1916 in sports
1916 in sports describes the year’s events in world sport.13 d Carlton 8.8 at Melbourne Cricket Ground. Fitzroy wins the title despite having finished last in the regular season, South Australian Football League, not contested due to World War I West Australian Football League,9 September, South Fremantle 7.12 defeat East Fremantle 5.5 for their first WAFL premiership. Sweden Championship final – IFK Uppsala 3–2 Djurgårdens IF World Series 7–12 October — Boston Red Sox defeats the Brooklyn Robins by 4 games to 1 to win the 1916 World Series. Events The Philadelphia Athletics finish the season with a record of 36–117 or a.235 winning percentage, the series of fights between Ted Kid Lewis and Jack Britton continues with Britton taking the World Welterweight Championship into 1917. Indianapolis 50030 May — 6th running of the Indianapolis 500 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway is won by Dario Resta in a Peugeot L45. Vanderbilt Cup 16 November — 11th and final running of the original Vanderbilt Cup at Santa Monica is won by Dario Resta driving a Peugeot EX3, the race is eventually revived in 1958 as the Formula One United States Grand Prix
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century also saw the creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat. 1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States
The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1,2001 and will end on December 31,2100 and it is the first century of the 3rd millennium. It is distinct from the time known as the 2000s. The long term effects of increased globalization are not known, the Arab Spring of the early 2010s led to mixed outcomes in the Arab world. The Digital Revolution which began around the 1980s also continues into the present, millennials and Generation Z come of age and rise to prominence in this century. The completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 marks the rise of life sciences, making mankinds long-held dreams, such as curing cancer. By the 2010s, gene therapy, first performed somatically in late 1990 and heritably in 1996, showed promise but remains an experimental, by 2013, about 80% of the worlds population used mobile phones. An estimated 33% owned personal computers in 2010, and 46% used the Internet by 2016, the International Energy Agency estimates that 83% of the global population has access to electricity as of 2013 with the percentage projected to increase to 88% by 2030. The world population was about 6.1 billion at the start of the 21st century and it had reached 7.3 billion in 2015, and is estimated to reach about 9.37 billion by the year 2050. There is a debate among experts and the public on how to pronounce specific years of the 21st century in English. A less common variation would have been twenty nought-five, the Vancouver Olympics, which took place in 2010, was being officially referred to by Vancouver 2010 as the twenty-ten Olympics. The latest timeframes for change are usually placed at 2020, kubrick said he did this in the hope that if the film became popular, it would influence the pronunciation of that year. See the timeline of the 21st century, genocide still remains a problem in this century with the concern of the war in Darfur and the growing concern in Sri Lanka. Also controversies from past genocides remain commonplace in the minds of victims, 1998–2002 – The Second Congo War continued into the early 21st century. A1999 ceasefire quickly broke down and a UN peacekeeping mission, Laurent Kabila, president of the DRC, was assassinated in January 2001 and his son, Joseph Kabila, took power. Throughout 2002 steps were made towards peace and Rwanda and Uganda both removed their troops from the country, on December 17,2002, a massive treaty officially ended the war. However, the DRC only holds power in less than half of the country, with most of the eastern and northern portions still controlled by rebel groups, in addition, Rwanda still supports anti-DRC rebels and anti-Rwandan rebels continue to operate from the DRC. The war killed an estimated 3.9 million people, displaced nearly 5.5 million, Severe human rights violations continue to be reported
The 1880s was a decade that began on January 1,1880, and ended on December 31,1889. They occurred at the period of the Second Industrial Revolution. Most Western countries experienced an economic boom, due to the mass production of railroads. The modern city as well as the rose to prominence in this decade as well. The 1880s were also part of the Gilded Age, which lasted from 1874 to 1907, aceh War War of the Pacific Mahdist War 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War 13 September 1882 — British troops occupy Cairo, and Egypt becomes a British protectorate. American Indian Wars 20 July 1881 — Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana. Frequent lynchings of African Americans in Southern United States during the years 1880–1890 and this would be followed over the next few decades by conquest of almost the entirety of the remaining uncolonised parts of the continent, broadly along the lines determined. 3 August 1881, The Pretoria Convention peace treaty is signed,1884, International Meridian Conference in Washington D. C. held to determine the Prime Meridian of the world. 1884–1885, Berlin Conference, when the western powers divided Africa, the United States had five Presidents during the decade, the most since the 1840s. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, may to August,1883, Krakatoa, a volcano in Indonesia, erupted cataclysmically,36,000 people were killed, the majority being killed by the resulting tsunami. September 1887, The Yellow river flooded and killed about 900,000 people, the 1880s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts,13 March 1881 — Assassination of the Tsar of the Russian Empire Alexander II of Russia. 