The Early Nationalists, known as the Moderates, were a group of political leaders in India active between 1885 and 1905. Their emergence marked the beginning of the national movement in India. With members of the group drawn from educated middle-class professionals including lawyers and government officials and they have become known as Early Nationalists because they believed in demanding reforms while adopting constitutional and peaceful means to achieve their aims. The Early Nationalists had full faith in the British sense of justice, fair play, the Early Nationalists were staunch believers in open-minded and moderate politics. Their successors, the Assertives, existed from 1905 to 1919 and were followed by nationalists of the Gandhian era, focusing on demands for reform, the Early Nationalists adopted a constitutional and peaceful approach to achieve their objectives. They remained friendly towards the British rulers but believed that Indians should have a proper, although they asked for constitutional and other reforms within the framework of British rule, they had full faith in that nations sense of justice and fair play.
They further believed that continuation of the British connection with India was in the interests of both countries, at an early stage, the nationalists considered their association with England an advantage. Influenced by western thought, education and history, the Early Nationalists believed in patience and conciliation rather than confrontation, adopting orderly progress and constitutional means to realise their aims. To educate the people, to arouse political consciousness, and to create public opinion in favour of their demands they organised annual sessions. Processions and meetings were held, speeches delivered and discussions held on various economic, following these discussions, resolutions were adopted. They drafted petitions and memorandums before submitting them to the government, the Early Nationalists wanted to convey their feelings to the government, so as to gradually bring the authorities around to their viewpoint. To influence the British government and to enlighten the British public and its political leaders, in 1889, a British Committee of the Indian National Congress was founded and followed by a journal called India started by the Committee in 1890.
In spite of their role as the most progressive force of the time and they were treated with contempt by their British rulers and their demands were not fulfilled. In spite of criticism, the Early Nationalists did achieve some of their goals. They created a national awakening among the people that made Indians conscious of the bonds of common political and they made the people realise the economic content and character of British imperialism. In doing so, they weakened the foundations of British rule in India and their political and economic programmes established the idea that India must be ruled in the interest of the Indians. The efforts of the Early Nationalists led to the implementation of social reforms such as the appointment of a Public Service Commission. A resolution of the House of Commons allowing for simultaneous examination for the Indian Civil Service in London, appointment of the Welby Commission on Indian Expenditure
1984 in India
Events in the year 1984 in the Republic of India. President of India – Zail Singh Prime Minister of India – Indira Gandhi until 31 October,2 April - Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma is launched into space, aboard the Soyuz T-11. 13 April - India launches Operation Meghdoot, as most of the Siachen Glacier in Kashmir comes under Indian control,1 June - The Indian government begins Operation Blue Star. 4 June - Indian troops storm the Golden Temple at Amritsar,31 October - Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated by her two Sikh security guards. Her son Rajiv Gandhi succeeds her as Prime Minister and he was the one man who got 550 states and territories to form the united Republic of India. Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, autonomous non-governmental organisation seeking to preserve Indian culture, S. Johar, writer and director. 31 October - Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister, assassinated 5 November-Rehman, actor Gopi Krishna, mystic, social reformer and writer
George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. He was the son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. From the time of his birth, he was third in the line of succession behind his father and his own brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, on the death of his grandmother in 1901, Georges father became King-Emperor of the British Empire, and George was created Prince of Wales. He succeeded his father in 1910 and he was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar. His reign saw the rise of socialism, fascism, Irish republicanism, the Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, in 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations.
He had health problems throughout much of his reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son. George was born on 3 June 1865, in Marlborough House and he was the second son of the Prince and Princess of Wales, Albert Edward and Alexandra. His father was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and he was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Longley. As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was expectation that George would become king. He was third in line to the throne, after his father and elder brother, George was only 17 months younger than Albert Victor, and the two princes were educated together. John Neale Dalton was appointed as their tutor in 1871, neither Albert Victor nor George excelled intellectually. For three years from 1879, the brothers served on HMS Bacchante, accompanied by Dalton. They toured the colonies of the British Empire in the Caribbean, South Africa and Australia, and visited Norfolk, Virginia, as well as South America, the Mediterranean, Dalton wrote an account of their journey entitled The Cruise of HMS Bacchante.
Between Melbourne and Sydney, Dalton recorded a sighting of the Flying Dutchman, after Lausanne, the brothers were separated, Albert Victor attended Trinity College, while George continued in the Royal Navy. He travelled the world, visiting many areas of the British Empire, during his naval career he commanded Torpedo Boat 79 in home waters HMS Thrush on the North America station, before his last active service in command of HMS Melampus in 1891–92. From on, his rank was largely honorary
Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford
Thesiger had been born on 12 August 1868 in London, the son of the 2nd Baron Chelmsford and Adria Heath. He was educated at Winchester College and progressed in 1887 to Magdalen College and he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts with first-class honours in law in 1891 and further gained a masters degree in 1894. Thesiger was elected as a fellow of All Souls College, in 1893 he was called to the Bar of the Inner Temple to practice law. He joined the army as a Captain in the Dorset Regiment, a keen cricketer, he Captained the Oxford XI and played for Middlesex. On 27 July 1894 he married Frances Charlotte Guest, daughter of Baron Wimborne at St Georges and he was member of the London County Council between 1904 and 1905 and again as an alderman from 1913 and 1919. On 9 April 1905, he succeeded to the title of 3rd Baron Chelmsford of Chelmsford upon his fathers death and he arrived in Brisbane and was sworn in on 20 November. On 29 June 1906, Chelmsford was invested as a Knight Commander of Order of St Michael and his term was dominated by conflict between the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly and the emergence of three evenly divided parties in the lower house.
