Signal Corps (United States Army)
The United States Army Signal Corps is a division of the Department of the Army that creates and manages communications and information systems for the command and control of combined arms forces. It was established in 1860, the brainchild of Major Albert J. Myer, had an important role in the American Civil War. Over its history, it had the initial responsibility for portfolios and new technologies that were transferred to other U. S. government entities. Such responsibilities included military intelligence, weather forecasting, aviation. Support for the command and control of combined arms forces. Signal support includes network operations and management of the electromagnetic spectrum. Signal support encompasses all aspects of designing, data communications networks that employ single and multi-channel satellite, tropospheric scatter, terrestrial microwave, messaging, video-teleconferencing, visual information, other related systems, they integrate tactical and sustaining base communications, information processing and management systems into a seamless global information network that supports knowledge dominance for Army and coalition operations.
While serving as a medical officer in Texas in 1856, Albert James Myer proposed that the Army use his visual communications system, called aerial telegraphy. When the Army adopted his system on 21 June 1860, the Signal Corps was born with Myer as the first and only Signal Officer. Major Myer first used his visual signaling system on active service in New Mexico during the early 1860s Navajo expedition. Using flags for daytime signaling and a torch at night, wigwag was tested in Civil War combat in June 1861 to direct the fire of a harbor battery at Fort Wool against the Confederate positions opposite Fort Monroe. For nearly three years, Myer was forced to rely on detailed personnel, although he envisioned a separate, trained professional military signal service. Myer's vision came true on 3 March 1863, when Congress authorized a regular Signal Corps for the duration of the war; some 2,900 officers and enlisted men served, although not at any single time, in the Civil War Signal Corps. Myer's Civil War innovations included an unsuccessful balloon experiment at First Bull Run, and, in response to McClellan's desire for a Signal Corps field telegraph train, an electric telegraph in the form of the Beardslee magnetoelectric telegraph machine.
In the Civil War, the wigwag system, restricted to line-of-sight communications, was waning in the face of the electric telegraph. Myer used his office downtown in Washington, D. C. to house the Signal Corps School. When it was found to need additional space, he sought out other locations. First came Fort Greble, one of the Defenses of Washington during the Civil War, when that proved inadequate, Myer chose Fort Whipple, on Arlington Heights overlooking the national capital; the size and location were outstanding. The school remained there for over 20 years and was renamed Fort Myer. Signal Corps detachments participated in campaigns fighting Native Americans in the west, such as the Powder River Expedition of 1865; the electric telegraph, in addition to visual signaling, became a Signal Corps responsibility in 1867. Within 12 years, the corps had constructed, was maintaining and operating, some 4,000 miles of telegraph lines along the country's western frontier. In 1870, the Signal Corps established a congressionally mandated national weather service.
Within a decade, with the assistance of Lieutenant Adolphus Greely, Myer commanded a weather service of international acclaim. Myer died in 1880, having attained the rank of brigadier general and the title of Chief Signal Officer; the weather bureau became part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1891, while the corps retained responsibility for military meteorology; the Signal Corps' role in the Spanish–American War of 1898 and the subsequent Philippine Insurrection was on a grander scale than it had been in the Civil War. In addition to visual signaling, including heliograph, the corps supplied telephone and telegraph wire lines and cable communications, fostered the use of telephones in combat, employed combat photography, renewed the use of balloons. Shortly after the war, the Signal Corps constructed the Washington-Alaska Military Cable and Telegraph System known as the Alaska Communications System, introducing the first wireless telegraph in the Western Hemisphere. For more details on this topic, see Aeronautical Division, U.
S. Signal Corps and Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps On 1 August 1907, an Aeronautical Division was established within the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. In 1908, on Fort Myer, the Wright brothers made test flights of the Army's first airplane built to Signal Corps' specifications. Reflecting the need for an official pilot rating, War Department Bulletin No. 2, released on 24 February 1911, established a "Military Aviator" rating. Army aviation remained within the Signal Corps until 1918. During World War I. Chief Signal Officer George Owen Squier worked with private industry to perfect radio tubes while creating a major signal laboratory at Camp Alfred Vail. Early radiotelephones developed by the Signal Corps were introduced into the European theater in 1918. While the new American voice radios were superior to the radiotelegraph sets and telegraph remained the major technology of World War I. A pioneer in radar, Colonel William Blair, director of the Signal Corps laboratories at Fort Monmouth, patented the first Army radar demonstrated in May 1937.