19 September 1881 — James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States 2 March 1882 — Roderick Maclean fails to assassinate Queen Victoria,3 April 1882 — Bob Ford assassinates Jesse James, legendary outlaw. 6 May 1882 - Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief Secretary for Ireland,1880, Oliver Heaviside of Camden Town, London, England receives a patent for the coaxial cable. In 1887, Heaviside introduced the concept of loading coils, in the 1890s, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin would both create the loading coils and receive a patent of them, failing to credit Heavisides work. 1880–1882, Development and commercial production of lighting was underway. Thomas Edison of Milan, Ohio, established Edison Illuminating Company on December 17,1880, based at New York City, it was the pioneer company of the electrical power industry. Edisons system was based on creating a power plant equipped with electrical generators. Copper electrical wires would then connect the station with other buildings, Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States
The phrase, The Gay Nineties, was not coined until the 1920s. This decade was also part of the Gilded Age, a phrase coined by Mark Twain, alluding to the seemingly profitable era that was riddled with crime and poverty. In the United States, the 1890s were marked by an economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893. As of January 23,2017, there is only 1 verified living person who was born in the 1890s. On December 29,1890,365 troops of the US 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns, surrounded an encampment of Miniconjou and Hunkpapa Sioux near Wounded Knee Creek, the Army had orders to escort the Sioux to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. One day earlier, the Sioux had been cornered and agreed to themselves in at the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. They were the very last of the Sioux to do. the process of disarming the Sioux, the 7th Cavalry quickly suppressed the Sioux fire, and the surviving Sioux fled, but US cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed. By the time it was over, about 146 men, women, twenty-five troopers also died, some believed to have been the victims of friendly fire as the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions. Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, with a number later dying from hypothermia. The incident is noteworthy as the engagement in history in which the most Medals of Honor have been awarded in the military history of the United States. This was the last tribe to be invaded which broke the backbone of the American Indian Wars,1891, Chilean Civil War fought from January to September. José Manuel Balmaceda, President of Chile, and the Chilean Army loyal to him face Jorge Montts Junta, the latter was formed by an alliance between the National Congress of Chile and the Chilean Navy. 1891, Tobacco Protest in Qajar dynasty Persia, on March 20,1890, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Shah of Iran granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a full monopoly over the production, sale, and export of tobacco for fifty years. In exchange, Talbot paid the shah an annual sum of £15,000 in addition to a quarter of the profits after the payment of all expenses. Now they were forced to seek permits from the Tobacco Régie as well as required to inform the concessionaires of the amount of tobacco produced, during the spring of 1891 mass protests against the Régie began to emerge in major Iranian cities. Initially it was the bazaaris who led the opposition under the conviction that it was their income, the reference to the Hidden Imam, a critical person in Shia Islam, meant that Shirazi was using the strongest possible language to oppose the Régie. Initially there was skepticism over the legitimacy of the fatwa, however Shirazi would later confirm the declaration,1892, The Johnson County War in Wyoming. Actually this range war took place in April 1892 in Johnson County, Natrona County, the combatants were the Wyoming Stock Growers Association and the Northern Wyoming Farmers and Stock Growers Association
The 1900s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1900, and ended on December 31,1909. The term nineteen-hundreds can also equally be used for the years 1900–1999, the Edwardian era covers a similar span of time. There are several varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in English. Using 1906 as an example, they are nineteen-oh-six, nineteen-six, which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, nineteen-oh-six is the most common, nineteen-six is less common, nineteen-ought-six is recognized, the strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an ohs or aughts decade. Russo-Japanese War establishes the Empire of Japan as a world power, battle of Riyadh was a minor battle of the Unification of Saudi Arabia. Battle of Dilam was a battle of the Unification War between Rashidi and Saudi rebels. First Saudi–Rashidi War was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh versus the Emirate of Hail, demand for Home Rule for Ireland Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa. January 1,1901, British colonies in Australia federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia May 20,1902 — Cuba gains independence from the United States, june 7,1905 — The Norwegian Parliament declares the union