|1919 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2672|
|Balinese saka calendar||1840–1841|
|British Regnal year||9 Geo. 5 – 10 Geo. 5|
|Chinese calendar||戊午年 (Earth Horse)|
4615 or 4555
— to —
己未年 (Earth Goat)
4616 or 4556
|- Vikram Samvat||1975–1976|
|- Shaka Samvat||1840–1841|
|- Kali Yuga||5019–5020|
|Japanese calendar||Taishō 8|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 8|
|Thai solar calendar||2461–2462|
2045 or 1664 or 892
— to —
2046 or 1665 or 893
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1919.|
1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1919th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 919th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 Sources
- January 1
- January 3 – The Faisal–Weizmann Agreement is signed by Emir Faisal (representing the Arab Kingdom of Hejaz) and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann, for Arab–Jewish cooperation in the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and an Arab nation in a large part of the Middle East.
- January 5
- Spartacist uprising: Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution.
- In Germany, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP), predecessor of the Nazi Party, is formed by the merger of Anton Drexler's Committee of Independent Workmen with journalist Karl Harrer's Political Workers' Circle.
- January 7
- January 8 – The funeral of Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, is held at Christ Church Oyster Bay, Long Island; Roosevelt had died in his sleep at the age of 60, two days earlier.
- January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin.
- January 10–12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin.
- January 11
- January 13 – Workers' councils in Berlin end the general strike; the Spartacist uprising is over.
- January 14 – Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces liberate Tartu from the Red Army.
- January 15
- January 16
- The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.
- Pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes the second Prime Minister of Poland.
- January 18
- January 19
- The Monarchy of the North is established in Northern Portugal.
- January 21
- Dáil Éireann meets for the first time in the Mansion House, Dublin. It comprises Sinn Féin members elected in the 1918 general election who, in accordance with their manifesto, have not taken their seats in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, but chosen to declare an independent Irish Republic. In the first shots of the Anglo-Irish War, two Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) men are killed in an ambush at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary.
- Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire dies.
- January 23 – The Khotin Uprising breaks out in Khotyn, Ukraine.
- January 25 – The League of Nations is founded in Paris, France.
- January 31 – Battle of George Square: The British Army is called in to deal with riots, during negotiations over working hours in Glasgow, Scotland.
- February 1 – Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces liberate Valga and Võru, expelling the Red Army from the entire territory of Estonia.
- February 3 – Soviet troops occupy Ukraine.
- February 4-5 – Pressburg (Bratislava) becomes the capital of Slovakia.
- February 5 – United Artists (UA) is incorporated by D.W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks.
- February 6 – The Seattle General Strike begins in the United States, affecting over 65,000 workers.
- February 11
- February 12 – Ethnic Germans and Hungarian inhabitants of Pressburg start a protest against its incorporation into Czechoslovakia, but the Czechoslovak Legions open fire on the unarmed demonstrators.
- February 14 – The Polish–Soviet War begins, with the Battle of Bereza Kartuska.
- February 16-21 – Estonian War of Independence: Uniformed peasants in Saaremaa rebel against the government of Estonia; the rebellion is crushed by government forces, leaving more than 200 dead.
- February 25 – Oregon places a one cent per US gallon (0.26¢/liter) tax on gasoline, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a gasoline tax.
- February 26 – Grand Canyon National Park: An act of the United States Congress establishes most of the Grand Canyon as a United States National Park.
- February 28
- March 1 – The March 1st Movement against Japanese colonial rule in Korea is formed.
- March 2 – The Founding Congress of the Comintern opens in Moscow.
- March 3 – The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the conviction of Charles Schenck.
- March 4 – The Communist International (Comintern) is founded.
- March 4–5 – Kinmel Park Riots by troops of the Canadian Expeditionary Force awaiting repatriation at Kinmel Camp, Bodelwyddan, in North Wales. Five men are killed, 28 injured, and 25 convicted of mutiny.
- March 5 – A. Mitchell Palmer becomes United States Attorney General, through recess appointment.
- March 8 – The Rowlatt Act is passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in London, indefinitely extending the emergency provisions of the Defence of India Act 1915.
- March 9 – The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 breaks out.
- March 15–17 – Members of the American Expeditionary Forces convene in Paris, for the first American Legion caucus.