Before the United States entered World War II, mass
Ordnance Corps (United States Army)
The United States Army Ordnance Corps the United States Army Ordnance Department, is a Sustainment branch of the United States Army, headquartered at Fort Lee, Virginia. The broad mission of the Ordnance Corps is to supply Army combat units with weapons and ammunition, including at times their procurement and maintenance. Along with the Quartermaster Corps and Transportation Corps, it forms a critical component of the U. S. Army logistics system; the U. S. Army Ordnance Corps mission is to support the development, production and sustainment of weapon systems, missiles and ground mobility materiel during peace and war to provide combat power to the U. S. Army; the officer in charge of the branch for doctrine and professional development purposes is the Chief of Ordnance. The current Chief of Ordnance is Brigadier General Heidi J. Hoyle. During the colonial era in America, each colony was responsible for its own supply of ordnance materiel and its own personnel to supervise it; the first written record of an ordnance officer in British colonial America was Samuel Sharpe in the Massachusetts Bay Colony appointed in 1629 as Master Gunner of Ordnance.
By 1645, the Massachusetts Bay Colony had a permanent Surveyor of Ordnance officer. By the time of the American Revolution, every colony had their own ordnance organization responsible for the procurement, supply and maintenance of munitions for the colony. In July 1775, Ezekiel Cheever was appointed by General George Washington as Commissary of Artillery Stores, soon to be called Commissary of Military Stores with Major General Henry Knox, the Chief of Artillery, he was the civilian in charge of ordnance support for Washington's army in the field. By the end of the American Revolution, every brigade had ordnance personnel civilian, providing munitions support to the soldiers in the field. In 1776, the Board of War and Ordnance was established to oversee the conduct of the war; this board selected Benjamin Flower to be the Commissary General of Military Stores. Benjamin Flower was given the rank of Colonel and served in that capacity throughout the American Revolution; the Commissary General of Military Stores was an echelon above the Commissary of Military Stores in the field.
His responsibility was to recruit and train artificers, establish ordnance facilities, to distribute arms and ammunition to the army in the field. In 1777, a powder magazine was established at Carlisle, Pennsylvania and a foundry at Springfield, Massachusetts. In the early years of the 19th Century, the Ordnance profession played a key role in the burgeoning Industrial Revolution in America. In 1794, President Washington established the two federal armories. At these locations, early developments and innovations striving towards interchangeable parts were achieved. Inventors such as Thomas Blanchard, Simeon North, John Hall, Eli Whitney would perfect the methods and means for mass production. Growing out of the technical innovations of the arms industry, these methods would be adopted by American industry by the middle of the 19th Century, establishing what has become known as the American System of Manufacturing. On 14 May 1812, as part of the preparation for the War of 1812, Congress established the Ordnance Department.
It was responsible for arms and ammunition production, acquisition and storage or ordnance materiel for the U. S. Army; the act created a new position, the Commissary General of Ordnance. Colonel Decius Wadsworth, former Superintendent of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, was chosen as the Commissary General of Ordnance; the act directed the new Commissary General of Ordnance, soon renamed to Chief of Ordnance, to "enlist artisans and laborers to direct the inspection and proof of all cannon and small arms to direct the construction of gun carriages equipments implements and ammunition to make estimates and contracts for and purchases of ordnance supplies and stores and to issue them to the army to exact from armories and arsenals quarterly returns of property and to receive from all responsible officers reports of damages to ordnance materiel to establish ordnance depots to prepare regulations for the government of the Ordnance Department and forms of returns and reports". Wadsworth took great care in establishing and supervising the training of officers who would join the Ordnance Department.
Coming from West Point, these officers, such as Alfred Mordecai and George Bomford, were trained in mechanical and chemical engineering and were among the highest ranking of graduating cadets from West Point. These new Ordnance officers were detailed to the Springfield or Harpers Ferry Armory, or to one of the various arsenals across the growing country, to conduct scientific and industrial experiments in metallurgy, chemistry, or one of the allied engineering fields. In 1832, the Ordnance Department established the Non-Commissioned Officer rank of Ordnance Sergeant to be in charge of the Ordnance stores at any of the growing number of army forts and establishments across the country; this rank will remain until the reorganization of the Army under the National Defense Act of 1920. During the Mexican War, the Ordnance Department established the Ordnance Rocket and Howitzer Battery to service the new M1841 12-pound howitzers and Hale war rockets, which had not yet entered Army service and were still being tested.
