Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
World War I
World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany
Caerau F. C. are a Welsh football club from Maesteg. They were promoted to the Welsh Football League Division Three for the 2010-11 season from the South Wales Amateur League and they play in Welsh Football League Division Two since 2014. Association Football was first played on a basis at Caerau in the year 1901. The first Secretary was Mr Charlie Holloway, and the earliest recorded game was against a team from Plasmarl, in approximately 1912 the Club commenced playing on its present ground at Humphries Terrace. After the 1914—1918 war the Club reformed and the pavilion was erected in 1920, Caerau won the first Welsh Amateur Cup in 1920. During the period 1920—27 many internationals played for Caerau, including Jock Hume, in 1929 Club was disbanded and a year later a new committee reformed the Club and continued until 1939 when Caerau won the Welsh Amateur Cup for the second time. During the Second World War there was a permanent search light based at the ground to track enemy bombers on their way to, after the war the Club signed ex Cardiff and Hull player Jack Prescott. It has been said that the players were earning more playing for Caerau than the miners who were putting in a full shift down the pit. During the 50s Caerau played the English FA Champions, Willington of County Durham, Caerau also won the Welsh League Cup and were runners up on three occasions. Caerau have won the Welsh League twice,1969 and 1977 and have been runners up once, Caerau won the Corinthian Cup in 1963 and were runners up in 1979. Caerau also ran a team in The South Wales Amateur League and they were Div.1 Champions in 1979 and Div.2 Champions in 1963 and 1976. In 1992 Alan Curtis asked to play for Caerau as his father Alby had done him in the 50s. Alan scored twice in his game against Skewen. By the new millennium it appeared as if the writing was on the wall for Caerau, then in 2003 Caerau left its long relationship with the Welsh League and were relegated to The South Wales Amateur League. A new committee was formed and with the help of one or two of the committee settled into life in the feeder leagues. The 2008/2009 season saw Caerau coming close to only to finish runners up in the League. Fully galvanised the Club started 2009/2010 season in full swing and ended the season as South Wales Amateur League Champions, the final score was an incredible 13 -0, equalling the club scoring record. The all important 11th goal coming courtesy of Andrew Williams and we now look forward to life in Division Two
South Wales is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west. The most densely populated region in the southwest of the United Kingdom, the Brecon Beacons national park covers about a third of South Wales, containing Pen y Fan, the highest mountain south of Snowdonia. Areas to the north of the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains are generally considered part of Mid Wales, the expression south Wales is not officially defined, and its meaning has changed over time. Between the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284 and the Laws in Wales Act 1535 and this was divided into a Principality of South Wales and a Principality of North Wales. The southern principality was made up of the counties of Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire, the legal responsibility for this area lay in the hands of the Justiciar of South Wales based at Carmarthen. Other parts of southern Wales were in the hands of various Marcher Lords, the Laws in Wales Acts 1542 created the Court of Great Sessions in Wales based on four legal circuits. The Brecon circuit served the counties of Brecknockshire, Radnorshire and Glamorgan while the Carmarthen circuit served Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Monmouthshire was attached to the Oxford circuit for judicial purposes. These seven southern counties were thus differentiated from the six counties of north Wales, the Court of the Great Sessions came to an end in 1830, but the counties survived until the Local Government Act 1972 which came into operation in 1974. The creation of the county of Powys merged one northern county with two southern ones, there are thus different concepts of south Wales. Glamorgan and Monmouthshire are generally accepted by all as being in south Wales, but the status of Breconshire or Carmarthenshire, for instance, is more debatable. In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people might feel that they live in both south Wales and west Wales, areas to the north of the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains are generally considered to be in Mid Wales. A further point of uncertainty is whether the first element of the name should be capitalized, as the name is a geographical expression rather than a specific area with well-defined borders, style guides such as those of the BBC and The Guardian use the form south Wales. The most densely populated region in the southwest of the United Kingdom, the Brecon Beacons national park covers about a third of South Wales, containing Pen y Fan, the highest mountain south of Snowdonia. This natural beauty changed to an extent during the early Industrial Revolution when the Glamorgan and Monmouthshire valley areas were exploited for coal. By the 1830s, hundreds of tons of coal were being transported by barge to ports in Cardiff, lord Bute then charged fees per ton of coal that was transported out using his railways. Whilst some of the left, many settled and established in the South Wales Valleys between Swansea and Abergavenny as English-speaking communities with a unique identity. Industrial workers were housed in cottages and terraced houses close to the mines and foundries in which they worked. The large influx over the years caused overcrowding which led to outbreaks of Cholera, and on the social and cultural side and this number is now very low, following the UK miners strike, and the last traditional deep-shaft mine, Tower Colliery, closed in January 2008
Denbigh Town F.C.