- March 21 – The Hungarian Soviet Republic is established by Béla Kun.
- March 23 – In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement.
- March 23–24 – Charles I, the last Emperor of Austria, leaves Austria for exile in Switzerland.
- March 26 – Queen of the South F.C. is formed in Dumfries.
- March 27 – The name Bratislava is officially adopted for the city of Pressburg.
- March 31 – A general strike begins in the Ruhr.
- April 5 – Pinsk massacre: 35 Jews are killed without trial, after being accused of Bolshevism.
- April 6–7 – The Bavarian Soviet Republic is founded.
- April 10 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead in Morelos.
- April 12 – French serial killer Henri Désiré Landru is arrested.
- April 13
- April 15 – The Save the Children Fund is created in the UK, to raise money for the relief of German and Austrian children.
- April 20 – The French Army blows up the bridge over the Dniester at Bender, Moldova, to protect the city from the Bolsheviks.
- April 23 – The Estonian Constituent Assembly convenes its first session.
- April 25
- April 30 – Several bombs are intercepted, in the first wave of the 1919 United States anarchist bombings.
- May 1
- May 2 – Weimar Republic troops and the Freikorps occupy Munich, and crush the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
- May 3 – Amānullāh Khān attacks the British government in India.
- May 4
- The May Fourth Movement opposes foreign colonizers in China erupts.
- The League of Red Cross Societies is founded in Paris.
- May 6 – The Third Anglo-Afghan War begins.
- May 8 – Edward George Honey proposes a moment of silence, to commemorate the Armistice of World War I.
- May 8–27 – United States Navy Curtiss flying boat NC-4, commanded by Albert Cushing Read, makes the first transatlantic flight, from Naval Air Station Rockaway to Lisbon via Trepassey, Newfoundland (departs May 16) and the Azores (arrives May 17). (On May 30–31 it flies on to Plymouth in England.)
- May 9 – In Belgium, a new electoral law introduces universal manhood suffrage, and gives the franchise to certain classes of women.
- May 14 – The University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, establishes probably the world's first Chair in International Politics, endowed by David Davies and his sisters in honour of Woodrow Wilson, with Alfred Eckhard Zimmern as first professor.
- May 15
- May 17 – The Committee of One Thousand forms to oppose the Winnipeg general strike.
- May 19
- May 23 – The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
- May 25 – Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces capture Pskov from the Red Army, and soon hand it over to the White forces.
- May 27
- May 29
- Einstein's theory of general relativity is tested by Arthur Eddington's observation of the "bending of light" during a total solar eclipse in Príncipe, and by Andrew Crommelin in Sobral, Ceará, Brazil (confirmed November 19).
- The Republic of Prekmurje formally declares independence from Hungary.
- May 30 – By agreement with the United Kingdom, later confirmed by the League of Nations, Belgium is given the mandate over part of German East Africa (Ruanda-Urundi).
- June – Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard.
- June 2 – 1919 United States anarchist bombings: Eight mail bombs are sent to prominent figures.
- June 4 – Women's rights: The United States Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the states for ratification.
- June 5 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The advancing pro-German Baltische Landeswehr initiates war against Estonia in Northern Latvia.
- June 6 – The Hungarian Red Army attacks the Republic of Prekmurje.
- June 7 – Sette Giugno on Malta: British troops fire on a mob protesting against the colonial government, killing four.
- June 14–15 – A Vickers Vimy piloted by John Alcock DSC, with navigator Arthur Whitten Brown, makes the first nonstop transatlantic flight, from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland.
- June 15 – Pancho Villa attacks Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. When the bullets begin to fly to the American side of the border, two units of the United States 7th Cavalry Regiment cross the border, to push Villa's forces from American territory.
- June 17 – English Police Sergeant Thomas Green is killed, during the Epsom Riot by Canadian troops.
- June 18 – The biggest football club in Central America, Liga Deportiva Alajuelense, is founded in Costa Rica.
- June 21
- Bloody Saturday of the Winnipeg general strike: Royal Northwest Mounted Police fire a volley of bullets into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two.
- Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow: Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet interned in Scapa Flow, Scotland; nine German sailors are killed.