This was the only Ordnance unit established for a combat role. This unit included junior Army officers. During the war, the Ordnance Department furnished 90 million pounds of lead, 13 million pounds of artillery proje
Harley-Davidson, Inc. or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. One of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression, the company has survived numerous ownership arrangements, subsidiary arrangements, periods of poor economic health and product quality, as well as intense global competition, to become one of the world's largest motorcycle manufacturers and an iconic brand known for its loyal following. There are events worldwide as well as a company-sponsored brand-focused museum. Noted for a style of customization that gave rise to the chopper motorcycle style, Harley-Davidson traditionally marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser motorcycles with engine displacements greater than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to include its more contemporary VRSC and middle-weight Street platforms. Harley-Davidson manufactures its motorcycles at factories in Pennsylvania. Construction of a new plant in Thailand is scheduled to begin in late 2018.
The company markets its products worldwide. Besides motorcycles, the company licenses and markets merchandise under the Harley-Davidson brand, among them apparel, home decor and ornaments, accessories and scale figures of its motorcycles, video games based on its motorcycle line and the community. In 1901, 20-year-old William S. Harley drew up plans for a small engine with a displacement of 7.07 cubic inches and four-inch flywheels. The engine was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle frame. Over the next two years and his childhood friend Arthur Davidson worked on their motor-bicycle using the northside Milwaukee machine shop at the home of their friend, Henry Melk, it was finished in 1903 with the help of Walter Davidson. Upon testing their power-cycle and the Davidson brothers found it unable to climb the hills around Milwaukee without pedal assistance, they wrote off their first motor-bicycle as a valuable learning experiment. Work began on a new and improved second-generation machine.
This first "real" Harley-Davidson motorcycle had a bigger engine of 24.74 cubic inches with 9.75 inches flywheels weighing 28 lb. The machine's advanced loop-frame pattern was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle; the bigger engine and loop-frame design took it out of the motorized bicycle category and marked the path to future motorcycle designs. The boys received help with their bigger engine from outboard motor pioneer Ole Evinrude, building gas engines of his own design for automotive use on Milwaukee's Lake Street; the prototype of the new loop-frame Harley-Davidson was assembled in a 10 ft × 15 ft shed in the Davidson family backyard. Most of the major parts, were made elsewhere, including some fabricated at the West Milwaukee railshops where oldest brother William A. Davidson was toolroom foreman; this prototype machine was functional by September 8, 1904, when it competed in a Milwaukee motorcycle race held at State Fair Park. It was placed fourth; this is the first documented appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle in the historical record.
In January 1905, small advertisements were placed in the Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal offering bare Harley-Davidson engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a limited basis; that year, the first Harley-Davidson dealer, Carl H. Lang of Chicago, sold three bikes from the five built in the Davidson backyard shed. Years the original shed was taken to the Juneau Avenue factory where it would stand for many decades as a tribute to the Motor Company's humble origins until it was accidentally destroyed by contractors cleaning the factory yard in the early 1970s. In 1906, Harley and the Davidson brothers built their first factory on Chestnut Street, at the current location of Harley-Davidson's corporate headquarters; the first Juneau Avenue plant was a 40 ft × 60 ft single-story wooden structure. The company produced about 50 motorcycles that year. In 1907, William S. Harley graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a degree in mechanical engineering.
That year additional factory expansion came with a second floor and with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow brick. With the new facilities production increased to 150 motorcycles in 1907; the company was incorporated that September. They began selling their motorcycles to police departments around this time, a market, important to them since. In 1907 William A. Davidson, brother to Arthur and Walter Davidson, quit his job as tool foreman for the Milwaukee Road railroad and joined the Motor Company. Production in 1905 and 1906 were all single-cylinder models with 26.84 cubic inch engines. In February 1907 a prototype model with a 45-degree V-Twin engine was displayed at the Chicago Automobile Show. Although shown and advertised few V-Twin models were built between 1907 and 1910; these first V-Twins produced about 7 horsepower. This gave about double the power of the first singles. Top speed was about 60 mph. Production jumped from 450 motorcycles in 1908 to 1,149 machines in 1909. By 1911, some 150 makes of motorcycles had been built in the United States – although just a handful would survive the 1910s.
