening of the lining of the uterus, the egg is released from an ovary around day fourteen in the cycle, the thickened lining of the uterus provides nutrients to an embryo after implantation. If pregnancy does not occur, the lining is released in what is known as menstruation, the first menstrual period occurs after the onset of pubertal growth, and is called menarche. The average age of menarche is 12 to 15, however, it may start as early as eight. The average age of the first period is in the developing world. The average age of menarche has changed little in the United States since the 1950s, Menstruation is the most visible phase of the menstrual cycle and its beginning is used as the marker between cycles.
The first day of bleeding is the date used for the last menstrual period. The typical length of time between the first day of one period and the first day of the next is 21 to 45 days in young women, the medical definition of menopause is one year without a period and typically occurs between 45 and 55 in Western countries
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. Electromagnetic radiation from the star is analyzed by splitting it with a prism or diffraction grating into a spectrum exhibiting the rainbow of colors interspersed with absorption lines, each line indicates an ion of a certain chemical element, with the line strength indicating the abundance of that ion. The relative abundance of the different ions varies with the temperature of the photosphere, the spectral class of a star is a short code summarizing the ionization state, giving an objective measure of the photospheres temperature and density. Most stars are classified under the Morgan–Keenan system using the letters O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. Each letter class is subdivided using a numeric digit with 0 being hottest and 9 being coolest. The sequence has been expanded with classes for other stars and star-like objects that do not fit in the system, such as class D for white dwarfs. In the MK system, a luminosity class is added to the class using Roman numerals.
This is based on the width of absorption lines in the stars spectrum. The full spectral class for the Sun is G2V, indicating a main-sequence star with a temperature around 5,800 K, the conventional color description takes into account only the peak of the stellar spectrum. This means that the assignment of colors of the spectrum can be misleading. There are no green, indigo, or violet stars, the brown dwarfs do not literally appear brown. The modern classification system is known as the Morgan–Keenan classification, each star is assigned a spectral class from the older Harvard spectral classification and a luminosity class using Roman numerals as explained below, forming the stars spectral type. The spectral classes O through M, as well as more specialized classes discussed later, are subdivided by Arabic numerals. For example, A0 denotes the hottest stars in the A class, fractional numbers are allowed, for example, the star Mu Normae is classified as O9.7. The Sun is classified as G2, the conventional color descriptions are traditional in astronomy, and represent colors relative to the mean color of an A-class star, which is considered to be white.
The apparent color descriptions are what the observer would see if trying to describe the stars under a dark sky without aid to the eye, or with binoculars. However, most stars in the sky, except the brightest ones, red supergiants are cooler and redder than dwarfs of the same spectral type, and stars with particular spectral features such as carbon stars may be far redder than any black body. O-, B-, and A-type stars are called early type
Barnards Star /ˈbɑːrnərd/ is a very-low-mass red dwarf about six light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus. It is the fourth-closest known individual star to the Sun and the closest star in the Northern Hemisphere. Despite its proximity, at a dim apparent magnitude of about nine, it is not visible with the unaided eye, the star is named after the American astronomer E. E. Barnard. He was not the first to observe the star, but in 1916 he measured its proper motion as 10.3 arcseconds per year, in 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN approved the name Barnards Star for this star on 1 February 2017, Barnards Star is among the most studied red dwarfs because of its proximity and favorable location for observation near the celestial equator. Historically, research on Barnards Star has focused on measuring its stellar characteristics, its astrometry, although Barnards Star is an ancient star, it still experiences star flare events, one being observed in 1998.
The star has been the subject of some controversy, for a decade, from the early 1960s to the early 1970s, Peter van de Kamp claimed that there were one or more gas giants in orbit around it. Although the presence of terrestrial planets around Barnards Star remains a possibility. Barnards Star is a red dwarf of the dim spectral type M4, at 7–12 billion years of age, Barnards Star is considerably older than the Sun, which is 4.5 billion years old, and it might be among the oldest stars in the Milky Way galaxy. Barnards Star has lost a great deal of energy. Given its age, Barnards Star was long assumed to be quiescent in terms of stellar activity, in 1998, astronomers observed an intense stellar flare, showing that Barnards Star is a flare star. Barnards Star has the variable star designation V2500 Ophiuchi, in 2003, Barnards Star presented the first detectable change in the radial velocity of a star caused by its motion. Further variability in the velocity of Barnards Star was attributed to its stellar activity.
The proper motion of Barnards Star corresponds to a lateral speed of 90 km/s. The 10.3 seconds of arc it travels annually amount to a quarter of a degree in a human lifetime, the radial velocity of Barnards Star towards the Sun is measured from its blue shift to be 110 km/s. Combined with its motion, this gives a space velocity of 142.6 ±0.2 km/s. Barnards Star will make its closest approach to the Sun around AD11,800, proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun at a position currently 4.24 light-years distant from it. Barnards Star has a mass of about 0.14 solar masses, although Barnards Star has roughly 150 times the mass of Jupiter, its radius is only 1.5 to 2.0 times larger, due to its much higher density
This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives. The food production for half the current population depends on this method for producing nitrogen fertilizers. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the energy of an ionic solid. Fritz Haber was born in Breslau, in Prussian Silesia, into a well-off Jewish family, the family name Haber was a common one in the area, but Fritz Habers family has been traced back to a great-grandfather, Pinkus Selig Haber, a wool dealer from Kempen. An important Prussian edict of 13 March 1812 determined that Jews and their families, under such regulations, members of the Haber family were able to establish themselves in respected positions in business and law. Fritz Haber was the son of Siegfried and Paula Haber, first cousins who married in spite of opposition from their families. Fritzs father Siegfried was a merchant in the town, who had founded his own business in dye pigments, paints.
Paula experienced a difficult pregnancy and died three weeks after Fritzs birth, leaving Siegfried devastated and Fritz in the care of various aunts, when Fritz was about 6 years old, Siegfried remarried, to Hedwig Hamburger. Siegfried and his wife had three daughters, Else and Frieda. Although his relationship with his father was distant and often difficult, Fritz developed close relationships with his step-mother, by the time Fritz was born, the Habers had to some extent assimilated into German society. Fritz attended primary school at the Johanneum School, a school open equally to Catholic, Protestant. At age 11, he went to school at the St. Elizabeth classical school and his family supported the Jewish community and continued to observe many Jewish traditions, but were not strongly associated with the synagogue. Fritz Haber identified strongly as German, less so as Jewish, Fritz Haber successfully passed his examinations at the St. Elizabeth High School in Breslau in September 1886. Haber was disappointed by his initial winter semester in Berlin, and arranged to attend the University of Heidelberg for the semester of 1887.
He returned to Berlin, to the Technical College of Charlottenburg, in the summer of 1889 he left university to perform a legally required year of voluntary service in the Sixth Field Artillery Regiment. Upon its completion, he returned to Charlottenburg where he became a student of Carl Liebermann, in addition to Liebermanns lectures on organic chemistry, Haber attended lectures by Otto Witt on the chemical technology of dyes. Liebermann assigned Haber to work on reactions with piperonal for his thesis topic, with his degree, Fritz returned to Breslau to work at his fathers chemical business. They did not get along well, through Siegfrieds connections, Fritz was assigned a series of practical apprenticeships in different chemical companies, to gain experience