Manchester City F.C.
Manchester City Football Club is a football club in Manchester, England. Founded in 1880 as St. Marks, they became Ardwick Association Football Club in 1887, the club moved to the City of Manchester Stadium in 2003, having played at Maine Road since 1923. After losing the 1981 FA Cup Final, the club went through a period of decline, having regained their Premier League status in the early 2000s, the club was purchased in 2008 by Abu Dhabi United Group and has become one of the wealthiest in the world. Since 2011 the club have won five major honours, including the Premier League in 2012 and 2014, by 2014–15, Manchester City had the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €463.5 million. In 2016, Forbes magazine estimated they were the sixth most valuable football club. City gained their first honours by winning the Second Division in 1899, with it promotion to the highest level in English football. A fire at Hyde Road destroyed the main stand in 1920, in the 1930s, Manchester City reached two consecutive FA Cup finals, losing to Everton in 1933, before claiming the Cup by beating Portsmouth in 1934. The club won the First Division title for the first time in 1937, after relegation to the Second Division in 1963, the future looked bleak with a record low home attendance of 8,015 against Swindon Town in January 1965. In the summer of 1965, the management team of Joe Mercer, in the first season under Mercer, City won the Second Division title and made important signings in Mike Summerbee and Colin Bell. Further trophies followed, City won the FA Cup in 1969, before achieving European success by winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1970, beating Górnik Zabrze 2–1 in Vienna. City also won the League Cup that season, becoming the second English team to win a European trophy, the club continued to challenge for honours throughout the 1970s, finishing one point behind the league champions on two occasions and reaching the final of the 1974 League Cup. Former United player Denis Law scored with a backheel to give City a 1–0 win at Old Trafford, the final trophy of the clubs most successful period was won in 1976, when Newcastle United were beaten 2–1 in the League Cup final. A long period of decline followed the success of the 1960s and 1970s, Malcolm Allison rejoined the club to become manager for the second time in 1979, but squandered large sums of money on unsuccessful signings, such as Steve Daley. A succession of managers then followed – seven in the 1980s alone, under John Bond, City reached the 1981 FA Cup final but lost in a replay to Tottenham Hotspur. The club were relegated from the top flight in the 1980s. However, this was only a respite, and following Reids departure Manchester Citys fortunes continued to fade. City were co-founders of the Premier League upon its creation in 1992, after two seasons in Division One, City fell to the lowest point in their history, becoming the second ever European trophy winners to be relegated to their countrys third league tier, after 1. After relegation, the club underwent off-the-field upheaval, with new chairman David Bernstein introducing greater fiscal discipline, under manager Joe Royle, City were promoted at the first attempt, achieved in dramatic fashion in a play-off against Gillingham
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Born in Bolton, Lancashire, Mangnall played amateur football as a goalkeeper and was a director at Bolton Wanderers. He started his career in management with Burnley in March 1900. The side were struggling when he joined the club, and with just one month of the 1899–1900 season remaining and their relegation was confirmed on 28 April 1900 after a 0–4 defeat away at Nottingham Forest. He signed three players, Henry Collins, Jimmy Lindsay and George Lockhart, in the close season, the team achieved a third-placed finish in their first season in the Second Division and finished ninth the following year. The teams fortunes suffered a decline in the 1902–03 season. Burnley were re-elected and Mangnall started the campaign as manager. He was hired as the secretary of Manchester United and the second after the club changed its name from Newton Heath. He was to become the first successful manager, who brought a trophy to the club. With the two First Division titles, one FA Cup, and two Charity Shield trophies, he remains the third most successful manager at the club. He started his management at Manchester United in 1903 and saw his team narrowly miss promotion in his first two seasons before success at the third attempt, in the first season in the First Division the club finished in mid-table. However, in only their season in the First Division. The following year saw United drop below mid-table but the club won its first FA Cup with a 1–0 victory in the final against Bristol City, the following season saw no new silverware but the team improved its league position to fifth. The next season was his last in charge at the club, Mangnall moved to Manchester City directly from United. His last game in charge of the Reds was the Manchester derby of September 1912 against City when it was known he would become City manager. The Blues won 1–0 at Old Trafford and the focused on Mangnalls delight. His best season with the club was 1920–21, when City would finish runners up in the First Division, Mangnalls place in Mancunian football is significant as many believe he was the instigator behind Uniteds move to Old Trafford and Citys move to Maine Road
Football League First Division