with Sweden dissolved, and Norway achieves full independence. October 5,1908 — Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire, April 19,1902 — A magnitude 7.5 earthquake rocks Guatemala, killing 2,000. May 8,1902 — In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre, April 7,1906 — Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. September 18,1906 — A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong, January 14,1907 — An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000. December 28,1908 — An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina, Sicily and Calabria, April 26,1900 — The Great Lumber Fire of Ottawa–Hull kills 7 and leaves 15,000 homeless. The fire began on a wharf and spread to the adjacent piers, warehouses, may 3,1901 — The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL, USA. July 10,1902 – The Rolling Mill Mine disaster in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, August 10,1903 — Paris Métro train fire. December 30,1903 — A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, February 7,1904 — The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, USA destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. June 15,1904 — A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York Citys East River kills 1,021, june 28,1904 — The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants. January 22,1906 — The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, Canada, the 1900s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts, July 29,1900 — King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci
The 1910s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1910, and ended on December 31,1919. The 1910s represented the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the half of the 19th century. The murder triggered a chain of events in which, within 33 days, the conflict dragged on until a truce was declared on November 11,1918, leading to the controversial, one-sided Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28,1919. However, each of these states had large German and Hungarian minorities, the decade was also a period of revolution in a number of countries. Russia also had a similar fate, since World War I led to a collapse in morale as well as to economic chaos and this atmosphere encouraged the establishment of Bolshevism, which was later renamed as communism. Like the Mexican Revolution, the Russian Revolution of 1917, known as the October Revolution, much of the music in these years was ballroom-themed. Many of the restaurants were equipped with dance floors. Prohibition in the United States began January 16,1919, with the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, armenian Genocide during and just after World War I. Wadai War Italo-Turkish War First Balkan Wars – two wars took place in South-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913. Saudi-Ottoman War Latvian War of Independence - a military conflict in Latvia between the Republic of Latvia and the Russian SFSR. The Russian Revolution is the term for the series of revolutions in Russia in 1917. April 13,1919 - The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, at Amritsar in the Punjab Province of British India, sows the seeds of discontent, xinhai Revolution causes the overthrow of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China. Madero proclaims the elections of 1910 null and void, and calls for a revolution at 6 p. m. against the illegitimate presidency/dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. The revolution lead to the ouster of Porfirio Díaz six months later, the Revolution progressively becomes a civil war with multiple factions and phases, culminating with the Mexican Constitution of 1917, but combat would persist for three more years. Germany abolishes its monarchy and becomes under the rule of a new elected government called the Weimar Republic, federal Reserve Act is passed by United States Congress, establishing a Central Bank in the US. George V becomes king in Britain, fourteen Points as designed by United States President Woodrow Wilson advocates the right of all nations to self-determination. Rise to power of the Bolsheviks in Russia under Vladimir Lenin, creating the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, easter Rising against the British in Ireland, eventually leads to Irish independence. Several nations in Eastern Europe get their own state, thereby replacing major multiethnic empires
The 1920s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1920, and ended on December 31,1929. French speakers refer to the period as the Années folles, emphasizing the social, artistic. The economic prosperity experienced by many countries during the 1920s was similar in nature to that experienced in the 1950s and 1990s, each period of prosperity was the result of a paradigm shift in global affairs. These shifts in the 1920s, 1950s, and 1990s, occurred in part as the result of the conclusion of World War I and Spanish flu, World War II, the 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout South America. Venezuela became the second largest oil producing nation. In some countries the 1920s saw the rise of political movements. Communism spread as a consequence of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks’ victory in the Russian Civil War, fear of the spread of Communism led to the emergence of far right political movements and fascism in Europe. The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America, the Roaring Twenties brought about several novel and highly visible social and cultural trends. These trends, made possible by sustained economic prosperity, were