- June 23 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence – Battle of Cēsis: The Estonian army defeats the pro-German Baltische Landeswehr in northern Latvia, forcing it to retreat towards Riga; the event has been celebrated as Victory Day in Estonia ever since.
- June 26 – British Foreign Office official St John Philby and T. E. Lawrence arrive in Cairo for discussions about Arab unrest in Egypt, having been flown by Canadian pilot Harry Yates in a Handley Page bomber, which set off from England on June 21.
- June 28
- The Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending World War I. John Maynard Keynes, who had been present at the conference and was unhappy with the terms of the treaty, brings out his own analysis later in the year, entitled The Economic Consequences of the Peace.
- The International Labour Organization (ILO) is established as an agency of the League of Nations.
- July 2 – The Syrian National Congress in Damascus: Arab nationalists announce independence.
- July 2–6 – British airship R34 makes the first transatlantic flight by dirigible, and the first westbound flight, from RAF East Fortune, Scotland, to Mineola, New York.
- July 3 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The pro-German Baltische Landeswehr signs a peace treaty with Estonia and Latvia. The pro-German Prime Minister of Latvia Andrievs Niedra resigns, and Latvian forces take over Riga on July 8.
- July 7 – The United States Army sends a convoy across the continental U.S., starting in Washington, D.C., to assess the possibility of crossing North America by road. This crossing takes many months to complete, because the building of the U.S. Highway System has not commenced.
- July 11 – The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands.
- July 19 – The Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is established, by decree of the chancellory for foreign affairs.
- July 21 – Wingfoot Air Express crash: The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed. However, two people parachute to the ground safely.
- July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins, when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft.
- July 28 – The International Astronomical Union is founded in Paris, France.
- July 31 – British police strike in London and Liverpool, for recognition of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers; over 2,000 strikers are dismissed.
- August 1 – Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic collapses.
- August 3 – The Romanian army liberates Timișoara from the Hungarian occupation.
- August 4 – The Romanian army occupies Budapest.
- August 8 – The Treaty of Rawalpindi ends the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
- August 11 – In Germany, the Weimar Constitution is proclaimed to be in effect (ratified).
- August 16–26 – First Silesian Uprising: The Poles in Upper Silesia rise against the Germans.
- August 18 – The Bolshevik fleet at Kronstadt, near Petrograd, Russia, on the Baltic Sea, is mostly destroyed by British warplanes and torpedo boats in a combined operation.
- August 19 – Afghanistan gains independence from the United Kingdom.
- August 21 – Friedrich Ebert becomes the first president in Germany.
- August 27 – South African Prime Minister Louis Botha dies in office.
- August 29 – Russian Civil War: The Red Army captures Pskov from White forces.
- August 31 – The American Communist Party is established.
- September 3 – Jan Smuts becomes the second Prime Minister of South Africa.
- September 6 – The U.S. Army expedition across America, which started July 7, ends in San Francisco.
- September 10 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Austria-Hungary.
- September 10–15: The Florida Keys hurricane kills 600 in the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Texas.
- September 12 – Gabriele D'Annunzio, with his entourage, marches into Fiume and convinces Italian troops to join him.
- September 17 – German South West Africa is placed under South African administration.
- September 21 – The Steel strike of 1919 begins across the United States.
- September 27 – The last British Army troops leave Archangel, and leave the fighting to the Russians.
- October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid for the remainder of his life.
- October 7 – The Dutch airline KLM is formed (as of 2007, it will be the world's oldest airline still flying under its original name).
- October 9 – In Major League Baseball, the Cincinnati Reds win the World Series, five games to three, over the Chicago White Sox, whose players are later found to have lost intentionally.
- October 10 – Estonia adopts a radical land reform, nationalizing 97% of agrarian lands, mostly still belonging to Baltic Germans.
- October 13 – The Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation is signed, in Paris, France.
- October 16
- October 28 – Prohibition in the United States: The United States Congress passes the Volstead Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. Prohibition goes into effect on January 17, 1920, under the provisions of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution.
- November 1 – The Coal Strike of 1919 begins in the United States, by the United Mine Workers under John L. Lewis; a final agreement is reached on December 10.
- November 7
- The first Palmer Raid is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution; over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in 23 different U.S. cities.