The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League. Between 1888 and 1992 it was the division in the English football league system. Following the creation of the FA Premier League it was a second-level division, in 2004 it was rebranded as the Football League Championship. The Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor and it originally consisted of a single division of 12 clubs, known as The Football League. When the League admitted additional members from the rival Football Alliance in 1892, for the next 100 years, the First Division was the top professional league in English football. Then, in 1992 the 22 clubs making up the First Division elected to resign from the Football League, the Football League was consequently re-organised, with the Second, Third and Fourth Divisions now renamed the First, Second and Third respectively. Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, the First Division was renamed as the Football League Championship prior to the start of the 2004–05 season, as part of a league-wide rebrand. Liverpool were the most frequent winners of the First Division when it was the top flight of English football, winning it a total of 18 times. After the creation of the Premier League, the new Division One title was won more than once by one club, Sunderland. The First Division initially consisted of 12 founder clubs, since then it has undergone a series of expansions as football became more popular, as of the 1975–76 season players had to make 14 appearances for their club during the season in order to qualify for a winners medal. See List of English football champions, see List of winners of English Football League Championship and predecessors
Horace Barnes was an English footballer, who played for Derby County, Manchester City, Preston North End and Oldham Athletic. Horace Barnes was born in Sheffield in 1890 and he began his football career playing as an inside left for Wadsley Bridge. In 1908 Jimmy Methven signed Horace for Derby County, Barnes made 153 appearances for Derby and scored 74 goals. In 1914 Manchester City purchased Barnes for £2,500.00, in his first season with the Manchester team he made 25 league appearances and scored 12 goals, helping the team to fifth in the first division, three points behind champions Everton. Barnes first goal for City came in a 4–1 victory against Bradford City on the day of the season. Barnes career was interrupted by the first world war which he spent working in a munition factory and he was able to resume his footballing career in the 1919–1920 football season in which he was Citys top scorer with 22 goals. City finished seventh in the league that season, in the 1920–1921 football season he was Citys second top scorer having scored 17 goals in 41 league appearances. Tommy Browell was the teams highest scorer with 31 goals, Manchester City came second in the league that season,5 points behind champions Burnley. This was Citys highest position in the league since the 1903–1904 football season when City had a team which included Billie Gillespie, Frank Booth and Billy Meredith. In the following season, the 1921–1922 football season, Billy Meredith returned to Manchester City to play in a line which included Barnes, Tommy Browell. Barnes scored 20 league goals that season, one less than Citys top scorer Tommy Browell. The team finished tenth in the league, in the 1922–1923 football season the City team was further enhanced by the acquisition of Frank Roberts from Bolton Wanderers. Barnes was Citys top scorer in season and the team finished eighth in the league. Three of Barnes goals came in a 5–1 victory against Cardiff City, Tommy Johnson scored the other goal for City. The team ultimately finished eleventh in the league on 42 points, Barnes played in 7 of Citys 8 games in the FA Cup that season. The team were defeated in the semi final by Newcastle United by two goals to nil. The 1924–1925 football season was to be Barnes last with Manchester City and he played 14 teams that season and scored 8 goals. Frank Roberts was the top scorer that season with 31 goals
Thomas Tommy Browell was an English footballer who played as a forward for Hull City, Everton, Manchester City and Blackpool. He is the seventh-highest Manchester City goalscorer of all time with 139 goals for the club, Browell was born in Walbottle, Northumberland, in 1892. He started his career with Hull City, who were then in the Football League Second Division, at Hull he gained the nickname Boy following a hat-trick against Stockport County as an 18-year-old in 1910. A newspaper report of the match carried the headline £10 men and a boy beat Stockport, a year later, after making 48 appearances and scoring 32 goals, he was signed by First Division Everton for a fee of £1,650. Despite only playing half the season for the club, Browell finished as Evertons top goalscorer in the 1911–12 season, in two years at Everton he scored 36 goals in 60 appearances, including two FA Cup hat-tricks. In October 1913, Manchester City signed Browell for £1,780 and he scored on his City debut against The Wednesday, though City lost the match 2–1. Two seasons into his time in Manchester, the outbreak of World War I suspended football for a four-year period, when matches resumed in 1919, Browell formed a prolific goalscoring partnership with Horace Barnes. In the 1920–21 season Manchester City finished runners-up in the league, however, victory eluded the team in the final, which was won 1–0 by Bolton. To compound the misfortune, City were also relegated to the Second Division on the day of the season. Relegation resulted in changes of personnel, and the following season Browell was transferred for £1,100 to Blackpool, in total, he made 247 appearances for Manchester City, scoring 139 goals. At Blackpool, under the guidance of Major Frank Buckley, Browell scored 14 goals in his first season to become the clubs second-highest scorer and those goals included a hat-trick in a 5–0 home win over Notts County on 7 May 1927, in the final game of the season. For the 1927–28 season, Browell switched to the side and teamed up with new arrival. Browell scored another hat-trick that season, on 24 September 1927, eventually, age got the better of Browell, and with the emergence of Jack Oxberry, Browell was released at the age of 38. He remained in the Fylde Coast area, joining Lytham as player-coach and he also went on to coach Morecambe. Upon retiring from football, Browell became a driver in Blackpool. After his death in 1955, at the age of 62, Tommy Browell Close is located to the west of Manchester Citys old home, Maine Road, and is part of an estate built in the 1970s