most visible in major cities like New York, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, “Normalcy” returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism during World War I, jazz blossomed, and Art Deco peaked. For women, knee-length skirts and dresses became socially acceptable, as did bobbed hair with a marcel wave, the women who pioneered these trends were frequently referred to as flappers. The media began to focus on celebrities, especially sports heroes, large baseball stadiums were built in major U. S. cities, in addition to palatial cinemas. Most independent countries passed womens suffrage after 1918, especially as a reward for support of the war effort and endurance of its deaths. Egypt officially becomes an independent country through the Declaration of 1922, though it remains under the military. Prohibition was finally repealed in 1933, organized crime turns to smuggling and bootlegging of liquor, led by figures such as Al Capone, boss of the Chicago Outfit. The Immigration Act of 1924 places restrictions on immigration, the major sport was baseball and the most famous player was Babe Ruth. The Lost Generation, was the name Gertrude Stein gave to American writers, poets, and artists living in Europe during the 1920s. A peak in the early 1920s in the membership of the Ku Klux Klan of four to five million members, followed by a rapid decline down to an estimated 30,000 members by 1930. The Scopes Trial, which declared that John T. Scopes had violated the law by teaching evolution in schools, major armed conflict in Ireland including Irish War of Independence resulting in Ireland becoming an independent country in 1922 followed by the Irish Civil War
The 1930s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1930, and ended on December 31,1939. In response, authoritarian regimes emerged in countries in Europe and South America. The 1930s also saw a proliferation of new technologies, especially in the fields of aviation, radio. Colombia–Peru War – fought between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of Peru, Chaco War – the war was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over the disputed territory of Gran Chaco resulting in an overall Paraguayan victory in 1935. An agreement dividing the territory was made in 1938, officially ending outstanding differences, saudi–Yemeni War – was a war between Saudi Arabia and Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. Second Sino-Japanese War – fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, the Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It also made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War, World War II breaks out on September 1,1939 Chinese Civil War - The ruling Kuomintang and the rebel Communist Party of China fight a civil war for control of China. The Communists consolidated territory in the early 1930s and proclaimed a short-lived Chinese Soviet Republic that collapsed upon Kuomintang attacks, the Kuomintang and Communists attempted to put away their differences after 1937 to fight the Japanese occupation of China, but intermittent clashes continued through the remainder of the 1930s. Spanish Civil War – Germany and Italy back anti-communist Falange forces of Francisco Franco, the Soviet Union and international communist parties back the left-wing republican faction in the war. The war ends in April 1939 with Francos nationalist forces defeating the republican forces, Franco becomes Head of State of Spain, President of Government and de facto dictator. The Republic gives way to the Spanish State, an authoritarian dictatorship, Hitler pulls Germany out of the League of Nations, but hosts the 1936 Summer Olympics to show his new reich to the world as well as the supposed superior athleticism of his Aryan troops/athletes. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, attempts the appeasement of Hitler in hope of avoiding war by allowing the dictator to annex the Sudetenland, later signing the Munich Agreement and promising constituents Peace for our time. He was ousted in favor of Winston Churchill in May 1940, some 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked. Kristallnacht also served as the pretext for the confiscation of firearms from German Jews. Germany and Italy pursue territorial expansionist agendas, Germany demands the annexation of the Federal State of Austria and of other German-speaking territories in Europe. Between 1935 and 1936, Germany recovers the Saar and remilitarizes the Rhineland, Germany and Italy improve relations by forming an alliance against communism in 1936 with the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact. Germany annexes Austria in the event known as the Anschluss, the annexation of the Sudetenland followed negotiations which resulted in the Munich Agreement of 1938. The Italian invasion of Albania in 1939 succeeds in turning the Kingdom of Albania into an Italian protectorate, the vacant Albanian throne was claimed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