- Inspired by Cape Town's daily Noon Gun Three Minute Pause, King George V institutes the Two Minute Silence, following a suggestion by Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, to be observed annually at the Eleventh Hour of the Eleventh Day of the Eleventh Month.
- November 9 – Felix the Cat appears in Feline Follies, marking the first cartoon character to become popular.
- November 10 – Abrams v. United States: The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the conviction Abrams, for inciting resistance to the war effort against Soviet Russia.
- November 10–12 – The first national convention of the American Legion is held in Minneapolis.
- November 11
- Russian Civil War: The Northwestern Army of General Nikolai Yudenich retreats to Estonia and is disarmed.
- The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington (United States), originating at an Armistice Day parade, results in the deaths of four members of the American Legion, and the lynching of a local leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
- First Remembrance Day observed in the British Empire with a two-minute silence at 11:00 hours.
- November 16 – After Entente pressure, Romanian forces withdraw from Budapest and allow Admiral Horthy to march in.
- November 19 – The Treaty of Versailles fails a critical ratification vote in the United States Senate. It will never be ratified by the U.S.
- November 27 – The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine is signed between the Allies and Bulgaria.
- November 30 – Health officials declare the global "Spanish" flu pandemic has ceased.
- December 1
- December 3 - After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, including two collapses causing 89 deaths, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic.
- December 4 – The French Opera House in New Orleans, Louisiana is destroyed by fire.
- December 5 – The Turkish Ministry of War releases Greeks, Armenians and Jews from military service.
- December 17 - Uruguay becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
- December 19 – The fictional character Ham Gravy makes his début in Thimble Theatre Comics.
- December 21 – The United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT Buford.
- December 23 - Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 becomes law in the United Kingdom.
- December 25 – Cliftonhill Stadium in Coatbridge, Scotland, opens as the home of Albion Rovers F.C.. They lose the opening match 2–0 to St Mirren.
- Les Champs Magnétiques, the first book produced using the techniques of surrealist automatism, is written by André Breton and Philippe Soupault.
- Female suffrage is enacted in Germany and Luxembourg.
- The World League Against Alcoholism is established by the Anti-Saloon League.
- John Browning finalizes the design for the M1919 Browning machine gun (.30 caliber), the first widely distributed and practical air cooled medium machine gun introduced to the United States Military. It receives an official designation, and production is started in the same year.
- John T. Thompson finalizes the design of the Thompson submachine gun in the United States.
- Severe inflation in Germany sees the Papiermark rise to 47 marks against the United States dollar by December, compared to 12 marks in April.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- January 1
- January 2 – Charles Willeford, American writer (d. 1988)
- January 3 – Dorothy Morrison, American actress
- January 4 – Lester L. Wolff, American politician
- January 5 – Hector Abhayavardhana, Sri Lankan political theorist (d. 2012)
- January 7 – Elena Ceaușescu, wife of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu and Deputy Prime Minister and First Lady of Romania (d. 1989)
- January 13 – Robert Stack, American actor (d. 2003)
- January 14
- January 15 – George Cadle Price, 2-Time Prime Minister of Belize (1981–84 and 1989–93) (d. 2011)
- January 19 – Antonio Pietrangeli, Italian film director and screenwriter (d. 1968)
- January 23
- January 24 – Leon Kirchner, American composer (d. 2009)
- January 26
- January 27 – Ross Bagdasarian Sr., American musician and actor (Alvin and the Chipmunks) (d. 1972)
- January 28 – Gabby Gabreski, American fighter ace (d. 2002)
- January 30 – John C. Elliott, American politician and 39th Governor of American Samoa (1952) (d. 2001)