Following the 1907 election, William Kidston, who had founded his own party, the legislative council, being an appointed chamber, refused Kidstons legislative programs on electoral reforms and wage-fixing. Kidston made a request to Chelmsford to appoint enough members to the Council in order to get his legislation through, chelsmford refused, on the grounds that he did not have a sufficient mandate from the people to make such demands. Kidston resigned in protest and Chelmsford commissioned the Leader of the Opposition, Robert Philp, who formed a ministry, Chelmsford granted Philp a dissolution, though the parliament was only six months old. Because Supply was denied by Kidston, Chelmsford stepped in and used the powers to ensure that supply was passed until the election. Kidston was returned to office in the 1908 election, the new assembly passed a motion criticising Chelmsfords action and there was widespread speculation that he would be recalled. Despite the admission that their representative had been mistaken in granting a dissolution, the Colonial Office, Chelmsfords term expired just after Kidston resigned from the Labor Government and formed a coalition with Philps Conservatives.
In May 1909 Chelmsford accepted the appointment as Governor of New South Wales and was sworn in at Government House on 28 May 1909, unlike in Queensland, his term was comparably stable and was distinguished by good relations with the state government. At the start of his term, Charles Wade, of the Commonwealth Liberal Party, was the Premier, following the 1910 election, Wades Liberals were defeated and the Labor Party under James McGowen was sworn in as the states first Labor Government. Despite his conservative background, Chelmsford was able to get well with the Labor Government. Chelmsford became friends with the Attorney General, William Holman, with whom they shared a love of music and as a competent Viola player and he said of the government, I have never had a body of Ministers with whom it has been a greater pleasure to work. They are quiet and industrious, and have won the goodwill, from 21 December 1909 to 27 January 1910 Chelmsford acted as Administrator of the Commonwealth when the Governor-General of Australia, The Earl of Dudley was on leave
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was an Indian politician and central figure of the Indian National Congress party, and to date the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Indias first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, despite her surname Gandhi, she is not related to the family of nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi. She served as Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, Gandhi served as her fathers personal assistant and hostess during his tenure as prime minister between 1947 and 1964. She was elected Congress President in 1959, upon her fathers death in 1964, Gandhi refused to enter the Congress party leadership contest and instead chose to become a cabinet minister in the government led by Lal Bahadur Shastri. As the Prime Minister of India, Gandhi was known for her political ruthlessness, Gandhi presided over a controversial state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 during which she ruled by decree. Akin to Mahatma Gandhis fate, she was assassinated by nationalists in 1984.
The assassins, Beant Singh and Satwant Singh, were both killed, in 1999, Indira was named Woman of the Millennium in a poll organised by the BBC. Indira Gandhi was born as Indira Nehru in a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad and her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in Indias political struggle for independence from British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of the Union of India. She was the child, and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan. She had a lonely and unhappy childhood and her father was often away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was frequently bed-ridden with illness, and suffered an early death from tuberculosis. She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters, Indira was mostly taught at home by tutors, and intermittently attended school until matriculation in 1934. It was during her interview that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, a year later, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe.
While there, it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the University of Oxford, after her mother died, she briefly attended the Badminton School before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history. Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a performance in Latin. At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics and she did, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as the Oxford Majlis Asian Society. During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was attended by doctors. She had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover, disrupting her studies and she was being treated there in 1940, when the Nazi armies rapidly conquered Europe. Gandhi tried to return to England through Portugal but was stranded for nearly two months
Emperor of India
The term Emperor of India is used to refer to pre-British Indian emperors. The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1877, the title had been eagerly assumed by Victoria in 1876, after she had been pressuring Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Benjamin Disraeli to agree to her assuming the title for some years. The idea of having Victoria proclaimed empress of India was not new as Lord Ellenborough had already suggested it in 1843 on becoming governor-general of India. The Queen, possibly irritated by the sallies of the republicans, the tendency to democracy, by January 1876, the Queens insistence was such that the Prime Minister felt he could procrastinate no more. Another reason Queen Victoria was titled Empress of India was because her daughter Victoria was to be eventually Empress of Germany so she didnt want to be ranked behind her daughter. The new styling would underline the fact that the states were no longer a mere agglomeration. When Victorias successor Edward VII ascended the throne in 1901, he continued to use the title Emperor of India, the title continued after India became independent on 15 August 1947 until it was formally abandoned on 22 June 1948 during the reign of King George VI.