The 1940s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1940, and ended on December 31,1949. Most of World War II took place in the first half of the decade, which had an effect on most countries and people in Europe, Asia. The decade also witnessed the beginnings of new technologies, often first developed in tandem with the war effort. World War II Nazi Germany invades Poland, Denmark, Norway, Benelux, Soviet Union invades Poland, Finland, occupies Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania and Romanian region of Bessarabia from 1939 to 1941. Germany faces the United Kingdom in the Battle of Britain and it was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces, and was the largest and most sustained aerial bombing campaign up until that date. The United States enter World War II after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7,1941 and it would face the Empire of Japan in the Pacific War. Germany and Japan suffer defeats at Stalingrad, El Alamein, the forces of the Western Allies land on the beaches of Normandy in Northern France. Yalta Conference, wartime meeting from 4 February 1945 to 11 February 1945 among the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, by this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is between 11 million and 17 million people. The German Instrument of Surrender signed, atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Surrender of Japan on August 15. World War II officially ends on September 2,1945, Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 Arab–Israeli conflict 1948 Arab–Israeli War – The war was fought between the newly declared State of Israel and its Arab neighbours. The war commenced upon the termination of the British Mandate of Palestine in mid-May 1948, in its conclusion, Israel managed to defeat the Arab armies. Establishment of the United Nations Charter effective, establishment of the defence alliance NATO April 4,1949. 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, Victory of Chinese Communist Party led by Mao Zedong in the Chinese Civil War. Beginning of Greek Civil War, which extends from 1946 to 1949,1944 – Iceland declares independence from Denmark. 1945 – Indonesia declares independence from the Netherlands,1946 – The French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon dissolves to the independent states of Syria and Lebanon. The French settlers are forced to evacuate the French colony in Syria,1947 – The Partition of the Presidencies and provinces of British India into a secular Union of India and a predominantly Muslim Dominion of Pakistan. 1948 – British rule in Burma ends, the State of Israel is established. 1949 – The Peoples Republic of China is officially proclaimed, the Atanasoff-Berry computer is now considered one of the first electronic digital computing device built by John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University during 1937–1942
As of the start of 1916, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Below, the events of World War I have the WWI prefix, january 1 – The British Royal Army Medical Corps carries out the first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. January 9 – WWI, Gallipoli Campaign, Last British troops evacuated from Gallipoli, as the Ottoman Empire prevails over a joint British, january 13 – WWI, Battle of Wadi, Ottoman Empire forces defeat the Allied British during the Mesopotamian campaign in modern-day Iraq. January 24 In Browning, Montana, the drops from +6.7 °C to -48.8 °C in one day. Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co, the Supreme Court of the United States upholds the national income tax. January 29 – WWI, Paris is bombed by German zeppelins for the first time, january 30 – The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and the British oficial Henry McMahon concerning the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire ends. January 31 – WWI, An attack is planned on Verdun, february 3 – Parliament buildings in Ottawa, Canada are burned down. February 9 –6.00 p. m. – Tristan Tzara founds the art movement Dadaism, february 11 Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control in the United States. The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra presents its first concert in the United States, the Romanian football club Sportul Studențesc is founded in Bucharest. February 12 – WWI, Battle of Salaita Hill – South African, february 21 – WWI, The Battle of Verdun begins in France. March 7 – In Munich German automobile company BMW is founded, march 8–9 – Mexican Revolution, Pancho Villa leads about 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico, killing 12 U. S. soldiers. A garrison of the U. S. 13th Cavalry Regiment fights back, march 15 – United States President Woodrow Wilson sends 12,000 United States troops over the U. S. –Mexico border to pursue Pancho Villa, the 13th Cavalry regiment enters Mexican territory. March 16 – Mexican Revolution, The U. S. 7th and 10th Cavalry regiments under John J. Pershing cross the border to join the hunt for Villa. March 22 The temporary Emperor of China, Yuan Shikai, abdicates the throne, J. R. R. Tolkien marries Edith Bratt in England. April – The toggle light switch is invented by William J. Newton, april 11 – WWI, Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins occupation of the Sinai Peninsula. April 20 – The Chicago Cubs play their first game at Weeghman Park, april 22 – The Chinese troop transport SS Hsin-Yu capsizes off the Chinese coast, at least 1,000 are killed. April 24–30 – The Easter Rising occurs in Ireland, april 27 – WWI, Gas attack at Hulluch in France, The 47th Brigade, 16th Division is decimated in one of the most heavily concentrated German gas attacks of the war. April 29 – WWI, Siege of Kut ends with the surrender of British forces to the Ottoman Empire at Kut-al-Amara on the Tigris in Basra Vilayet during the Mesopotamian campaign, may 16 United States Marines invade the Dominican Republic