- January 31 – Jackie Robinson, African-American baseball player (d. 1972)
- February 1 – Artie Singer, American songwriter, music producer, and bandleader (d. 2008)
- February 4
- February 5
- February 11 – Eva Gabor, Hungarian actress, better known for her role in Green Acres (d. 1995)
- February 12
- February 13
- February 16 – Irene Brown, British author and codebreaker (d. 2017)
- February 17 – Kathleen Freeman, American actress (d. 2001)
- February 18
- February 20
- February 24 – Árpád Bogsch, Hungarian international civil servant (d. 2004)
- February 25
- February 26 – Rie Mastenbroek, Dutch swimmer (d. 2003)
- February 28 – Brian Urquhart, English war veteran and diplomat
- March 2 – Jennifer Jones, American actress (d. 2009)
- March 3
- March 5 – Myron H. Bright, United States federal judge (d. 2016)
- March 7 – M. N. Nambiar, Indian film actor (d. 2008)
- March 11 – Kira Golovko, Russian actress (d. 2017)
- March 13 – Jack P. Lewis, American Biblical scholar (d. 2018)
- March 14 – Dickey Chapelle, American photojournalist (d. 1965)
- March 17 – Nat King Cole, African-American singer ("Unforgettable") (d. 1965)
- March 18 – Santiago Álvarez, Cuban filmmaker (d. 1998)
- March 20 – Gerhard Barkhorn, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1983)
- March 24 – Lawrence Ferlinghetti, American poet and publisher
- March 25 – Jeanne Cagney, American actress (d. 1984)
- March 26 – Strother Martin, American actor (d. 1980)
- March 29 – Eileen Heckart, American actress (d. 2001)
- April 1
- April 3 – Ervin Drake, American songwriter (d. 2015)
- April 4 – Charles O. Porter, American politician (d. 2006)
- April 5 – Lester James Peries, Sri Lankan director, screenwriter and producer (d. 2018)
- April 6 – Caren Marsh Doll, American actress and dancer
- April 8 – Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (1967–79) (d. 2007)
- April 9 – Iain Moncreiffe, Scottish genealogist and Officer of Arms (d. 1985)
- April 13
- April 16 – Edward Simons Fulmer, American Army Air Forces officer (d. 2017)
- April 18 – Esther Afua Ocloo, née Nkulenu, Ghanaian entrepreneur and pioneer of microlending (d. 2002)
- April 21
- April 22 – Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2001)
- April 23 – Anne Buydens, Belgian-American actress
- April 24 – Glafcos Clerides, Cypriot president (1993–2003) (d. 2013)
- May 1
- May 3 – Pete Seeger, American folk singer and musician (d. 2014)
- May 4
- May 5 – Georgios Papadopoulos, President of Greece and Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1999)
- May 7
- May 8 – Lex Barker, American actor (d. 1973)
- May 10 – Atmasthananda, Indian Hindu leader (d. 2017)
- May 15 – Eugenia Charles, 3rd Prime Minister of Dominica (d. 2005)
- May 16
- May 17 – Antonio Aguilar, Mexican singer and actor (d. 2007)
- May 18 – Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (d. 1991)
- May 19
- May 20 – George Gobel, American comedian (d. [American pop
- May 21 – Vera Altayskaya, Soviet actress (d. 1978)
- May 22 – Paul Vanden Boeynants, 2-time Prime Minister of Belgium (d. 2001)
- May 23
- May 27 – Emvin Cremona, Maltese artist (d. 1987)
- May 28 – Lim Chong Eu, Malaysian politician (d. 2010)
- May 29 – Jacques Genest, Canadian physician and academic (d. 2018)
- May 30 – René Barrientos, 2-time President of Bolivia (d. 1969)
- June 5 – Veikko Huhtanen, Finnish artistic gymnast (d. 1976)
- June 6
- June 7 – George Glamack, American basketball player (d. 1987)
- June 8 – Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, 2nd President and 3rd Prime Minister of Somalia (d. 1969)
- June 9 – Jimmy Newberry, American pitcher (d. 1983)
- June 11 – Richard Todd, Irish-born British actor (d. 2009)
- June 12 – Ahmed Abdallah, President of the Comoros (d. 1989)
- June 14 – June Spencer, English actress
- June 16 – V. T. Sambanthan, Malaysian politician (d. 1979)
- June 19 – Pál Fábry, Hungarian politician (d. 2018)
- June 21
- June 22 – Clifton McNeely, American basketball player and coach (d. 2003)
- June 23
- June 24
- June 26
- June 27 – Amala Shankar, Indian danseuse
- June 28 – Joseph P. Lordi, American government official (d. 1983)
- June 29
- July 1
- July 2 – Henri Génès, French actor and singer (d. 2005)
- July 3
- July 4
- July 5 – Walter Obodzinsky, Polish-born member of the Wehrmacht (d. 2004)
- July 6
- July 7
- July 8
- July 10
- July 11 – Donald Zilversmit, Dutch-born U.S. nutritional biochemist, researcher and educator (d. 2010)