Denbigh Town Football Club is a semi-professional football club based in Denbigh, North Wales, who currently play in the Cymru Alliance league. The club plays matches at Central Park. The club was founded in 1880, and in 1924 won both the Welsh Amateur Cup and the North Wales Coast Amateur Cup, in the early 1980s Denbigh Town left the Wrexham Area League and joined the Clwyd League. The club was promoted to the Premier Division in 1992, under managers Bill Dawson, during the same season the club secured a 1-0 North Wales Challenge Cup victory over Caernarfon Town, then a semi-professional side sitting fourth in the Northern Premier League. For the 1994/95 season the club won promotion to the Fitlock Welsh Alliance League, in the 1995/96 season Denbigh Town won the League Championship and Cookson Cup double. In the 1996/97 season the club played in the Cymru Alliance and they were relegated in 2001/02 but regained promotion in 2006/07. Denbigh Town Reserves currently play within the North Wales Reserve League under Manager James Drury, between 2002 and 2007 Denbigh Town played in the Welsh Alliance, reaching the semi final of the 2002/03 Barritt Cup and winning the Alves Cup the same year. On December 8,2003 manager Roy Cook-Hannah resigned, he was replaced b caretaker coaches Clwyd Williams, Denbigh finished the 2003/04 season in 12th place with 36 points from 30 matches. Tim Dyer was appointed manager on May 6,2004, and in 2005/06 guided the club to the Barritt Cup and Cookson Cup double. Denbigh Town finished the season as runners up in the Welsh Alliance League and winners of the Welsh Alliance Fair Play League, Denbigh Town were again promoted into the Cymru Alliance on 9 April 2007, when Llanrwst United failed to beat Holywell Town at Halkyn Road. Denbigh Town also won the 2007 Cookson Cup at Farrar Road to complete a 2006/07 League and Cup double, in the 2015/16 final the team reached the final of the Welsh League Cup, their first appearance in a major final. The match was played at Maesdu Park, Llandudno where Denbigh went down to defending Welsh Premier League champions, on their way to the final they beat 3 top tier opposition. Gary Roberts - Accrington Stanley, Ipswich Town, Huddersfield Town and Swindon Town, Chesterfield, official Denbigh Town FC Site Denbighshire Free Press Denbigh Town Weekly Podcast
Colwyn Bay F.C.
Colwyn Bay Football Club is a football club based in Old Colwyn in northern Wales. Despite being a Welsh club, the plays in the English leagues and are currently members of the Northern Premier League Division One North. Nicknamed the Seagulls, but also known as The Bay, their ground is Llanelian Road in Old Colwyn. The club played its first match in January 1881 and joined the North Wales Coast League in 1898. The club were forced to resign from the league during the 1900–01 when they could not find a ground to play at. However, they returned to the league the following season, from 1907, the club became known as Colwyn Bay United. After the league folded in 1921, they joined the Welsh National League, in 1927–28 the club finished as runners-up in the league and won the League Cup. They won the cup for a time in 1929–30, also reaching the semi-finals of the Welsh Cup. The league folded at the end of the season and the club were founder members of the North Wales Football Combination. Following their title, the joined the Birmingham & District League. However, the team struggled in the new league, and after finishing bottom in 1935–36 and 1936–37, Colwyn Bay finished as Welsh League runners-up in 1945–46, the first season after World War II. They were runners-up again in 1963–64, and were champions the following season, the early 1980s saw the club enter a period of success, as they were champions for a second time in 1980–81. In 1982–83 the club won the league and reached the Welsh Cup semi-finals, after retaining the league title in 1983–84, the club returned to the English football league system, joining Division Three of the North West Counties League. They finished as runners-up in their first season in the league and were promoted to Division Two, a fourth-place finish in Division Two 1986–87 saw the club promoted to Division One. In 1987–88 the club reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, the following season saw the club win the League Cup, beating Warrington Town 3–0 in the final at Gigg Lane. After finishing as Premier Division runners-up in 1990–91, they were promoted to Division One of the Northern Premier League and they won the division at the first attempt and were promoted to the Premier Division. The season also saw them win the North Wales Coast Challenge Cup and reach the Welsh Cup semi-finals for a third time, losing 4–2 to Hednesford Town. However, at the end of the 1991–92 season, a dispute with the Football Association of Wales led to Colwyn Bay being ordered to join the League of Wales or cease playing in Wales
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years