In 1911, an improved V-Twin model was introduced. The new engine had me
White Motor Company
The White Motor Company was an American automobile, truck and agricultural tractor manufacturer from 1900 until 1980. The company produced bicycles, roller skates, automatic lathes, sewing machines. Before World War II, the company was based in Ohio. White Diesel Engine Division in Springfield, manufactured diesel engine generators, which powered U. S. military equipment and infrastructure, namely Army Nike and Air Force Bomarc launch complexes, other guided missile installations and proving grounds, sections of SAGE and DEW Line stations, combat direction centers and other ground facilities of the U. S. aerospace defense ring, such as the Texas Towers. During the Vietnam era, the company retained its position within the Top 100 Defense Contractors list, its production facilities, such as the Lansing truck plant in Lansing and the main plant in Cleveland were engaged in production, engineering services and maintenance of thousands of military/utility cargo trucks M39, M44, M600, M602 series trucks, as well as spare parts, such as cylinder heads and gasoline engines with accessories.
About 1898, Thomas H. White found its boiler unreliable, his son, set out to improve its design. Rollin White developed a form of water tube steam generator which consisted of a series of stacked coils with two novel features: the first was that the coils were all joined at the top of the unit, which allowed water to flow only when pumped, allowing control of the steam generation; this second point was critical because the White steamer operated with superheated steam to take advantage of steam's properties at higher temperatures. Rollin White patented his steam generator, US patent 659,837 of 1900. Rollin H. White offered it to, among others, Locomobile, he persuaded his father, founder of the White Sewing Machine Company, to allow the use of a corner in one of his buildings to build an automobile. White's brother, a management talent, joined the business venture, followed by their brother, who became instrumental in the sales and distribution of the product; the first group of fifty cars were completed in October 1900, but none were offered to the public until April 1901 so the design could be tested.
Since the cars were being offered by the automobile department of the sewing machine company, White could not afford to diminish the reputation of the parent company by the introduction of an untested product. It became necessary in 1905 to separate the automobile department from its parent company to accommodate the growth of the business and to physically separate them, as a fire in one could ruin both operations. On July 4, 1905, a racing steam car named "Whistling Billy" and driven by Webb Jay set a record of 73.75 mph on the Morris Park Racecourse. A 1907 White steamer was one of the early vehicles in the White House when Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, allowed the Secret Service to use the car behind his horse-drawn carriage. In 1909, president William Howard Taft converted the White House stables into a garage and purchased four automobiles: two Pierce-Arrows, a Baker Electric, a 1911 White; this $4,000 car was one of the last steam cars produced and proved a favorite of the President who used bursts of steam against "pesky" press photographers.
The 40 hp White Model M 7-seat tourer generated favorable press for the newly formed White Motor Company. Taft's White Model M is housed in the collection at the Heritage Museums and Gardens in Sandwich, Massachusetts; the last steam car was built in January 1911 as the company made a transition to gasoline-powered vehicles. The company continued to show them in their catalogues as late as 1912. About 10,000 White steam-powered cars were built, more than the better known Stanley. White companies' manufacturing facility expanded; the White steamer used unique technology, it was vulnerable in a market, accepting the internal combustion engine as the standard. White canvassed existing gas manufacturers and licensed the rights to the Delahaye design for the "gas car", showing a chassis at an English auto show in December 1908. Rollin became more interested in agricultural tractors, developed designs for tractors derived from standard White truck parts; when the White Company was not interested in producing tractors, Rollin set out to develop his own designs and, with brother Clarence founded Cleveland Motor Plow, which became Cletrac tractor.