As of the start of 1917, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Below, events of World War I have the WWI prefix, January 1 – The University of Oregon defeats the University of Pennsylvania 14–0 in U. S. college footballs 3rd Annual Rose Bowl Game. January 2 – The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank, the cause was found to be inadequate signalling procedures. January 9 – WWI, The last substantial Ottoman Army garrison on the Sinai Peninsula is captured by the Egyptian Expeditionary Forces Desert Column at the Battle of Rafa. January 11 – Unknown saboteurs set off the Kingsland Explosion at Kingsland, January 16 – The Danish West Indies is sold to the United States for $25 million. January 19 – Silvertown explosion, A blast at a factory in London kills 73. The resulting fire causes over £2,000,000 worth of damage, January 22 – WWI, President of the United States Woodrow Wilson calls for peace without victory in Germany. January 25 WWI, British armed merchantman SS Laurentic is sunk by mines off Lough Swilly with the loss of 354 of the 475 aboard, an anti-prostitution drive in San Francisco occurs and police close about 200 prostitution houses. January 26 – The sea defences at the English village of Hallsands are breached, leading to all, January 28 – The United States ends its search for Pancho Villa. January 30 – Pershings troops in Mexico begin withdrawing back to the United States and they reach Columbus, New Mexico February 5. February 1 – WWI, Atlantic U-boat Campaign, Germany announces its U-boats will resume unrestricted submarine warfare, February 3 – WWI, The United States severs diplomatic relations with Germany. February 5 – The new constitution of Mexico is adopted, February 13 Mata Hari is arrested in Paris for spying. WWI, Beginning of the Raid on Nekhl by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, February 21 – British troopship SS Mendi is accidentally rammed and sunk off the Isle of Wight, killing 646, mainly members of the South African Native Labour Corps. March 1 The U. S. government releases the text of the Zimmermann Telegram to the public, Japanese city of Ōmuta is founded by Hiroushi Miruku. March 2 – The enactment of the Jones Act grants Puerto Ricans United States citizenship, march 4 Woodrow Wilson is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first woman member of the United States House of Representatives. March 7 – Livery Stable Blues, recorded with Dixie Jazz Band One Step on February 26 by the Original Dixieland Jass Band in the United States, becomes the first jazz recording commercially released, on August 17 the band records Tiger Rag. March 8 – The February Revolution begins in Russia, Women calling for bread in Petrograd start riots, the United States Senate adopts the cloture rule in order to limit filibusters
As of the start of 1918, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Below, events of World War I have the WWI prefix, january 4 – Finland officially recognized by the Russian SFSR. January 8 – Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech, january 12 – Finland enacts a Mosaic Confessors law, granting Finnish Jews civil rights. January 15 – The keel of HMS Hermes is laid in Britain, january 18 Russian Constituent Assembly meets. The Historic Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans of Austrian and Hungarian Soldiers at the Konzerthaus, january 19 – Russian Constituent Assembly proclaims Russian Democratic Federative Republic, but is dissolved by Bolshevik government on same day. January 22 – The Ukrainian Peoples Republic declares independence from Bolshevik Russia, january 27 – The Finnish Civil War begins. January –1918 flu pandemic, Spanish flu first observed in Haskell County, February 1 – The Cattaro Mutiny sees Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro, led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny. February 5 – The SS Tuscania is torpedoed off the Irish coast, it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed, February 6 – Womens suffrage in the United Kingdom, Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote. February 14 – Russia switches from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar, February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuanias independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. February 19 – WWI, Capture of Jericho by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley, February 19-25 – WWI, The Imperial Russian Navy evacuates Tallinn through thick ice over the Gulf of Finland. February 21 – The last captive Carolina parakeet dies at the Cincinnati Zoo, February 24 Estonia declares its independence from Russia after seven centuries of foreign rule. German forces capture Tallinn on the next day, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia declare their independence from Russia as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. March 1 – WWI, German submarine U-19 sinks HMS Calgarian off Rathlin Island, March 3 – WWI, the Central Powers and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russias involvement in the war. March 6 The Finnish Army Corps of Aviation is founded as a forerunner of the Finnish Air Force to be established on 4 May 1928. The blue swastika is adopted as its symbol as a tribute to the Swedish explorer and aviator Eric von Rosen, von Rosen had painted the Viking symbol on the plane as his personal lucky insignia. March 7 – WWI, Finland forms an alliance with Germany, March 12 – Moscow becomes the capital of Soviet Russia. March 19 – The United States Congress establishes time zones and approves daylight saving time, March 21 – WWI, First Transjordan attack on Amman by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins with the passage of the Jordan River. March 23 WWI, The giant German cannon, the Paris Gun, in London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo dies during his trick where he is supposed to catch two separate bullets – but one of them perforates his lung