- July 13
- Hau Pei-tsun, Premier of the Republic of China
- Joe Gill, American magazine writer and highly prolific comic book scripter (d. 2006)
- Grisha Filipov, leading member of the Bulgarian communist party (d. 1994)
- Jack Wheeler, American professional footballer (d. 2009)
- William F. Quinn, American politician (d. 2006)
- July 14
- July 15
- July 16
- July 17 – Milt Smith, American football player and business operator (d. 2010)
- July 18 – Lilia Dale, Italian actress
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- July 22 – Allie Paine, American college basketball standout (d. 2008)
- July 24
- July 26 – James Lovelock, English biologist and chemist
- July 31
- August 2
- August 7 – Bertha Moss, Argentine-Mexican actress (d. 2008)
- August 8 – Dino De Laurentiis, Italian film producer (d. 2010)
- August 9 – Joop den Uyl, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1973–77 (d. 1987)
- August 11 – Ginette Neveu, French violinist (d. 1949)
- August 12 – Margaret Burbidge, English-American astrophysicist and academic
- August 13 – George Shearing, Anglo-American jazz pianist (d. 2011)
- August 14 – Isaac C. Kidd Jr., American admiral (d. 1999)
- August 15
- August 18 – Walter Joseph Hickel, 2nd and 8th Governor of Alaska (d. 2010)
- August 20
- August 21 – Dalmiro Finol, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1994)
- August 22 – Larry Winn, American politician (d. 2017)
- August 24 – Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy, 31st President of Ecuador (d. 2004)
- August 25
- August 28
- August 29 – Sono Osato, American actress and dancer
- August 30
- August 31
- September 1 – Gladys Davis, Canadian professional baseball player
- September 2 – Marge Champion, American actress
- September 5
- September 6
- September 9
- September 11 – Ota Šik, Czech economist and politician (d. 2004)
- September 13 – Olle Anderberg, Swedish wrestler (d. 2003)
- September 14 – Kay Medford, American character actress and comedian (d. 1980)
- September 18 – Pál Losonczi, Hungarian politician (d. 2005)
- September 21
- September 23 – Tōta Kaneko, Japanese writer (d. 2018)
- September 24 – Rick Vallin, Russian-American actor (d. 1977)
- September 26 – Matilde Camus, Spanish poet and researcher (d. 2012)
- September 27
- September 29 – Margot Hielscher, German singer and film actress (d. 2017)
- October 3 – James M. Buchanan, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
- October 5 – Donald Pleasence, English actor (d. 1995)
- October 6 – Siad Barre, President of Somalia (d. 1995)
- October 7 – Zelman Cowen, Governor-General of Australia (d. 2011)
- October 8 – Kiichi Miyazawa, 49th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 2007)
- October 11 – Art Blakey, American jazz drummer (d. 1990)
- October 16 – Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003)
- October 17
- October 18
- October 22
- October 23 – Manolis Andronikos, Greek archaeologist (d. 1992)
- October 25 – Norman A. Erbe, 35th Governor of Iowa (d. 2000)
- October 26
- October 30 – Stane Kavčič, Prime Minister of Slovenia (d. 1987)
- October 31 – Tong Siv Eng, Cambodian politician (d. 2001)
- November 2 – Bill Mills, American Major League Baseball player
- November 3
- November 4
- November 6 – Christoph Probst, German White Rose resistance member (d. 1943)
- November 9 – Eva Todor, Hungarian-born Brazilian actress (d. 2017)
- November 10
- November 14 – Lisa Otto, German soprano (d. 2013)
- November 15
- November 18 – Andrée Borrel, French World War II heroine (d. 1944)
- November 19
- November 20
- November 21 – Gert Fredriksson, Swedish canoer (d. 2006)
- November 22 – Louise Watson, American child actress (d. 2018)
- November 26
- November 28 – Keith Miller, Australian sportsman (d. 2004)
- December 1 – Charles Steen, American geologist and businessman (d. 2006)
- December 2 – Norma Miller, American dancer
- December 4 – I. K. Gujral, Indian politician, Prime Minister of India (d. 2012)
- December 5 – Alun Gwynne Jones, Baron Chalfont, British politician and historian
- December 6 – Paul de Man, Belgian-born literary critic (d. 1983)
- December 7
- December 8 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (d. 1996)
- December 9 – William Lipscomb, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
- December 11
- December 13 – Hans-Joachim Marseille, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1942)