In the early 1920s, Rollin produced the Rollin car to diversify the tractor company, but found it could not compete in cost versus price against much larger manufacturers. White was successful with their heavy machines, which saw service around the world during World War I. White remained in the truck industry for decades. White Motor Company began producing trucks; the company soon sold 10 percent of all trucks made in the US. Although White produced all sizes of trucks from light delivery to semi, the decision was made after WWII to produce only large trucks. White acquired several truck manufacturing companies during this time: Sterling, Diamond T, REO. White agreed to sell Consolidated Freightways, Freightliner trucks through its own dealers. White produced trucks under the Autocar nameplate following its acquisition. Diamond T and REO Motor Car Company became the Diamond REO division, discontinued in the 1970s. A White semi performe
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company is an American tire company founded by Harvey Firestone in 1900 to supply solid rubber side-wire tires for fire apparatus, pneumatic tires for wagons and other forms of wheeled transportation common in the era. Firestone soon saw the huge potential for marketing tires for automobiles, the company was a pioneer in the mass production of tires. Harvey Firestone had a personal friendship with Henry Ford, used this to become the original equipment supplier of Ford Motor Company automobiles, was active in the replacement market. In 1988, the company was sold to the Japanese Bridgestone Corporation. Firestone was based in Akron, Ohio the hometown of its archrival and two other midsized competitors, General Tire and Rubber and BFGoodrich. Founded on August 3, 1900, the company initiated operations with 12 employees. Together and Goodyear were the largest suppliers of automotive tires in North America for over 75 years. In 1906, Henry Ford chose Firestone to supply tires for its car models.
In 1918, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company of Canada was incorporated in Hamilton and the first Canadian-made tire rolled off the line on September 15, 1922. During the 1920s, Firestone produced the Oldfield tire, named for racing driver Barney Oldfield. In 1926, the company opened one of the world's biggest rubber plantations in Liberia, West Africa, spanning more than one million acres; that year, the company opened its first Firestone Tire and Service Center. Firestone Complete Auto Care is the division of Firestone that offers automotive maintenance and repair, including tires. In 1927, Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone took a trip to southern California to select locations for their new factories. Friends say Ford wanted to be near the ocean and picked Long Beach and suggested Firestone go to South Gate; the tiny community southeast of downtown Los Angeles was agricultural at the time and Firestone found 40 acres of beanfield to house his new manufacturing plant. Architects Curlett and Beelman created a spectacular four-story Italianate complex, with its own power plant and gorgeous polychrome murals by Gladding, McBean depicting the tire and rubber-making process.
A year after the plant opened in 1928, it doubled in size, grew to nearly one million square feet by 1954. The town grew around Firestone, its main boulevard was named after Harvey, Los Angeles became the number one tire market in the country. By the mid-1970s, Ford and GM had massive layoffs as Firestone and other manufacturers opened new plants in non-union locales like Wilson, North Carolina. After considerable downsizing, the end at South Gate came in 1980 when 1,300 workers were laid off and the plant closed. East Los Angeles College has proposed a new satellite campus at the site. In 1928, the company built a factory in Brentford, England, a longtime Art Deco landmark on a major route into the city. In 1936, the company opened a plant in Tennessee. With a work force exceeding 3,000 employees, the Memphis plant was the largest tire manufacturer in the company's worldwide operation. On July 1, 1963, the company celebrated the production of 100 million tires in Memphis; the plant was closed in 1982.
On October 11, 1941, the Firestone Rubber and Latex plant in Fall River Mass had 5 out of 8 buildings and at least 15,000 tons of rubber destroyed by fire. The fire incurred $12 million in damage. During World War II, the company was called on by the U. S. Government to make artillery shells, aluminum kegs for food transport, rubberized military products. Barrage balloons were produced at Akron. Firestone ranked 55th among U. S. corporations in the value of wartime military production contracts. In the 1940s, Firestone was given a defense contract to produce plastic helmet liners. In 1951, Firestone was given the defense contract for the MGM-5 Corporal missile. Firestone was given a total of $6,888,796 for the first 200 units. Known as the "Embryo of the Army," it was a surface-to-surface guided missile which could deliver a high-explosive warhead up to 75 nautical miles, it was modified to be able to carry a nuclear payload for use in the event of Cold War hostilities in Eastern Europe. Built in southern California, this missile was replaced in 1962 by the MGM-29 Sergeant system.
In 1961, Firestone acquired the Dayton Tire division from the Dayco Corporation. Dayco sued both Firestone and Goodyear, alleging that the two companies conspired to monopolize the tire industry in the United States; the United States District Court dismissed the lawsuit. In late 1979, Firestone brought in John Nevin, the ex-head of Zenith Electronics, as president to save the hemorrhaging company from total collapse, it was more than a billion dollars in debt at the time, losing $250 million a year. Nevin closed nine of the company's seventeen manufacturing plants, including six in one day, relocated the company from its ancestral home in Akron to Chicago, he spun off non-tire related businesses, including the Firestone Country Club. In 1988, after discussions with Pirelli, Nevin negotiated the sale of the company to the Japanese company Bridgestone, able to buy the company for much less than it had been worth a decade and a half earlier; the combined Bridgestone / Firestone North American operations are now based in Nashville, Tennessee.