As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 The Czechoslovak Legions occupy much of the free city of Pressburg. HMY Iolaire sinks off the coast of Scotland,206 die, edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company. January 5 Spartacist uprising, Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution, in Germany, the German Workers Party, predecessor of the Nazi Party, is formed by merger of Anton Drexlers Committee of Independent Workmen with journalist Karl Harrers Political Workers Circle. January 7 The beginning of the Tragic Week in Argentina, an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires, Estonian War of Independence, With Soviet Russian forces just 40 km of the capital Tallinn, Estonian forces start a general and successful counter-offensive against the Red Army. January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin, January 10–12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin. January 13 – Workers councils in Berlin end the general strike, January 14 – Estonian War of Independence, Estonian forces liberate Tartu from the Red Army. January 15 Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered following the Spartacist uprising, great Molasses Flood, A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 21 and injuring 150. January 16 The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified, pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes the second Prime Minister of Poland. January 18 World War I, The Paris Peace Conference opens at the Palace of Versailles, Estonian War of Independence, Estonian forces liberate Narva, expelling the Red Army from Northern Estonia. Bentley Motors Limited is founded in England, January 19 The Monarchy of the North is established in Northern Portugal. January 21 Dáil Éireann meets for the first time in the Mansion House, in the first shots of the Anglo-Irish War, two Royal Irish Constabulary men are killed in an ambush at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary. Gojong, the first emperor of the Korean Empire, dies, January 23 – The Khotin Uprising breaks out in Khotyn, Ukraine. January 25 – The League of Nations is founded in Paris, January 31 – Battle of George Square, The British Army is called in to deal with riots during negotiations over working hours in Glasgow, Scotland. February 1 – Estonian War of Independence, Estonian forces liberate Valga and Võru, february 3 – Soviet troops occupy Ukraine. February 4-5 – Pressburg becomes capital of Slovakia, february 6 – The Seattle General Strike begins in the United States, affecting over 65,000 workers. February 11 Friedrich Ebert is elected first President of Germany by the Weimar National Assembly, the Seattle General Strike ends when Federal troops are summoned by the State of Washingtons Attorney General. February 12 – Ethnic Germans and Hungarian inhabitants of Pressburg start a protest against its incorporation into Czechoslovakia, february 14 – The Polish–Soviet War begins with the Battle of Bereza Kartuska
As of the start of 1920, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January –4,025 suspected communists and anarchists arrested and held without trial in the United States following raids in several cities, January 1 Babe Ruth is traded by the Red Sox for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. Bolsheviks increase troops from four divisions to twenty along the Polish border January 7 The forces of Russian White Admiral Alexander Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk, the Great Siberian Ice March ensues. The New York State Assembly refuses to seat five duly elected Socialist assemblymen, January 9 – Thousands of onlookers watch as The Human Fly George Polley climbs the Woolworth Building in New York City. He reaches the 30th floor before being arrested, January 10 – League of Nations Covenant enters into force. On January 16 the organization holds its first council meeting, in Paris, January 11 – The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is recognised de facto by European powers in Versailles. January 13 – The New York Times ridicules the American rocket scientist Robert H. Goddard, the newspaper has to recant publicly on July 17,1969 when the Apollo crew is on its mission to the Moon. January 16 Prohibition in the United States begins with the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution coming into effect, the Allies of World War I demand that the Netherlands extradite the German Kaiser Wilhelm II, who fled there in 1918. Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Incorporated, is founded on the campus of Howard University in Washington, January 19 – The United States Senate votes against joining the League of Nations. January 22 – The Australian Country Party is officially formed, led by Nelson Pollard, January 23 – The Netherlands refuses to extradite the German Kaiser. January 28 – El Tercio de Extranjeros, the Regiment of Foreigners, January 30 – The oldest surviving pro wrestling match on film takes place, with Joe Stecher defeating Earl Caddock. February 1 – The South African Air Force is established, the second autonomous Air Force in the world after the Royal Air Force, february 2 Estonian War of Independence, The Tartu Peace Treaty is signed, ending the war and recognizing Estonian independence. Sayyid Muhammad, Khan of Khiva abdicates, february 7 – Admiral Kolchak and Viktor Pepelyayev are executed by firing squad near Irkutsk. February 10 – General Józef Haller first performs Polands Wedding to the Sea, february 12–24 – Conference of London, Leaders of the United Kingdom, France and Italy meet to discuss the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. February 13 – Switzerland rejoins the League of Nations, february 14 – The League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago. February 17 – A woman named Anna Anderson tries to suicide in Berlin and is taken to a mental hospital. February 19 – The United States Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, february 20 –1920 Gori earthquake, An earthquake hits Gori in the Democratic Republic of Georgia, killing 114. February 21 – The island province of Marinduque in the Philippines archipelago is founded, february 22 – In Emeryville, California, the first dog racing track to employ an imitation rabbit opens