Liverpool Football Club is a professional association football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside, England. They compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football, the club has won 5 European Cups,3 UEFA Cups,3 UEFA Super Cups,18 League titles,7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, and 15 FA Community Shields. The club was founded in 1892 and joined the Football League the following year, the club has played at Anfield since its formation. The club holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably the North West Derby against Manchester United, the clubs supporters have been involved in two major tragedies. The second was the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing, the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964 which has been used ever since. The clubs anthem is Youll Never Walk Alone, Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892, the team won the Lancashire League in its début season, and joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, losing 1–0 to Burnley. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950, playing against Arsenal, the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years. In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup, in 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, and the FA Cup again a year later, Shankly retired soon afterwards and was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisleys second season as manager, the club won another League, the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979, Paisley retired in 1983 and was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagans first season, Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium. Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence separated the two groups of supporters, and charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a wall to collapse, killing 39 fans. The incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster, the match was played in spite of protests by both managers, and Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus
Bradford Park Avenue A.F.C.
Bradford Association Football Club is an English football club based in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. Its name derived from the old stadium on Horton Park Avenue in Bradford. However the club is known simply as Bradford, with the letters BFC adorning Leitchs grandstand. The present club is a reincarnation of the club played in the Football League from 1908 to 1970 before dropping to the Northern Premier League. The new entity, established in 1987, is part of the National League North for the 2015–16 season and plays its matches at the 3. Bradford Park Avenue is one of 35 clubs to compete in all four top tiers of English football, the new club started life at what was then the thirteenth tier, Division Three of the West Riding County Amateur League. The original club was formed in 1863 as the Bradford Football Club, playing rugby football, a member of the Rugby Football Union, Bradford FC became a founding member of the breakaway Northern Rugby Football Union in 1895. Bradford were runners-up the 1898 Challenge Cup in 1897–98, won the championship in 1903–04, the faction left the original club and formed a new Northern Union club, Bradford Northern. Bradford Northern applied for membership of the Northern Union, replacing Bradford FC, on 23 August 2012, Bradford Park Avenue was one of the parties interested in purchasing the Bradford Bulls. The club shared the West Yorkshire League championship with Hunslet in 1895–96, Bradford played in the FA Amateur Cup in 1896–97, progressing to the FA Cup in 1897–98 and 1898–99. The club entered the Yorkshire League in 1897–98, finishing next to last, bradfords first football club was closed down at the end of the 1898–99 season due to mounting losses. Despite the failure of this experiment, association-football success elsewhere prompted the club to abandon rugby in 1907. They were not accepted, instead joining the Southern League and filling a gap left by Fulham and their nearest opponents were Northampton Town, whose ground was 130 miles distant. In 1908, Bradford FC was elected to the Second Division of the Football League, the club was promoted to the First Division in 1914 after finishing second, and achieved its highest-ever league position at the end of the 1914–15 season. In 1914 Donald Bell played four games, but at the outbreak of war asked to be released to serve, rising to the rank of lieutenant, in 1916 he received the VC for conspicuous bravery on the Somme before being killed later that year. After the First World War the club began a decline, relegated to the Second Division in 1921. In 1928, the club were the Division 3N champions and were promoted back to the Second Division and they were relegated again in 1950, and placed in the Fourth Division after a 1958 reorganisation. Although the club won promotion to the Third Division in 1961, after several difficult seasons, in 1970 they were replaced in the Football League by Cambridge United