The companies celebrated a 20-year anniversary of the merger in 2008, changed the tire division name to Bridgestone Americ
The Lincoln Highway was one of the earliest transcontinental highways for automobiles across the United States of America. Conceived in 1912 by Indiana entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher, formally dedicated October 31, 1913, the Lincoln Highway ran coast-to-coast from Times Square in New York City west to Lincoln Park in San Francisco through 13 states: New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, Nebraska, Wyoming, Utah and California. In 1915, the "Colorado Loop" was removed, in 1928, a realignment relocated the Lincoln Highway through the northern tip of West Virginia. Thus, there are a total of 14 states, 128 counties, more than 700 cities and villages through which the highway passed at some time in its history; the first recorded length of the entire Lincoln Highway in 1913 was 3,389 miles. Over the years, the road was improved and numerous realignments were made, by 1924 the highway had been shortened to 3,142 miles. Counting the original route and all of the subsequent realignments, there have been a grand total of 5,872 miles.
The Lincoln Highway was replaced with numbered designations after the establishment of the U. S. Numbered Highway System in 1926, with most of the route becoming part of U. S. Route 30 from Pennsylvania to Wyoming. After the Interstate Highway System was formed in the 1950s, the former alignments of the Lincoln Highway were superseded by Interstate 80 as the primary coast-to-coast route from the New York City area to San Francisco. Note: A interactive online map of the entire Lincoln Highway and all of its re-alignments, markers and points of interest can be viewed at the Lincoln Highway Association Official Map website. Google Maps prominently labels the 1928–30 route. Most of U. S. Route 30 from Philadelphia to western Wyoming, portions of Interstate 80 in the western United States, most of U. S. Route 50 in Nevada and California, most of old decommissioned U. S. Route 40 in California are alignments of the Lincoln Highway; the final alignment of the Lincoln Highway corresponds to the following roads: 42nd Street from the intersection of Broadway at Times Square in New York City westward 6 blocks to the Hudson River.
Holland Tunnel from New York City westward under the Hudson River to New Jersey. U. S. Route 1/9 Truck from Jersey City westward to New Jersey. New Jersey Route 27 from Newark southwestward to New Jersey. U. S. Route 206 from Princeton southwestward to New Jersey. U. S. Route 1 from Trenton southwestward to Pennsylvania. U. S. Route 30 from Philadelphia westward across Pennsylvania, the northern tip of West Virginia, westward across Ohio and Indiana, to Aurora, Illinois. Illinois Route 31 from Aurora northwestward to Illinois. Illinois Route 38 from Geneva westward to Illinois. Illinois Route 2 from Dixon westward to Illinois. U. S. Route 30 from Sterling westward across western Illinois, Iowa and Wyoming, to Granger, Wyoming. Interstate 80 from Granger westward to West Wendover, Nevada. U. S. Route 93 Alternate and U. S. Route 93 from West Wendover southward to Nevada. U. S. Route 50 from Ely to 9 miles west of Fallon, Nevada. From 9 miles west of Fallon to Sacramento, there are two Lincoln Highway routes over the Sierra Nevada: Sierra Nevada Northern Route: U.
S. Route 50 Alternate northwestward to Wadsworth, Nevada Interstate 80 & old U. S. Route 40 westward, through Reno and over Donner Pass and the Sierra Nevada to Sacramento. Sierra Nevada Southern Route: U. S. Route 50 westward, through Carson City, Nevada around Lake Tahoe and over Johnson Pass and the Sierra Nevada to Sacramento. Old U. S. Route 40 from Sacramento southwestward across California's Central Valley to the University Avenue exit in Berkeley, California. University Avenue from Interstate 80 westward to the Berkeley Pier. From the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco, take: Hyde Street southward 2 blocks to North Point Street. North Point Street westward 3 blocks to Van Ness Avenue. Va
Fort Wayne, Indiana
Fort Wayne is a city in the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Allen County, United States. Located in northeastern Indiana, the city is 18 miles west of the Ohio border and 50 miles south of the Michigan border. With a population of 253,691 in the 2010 census, it is the second-most populous city in Indiana after Indianapolis, the 75th-most populous city in the United States, it is the principal city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen and Whitley counties, a combined population of 419,453 as of 2011. Fort Wayne is the economic center of northeastern Indiana; the city is within a 300-mile radius of major population centers, including Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Louisville and Milwaukee. In addition to the three core counties, the combined statistical area includes Adams, DeKalb, Huntington and Steuben counties, with an estimated population of 615,077. Fort Wayne was built in 1794 by the United States Army under the direction of American Revolutionary War general Anthony Wayne, the last in a series of forts built near the Miami village of Kekionga.