When signing off Indian business, the reigning British King-Emperors or queen-empress used the initials R I or the abbreviation Ind, when a male monarch held the title his wife, the queen consort, used the style queen-empress, though she was not herself a reigning monarch. British coins and those of the Empire and Commonwealth routinely included the abbreviated title Ind, imp. although in India itself the coins said Empress, and King Emperor. When in 1947 India became independent all coining dies had to be changed, canadian coins, for example, were minted well into 1948 stamped 1947, the new years issue indicated by a small maple leaf in one corner. In Great Britain itself the title appeared on coinage through 1948
M. G. Ramachandran
Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran, popularly known as M. G. R. was an Indian actor and politician who served as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for ten years between 1977 and 1987. MGR is an icon in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. In his youth, MGR and his brother, M. G. Chakrapani. Influenced by Gandhian ideals, MGR joined the Indian National Congress, after a few years of acting in plays, he made his film debut in the 1936 film Sathi Leelavathi in a supporting role. By the late 1940s he graduated to lead roles and for the three decades dominated the Tamil film industry. He became a member of the C. N. Annadurai-led Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and rapidly rose through its ranks, using his enormous popularity as a film star to build a large political base. In 1972, three years after Annadurais death, he left the DMK, now led by Karunanidhi, MGRs once friend and now rival, five years later, he steered an AIADMK-led alliance to victory in the 1977 election, routing the DMK in the process. He became Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, the first film actor to become a minister in India. M. G.
Rs autobiography ‘Naan Yaen Piranthaen’ was published in 2003 in two volumes, M. G. R. was born in Kandy, British Ceylon, to Malayali family Melakkath Gopala Menon and Maruthur Satyabhama from Palakkad, Kerala. In his early days, M. G. R. was a devout Hindu and a devotee of Murugan, when he joined the DMK, a pro-rationalist party, he followed the rationalist ideology, though not appearing very aggressively atheistic. In days after he founded his own party following his expulsion from the DMK and he had asked his followers to pray for the success of his AIADMK party. M. G. Rs first marriage was to Chitarikulam Bargavi and he married for the second time, to Sathanandavathhi who died soon after marriage due to tuberculosis. Married for the time, this time to V. N. Janaki a former Tamil film actress. Janaki divorced her husband, Ganapati Bhatt, to marry M. G. R, Ramachandran made his film debut in 1936, in the film Sathi Leelavathi, directed by Ellis Dungan, an American-born film director. Generally starring in romance or action films, MGR got his big breakthrough in the 1950 film Manthiri Kumari, soon he rose to popularity with the 1954 Malaikkallan.
He acted as hero in the Tamil film industrys first ever Gevacolor movie and he rose to become the heartthrob of millions of tamilians with movies such as Thirudadhe, Enga Veettu Pillai, Aayirathil Oruvan, Anbe Vaa, Panam Padaithavan, Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan, etc. He won the National Film Award for Best Actor for the film Rickshawkaran in 1972 and he acted in many movies that appealed to the direct sentiments of the common man and the rich as well. His 1973 blockbuster Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan broke previous box office records of his movies and it was one of the few movies filmed abroad in those days
In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as a veterinarian. Most veterinary physicians work in clinical settings, treating animals directly, as with other healthcare professionals, veterinarians face ethical decisions about the care of their patients. The word veterinary comes from the Latin veterinae meaning working animals, Veterinarian was first used in print by Thomas Browne in 1646. The first veterinary college was founded in Lyon, France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat, according to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy. The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, a 1785 Society meeting resolved to promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with contributions from Sir John McFadyean.
Veterinarians treat disease, disorder or injury in animals, which includes diagnosis, the scope of practice and experience of the individual veterinarian will dictate exactly what interventions they perform, but most will perform surgery. Unlike in human medicine, veterinarians must rely primarily on clinical signs, there are scenarios where euthanasia is considered due to the constrains of the clients finances. As with human medicine, much work is concerned with prophylactic treatment. Common interventions include vaccination against common illnesses, such as distemper or rabies. This may involve owner education so as to future medical or behavioral issues. Additionally veterinarians have important roles in health and the prevention of zoonoses. The majority of veterinarians are employed in private practice treating animals, small animal veterinarians typically work in veterinary clinics, veterinary hospitals, or both. Large animal veterinarians often spend time travelling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them.
Other employers include charities treating animals, colleges of medicine, research laboratories, animal food companies. In many countries, the government may be an employer of veterinarians. State and local governments employ veterinarians and their practices may be specialized in certain areas of veterinary medicine
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. Congress was founded in 1885 during the British Raj, its founders include Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, there have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, and the most recent Manmohan Singh. The partys social liberal platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of regional parties. As of March 2017, the party is in power in five states, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, in Bihar, it is a part of the ruling coalition. The Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, in the 2014 general election, the Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house. The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, the Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, including Scotsman Allan Octavian Hume.
It has been suggested that the idea was conceived in a meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued. Its objective was to obtain a share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress, the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, representing each province of India, the Partys delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims, the rest were of Parsi and Jain backgrounds. It included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammed Ali Jinnah—later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905.
Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915, in 1923 following the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, the Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, at the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj was declared as the partys goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as Purna Swaraj Diwas, Independence Day. The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, the British government allowed provincial elections in India in the winter of 1936–37 under the Government of India Act 1935