- December 21
- December 24 – Pierre Soulages, French artist
- December 25
- December 27 – Charles Sweeney, American WWII pilot (d. 2004)
- December 30 – David Willcocks, British choral conductor, organist and composer (d. 2015)
- December 31
- Isaac Asimov, Russian-born author (born between October 4, 1919, and January 2, 1920, inclusive; d. 1992)
- January 4 – Georg von Hertling, 7th Chancellor of Germany (b. 1843)
- January 6
- January 8 – J. Franklin Bell, Major General of the US Army (b. 1856)
- January 15
- January 16 – Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, Brazilian politician, 5th President of Brazil (b. 1848)
- January 17 – Arichi Shinanojō, Japanese admiral (b. 1843)
- January 18
- January 21 – Gojong, first Emperor of Korea (b. 1852)
- January 24 – Ismail Qemali, Albanian politician, 1st Prime Minister of Albania and 1st President of Albania (b. 1844)
- January 27 – Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (b. 1877)
- January 28 – Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich of Russia (b. 1860)
- January 31 – Nat C. Goodwin, American actor and comedian (b. 1857)
- February 2 – Julius Kuperjanov, Estonian military commander (b. 1894)
- February 4 – John C. Bates, American general (b. 1842)
- February 14 – Pál Luthár, Slovene teacher, cantor and writer (b. 1839)
- February 17 – Wilfrid Laurier, 7th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1841)
- February 20 – Habibullah Khan, Emir of Afghanistan (b. 1872; assassinated)
- February 21
- March 2 – Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero (b. 1812)
- March 5 – Ernest von Koerber, Austrian politician, former Prime Minister (b. 1850)
- March 26 – Ernest Henry, British explorer (b. 1869)
- April 4
- April 8 – Frank Winfield Woolworth, American businessman (b. 1852)
- April 9 – Sidney Drew, American stage and film actor (b. 1863)
- April 10 – Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1879; assassinated)
- April 14 – Auguste-Réal Angers, Canadian judge and politician, 6th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (b. 1919)
- April 15 – Jane Delano, American nurse and founder or the American Red Cross Nursing Service (b. 1862)
- April 20 – Thomas Egan, American gangster (b. 1874)
- April 21 – Jules Védrines, French pre-war aviator and wartime (WW1) pilot (b. 1881)
- April 23 – Prince Tsunehisa Takeda (b. 1882)
- April 27 – Anton Irv, Estonian military officer (b. 1886)
- May 2 – Gustav Landauer, German anarchist (b. 1870; assassinated)
- May 4 – Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak general, politician, and astronomer (b. 1880)
- May 6 – L. Frank Baum, American author, poet, playwright, actor and independent filmmaker (The Wizard of Oz) (b. 1856)
- May 9 – Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra, Dominican political figure, 2-time President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1846)
- May 12 – D. M. Canright, American Seventh-day Adventist minister and author, later one of the church's severest critics (b. 1840)
- May 28 – Hermann von Spaun, Austro-Hungarian admiral (b. 1833)
- June 15 – Prince Francis Joseph of Braganza (b. 1879)
- June 19 – Petre P. Carp, 2-Time Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1837)
- June 29 – José Gregorio Hernández, Venezuelan medician and saint (b. 1864)
- June 30 – John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1842)
- July 2 – Friedrich Soennecken, German entrepreneur and inventor of hole punch and ringbinder (b. 1848)
- July 5 – Eugen Leviné, German revolutionary (b. 1883; assassinated)
- July 10 – Jean Navarre, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1895)
- July 15 – Hermann Emil Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
- July 18 – Raymonde de Laroche, French aviator, the first woman to receive an aviator's license (b. 1882)
- July 26 – Edward Poynter, British painter (b. 1836)
- August 1 – Oscar Hammerstein I, Polish-born theater impresario and composer (b. 1847)
- August 9
- August 11 – Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-born businessman and philanthropist (b. 1835)
- August 27 – Louis Botha, Boer general, statesman, 1st Prime Minister of South Africa (b. 1862)
- September 16 – Alfred Parland, Russian architect (b. 1842)
- September 22 – Alajos Gáspár, Slovene writer in Hungary (b. 1848)
- September 27 – Adelina Patti, Italian opera singer (b. 1843)