Named in Wayne's honor, the European-American settlement developed at the confluence of the St. Joseph, St. Marys, Maumee rivers as a trading post for pioneers; the village was platted in 1823 and underwent tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad. Once a booming manufacturing town located in what became known as the Rust Belt, Fort Wayne's economy in the 21st century is based upon distribution and logistics, healthcare and business services and hospitality, financial services; the city is a center for the defense industry. There are many jobs through local healthcare providers Parkview Health and Lutheran Health Network. Fort Wayne was an All-America City Award recipient in 1982, 1998, 2009; the city received an Outstanding Achievement City Livability Award by the U. S. Conference of Mayors in 1999; this area at the confluence of rivers was long occupied by successive cultures of indigenous peoples. The Miami tribe established its settlement of Kekionga at the confluence of the Maumee, St. Joseph, St. Marys rivers.
It was the capital of related Algonquian tribes. In 1696, Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes as commander of the outpost; the French built Fort Miami in 1697 as part of a group of forts and trading posts built between Quebec and St. Louis. In 1721, a few years after Bissot's death, Fort Miami was replaced by Fort St. Philippe des Miamis; the first census in 1744 recorded a population of 40 Frenchmen and 1,000 Miami. Increasing tension between France and Great Britain developed over control of the territory. In 1760, France ceded the area to Britain after its forces in North America surrendered during the Seven Years' War, known on the North American front as the French and Indian War. In 1763, various Native American nations rebelled against British rule and retook the fort as part of Pontiac's Rebellion; the Miami regained control of Kekionga. In 1790, after the United States achieved independence, President George Washington ordered the United States Army to secure Indiana Territory.
Three battles were fought at Kekionga against the Miami Confederacy. Miami warriors defeated U. S. forces in the first two battles. General Anthony Wayne led a third expedition resulting in the destruction of Kekionga and the start of peace negotiations between Little Turtle and the U. S. After General Wayne refused to negotiate, tribal forces advanced to Fallen Timbers, where they were defeated on August 20, 1794. On October 22, 1794, U. S. forces captured the Wabash–Erie portage from the Miami Confederacy and built Fort Wayne, named in honor of the general. The first settlement started in 1815. In 1819, the military garrison moved to Detroit. In 1822, a federal land office opened to sell land ceded by local Native Americans by the Treaty of St. Mary's in 1818. Platted in 1823 at the Ewing Tavern, the village became an important frontier outpost, was incorporated as the Town of Fort Wayne in 1829, with a population of 300; the Wabash and Erie Canal's opening improved travel conditions to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River, exposing Fort Wayne to expanded economic opportunities.
The population topped 2,000 when the town was incorporated as the City of Fort Wayne on February 22, 1840. Pioneer newspaperman George W. Wood was elected the city's first mayor. Fort Wayne's "Summit City" nickname dates from this period, referring to the city's position at the highest elevation along the canal's route; as influential as the canal was to the city's earliest development, it became obsolete after competing with the city's first railroad, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway, completed in 1854. At the turn of the 20th century, the city's population reached nearly 50,000, attributed to a large influx of German and Irish immigrants. Fort Wayne's "urban working class" thrived in railroad-related jobs; the city's economy was based on manufacturing, ushering in an era of innovation with several notable inventions and developments coming out of the city over the years, such as gasoline pumps, the refrigerator, in 1972, the first home video game console. A 1913 flood caused seven deaths, left 15,000 homeless, damaged over 5,500 buildings in the worst natural disaster in the city's history.
As the automobile's prevalence grew, Fort Wayne became a fixture on the Lincoln Highway. Aviation arrived in 1919 with the opening of Smith Field; the airport se