- September 29 – Masataka Kawase, a.k.a. Kogorō Ishikawa, Japanese political activist and diplomat (b. 1840)
- October 2 – Victorino de la Plaza, Argentinian politician, 18th President of Argentina, leader (b. 1840)
- October 6 – Ricardo Palma, Peruvian writer (b. 1833)
- October 7 – Alfred Deakin, 2nd Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1856)
- October 13 – Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857)
- October 18 – Viscount William Astor, American financier and statesman (b. 1848)
- October 22 – John Cyril Porte, Irish-born British flying boat pioneer (b. 1884)
- October 23 – Charles Judd, British missionary to China (b. 1842)
- November 3 – Terauchi Masatake, 9th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1852)
- November 9 – Eduard Müller, Swiss Federal Councillor (b. 1848)
- November 15 – Alfred Werner, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
- December 2
- December 3 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter (b. 1841)
- December 18 – Sir John Alcock, British aviator; pilot of first nonstop transatlantic flight in airplane, June 1919 (b. 1892)
- December 19 – Martin Savage, IRA commander (b. 1898)
- Physics – Johannes Stark
- Chemistry – not awarded
- Physiology or Medicine – Jules Bordet
- Literature – Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler
- Peace – Woodrow Wilson
- Lacika, Ján (2000). Bratislava. Visiting Slovakia (1st ed.). Bratislava: Dajama. p. 42. ISBN 80-88975-16-6.
- "Sinking of HMY Iolaire - list of all on board at time of grounding". Across Two Seas. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- Theodore Roosevelt Centre. Accessed 20 March 2014
- MacMillan, Margaret (2002). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. Random House.
- Tibenský, Ján; et al. (1971). Slovensko: Dejiny. Bratislava: Obzor.
- Jankovics, Marcel, Húsz esztendő Pozsonyban (in Hungarian), pp. 65–67
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing Co., ISBN 971-642-071-4
- Nicholson, G. W. L. (1962). Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919: Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.
- "WWI and the First Czechoslovak Republic". Visit Bratislava. City of Bratislava. 2005. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia. United States: American Relief Administration. p. 14.
- "The Legacy of One Man's Vision". Aberystwyth University, Department of International Politics. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
- Beadle, Jeremy; Harrison, Ian. "Last time the British army used scaling ladders". Military. Firsts, Lasts & Onlys. London: Robson. p. 112. ISBN 9781905798063.
- Dyson, F. W.; Eddington, A. S.; Davidson, C. R. (1920). "A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 220 (571-581): 291–333. Bibcode:1920RSPTA.220..291D. doi:10.1098/rsta.1920.0009.
- "Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry official: result of overcoming obstacles by first Azerbaijani diplomats was international recognition in Versailles". Today.az. 2009-07-03. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- "1919, July 21: Dirigible (Balloon) Crash". Chicago Public Library Archive. 1996. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 138."2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition. Accessed on 5 June 2014.
- Sykes, Christopher (1984). Nancy: the Life of Lady Astor. Academy Chicago Publishers. ISBN 0-89733-098-6. The first elected was Constance Markievicz in 1918.
- Tonge, Stephen. "Weimar Germany 1919-1933". European History. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- Isaac Asimov. In Memory Yet Green.
The date of my birth, as I celebrate it, was January 2, 1920. It could not have been later than that. It might, however, have been earlier. Allowing for the uncertainties of the times, of the lack of records, of the Jewish and Julian calendars, it might have been as early as October 4, 1919. There is, however, no way of finding out. My parents were always uncertain and it really doesn't matter. I celebrate January 2, 1920, so let it be.
- Klingaman, William K. 1919, The Year Our World Began (1987) world perspective based on primary sources by a scholar.
Primary sources and year books
- New International Year Book 1919 (1920), Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 744pp
- Phelan, Paula (2007), 1919: Misfortune's End, ZAPmedia