As of the start of 1921, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – In American football, the University of California, january 2 The football club Cruzeiro Esporte Clube from Belo Horizonte is founded as Palestra Italia in Brazil. The first religious radio broadcast is heard over station KDKA AM in Pittsburgh, the Spanish liner Santa Isabel sinks off Villa Garcia,244 die. The De Young Museum opens in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, january 20 – The British K-class submarine HMS K5 sinks in the English Channel, all 56 on board die. January 21 The Italian Communist Party is founded in Livorno, the Marxist Left in Slovakia and the Transcarpathian Ukraine holds its founding congress in Ľubochňa. Womens suffrage is attained in Sweden, the full-length silent comedy-drama film The Kid, written, produced, directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin, with Jackie Coogan, is released in the United States. January 25 – The Italian battleship Leonardo da Vinci is righted in Taranto Harbour, february 12 – Red Army invasion of Georgia, The Democratic Republic of Georgia is invaded by forces of Bolshevist Russia. February 20 – The Young Communist League of Czechoslovakia is founded, february 21 –1921 Persian coup détat, Rezā Khan and Ziaeddin Tabatabaee stage a coup détat in Iran. February 23 – The moderately conservative public official Oscar von Sydow takes over the Swedish premiership from Baron Louis De Geer the younger, february 25 – Red Army invasion of Georgia, The Red Army enters the Georgian capital Tbilisi and installs a Moscow-directed communist government. February 27 – The International Working Union of Socialist Parties is formed in Vienna, february 28 – The Kronstadt rebellion is initiated by sailors of the Soviet Navys Baltic Fleet. March – Group Settlement Scheme in Western Australia begins, March 1 – The city of Kiryū, located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, is founded. March 4 – Warren G. Harding is sworn in as 29th President of the United States, March 5 – Irish War of Independence, Clonbanin Ambush, Irish Republican Army kills Brigadier General Cumming. March 6 – The Portuguese Communist Party is founded, March 8 Spanish Premier Eduardo Dato e Iradier is assassinated while exiting the parliament building in Madrid. Allied forces occupy Düsseldorf, Ruhrort and Duisburg, March 12 – The İstiklâl Marşı, the Turkish national anthem, is officially adopted. March 13 – Occupation of Mongolia, The Russian White Army captures Mongolia from China, roman von Ungern-Sternberg declares himself ruler. March 14 – Armenian Soghomon Tehlirian assassinates Mehmed Talaat, former Interior Minister of Turkey, in Charlottenburg, March 16 – Six Irish Republican Army men of the Forgotten Ten are hanged in Mountjoy Prison, Dublin. March 17 The Red Army crushes the Kronstadt rebellion and a number of sailors flee to Finland, dr. Marie Stopes opens the first birth control clinic in London, England. The Second Polish Republic adopts the March Constitution, March 18 – The second Peace of Riga ends the Polish–Soviet War
As of the start of 1922, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January – The year begins with the British Empire at its largest extent, covering a quarter of the world, january 7 – Dáil Éireann, the parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64–57 votes. January 8 – The Social Democratic Youth League of Norway is founded, january 9 – Julieta founded the Chilean communist party. January 10 – Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann, january 11 – The first successful insulin treatment of diabetes is made, by Frederick Banting in Toronto. January 12 – The British government releases the remaining Irish prisoners captured in the War of Independence, january 13 – The flu epidemic has claimed 804 victims in Britain. January 15 – Michael Collins becomes Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government, january 24 – Christian K. Nelson patents the Eskimo Pie. January 26 – Italian forces occupy Misrata in Libya, january 28 – Knickerbocker Storm, Snowfall from the biggest-ever recorded snowstorm in Washington, D. C. causes the roof of the Knickerbocker Theatre to collapse, killing 98. January 29 – The union of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, january 30 – Radio KZKZ-AM, the second radio station in the Philippines, begins broadcasting. February – Ring Magazine is first published, february 1 – Irish American film director William Desmond Taylor is found murdered at his home in Los Angeles, the case is never solved. February 2 – Ulysses, by James Joyce, is published in Paris on his 40th birthday by Sylvia Beach, february 5 – DeWitt and Lila Wallace publish the first issue of Readers Digest. February 6 Pope Pius XI succeeds Pope Benedict XV, to become the 259th pope, five Power Naval Disarmament Treaty signed between the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France and Italy. Japan returns some of its control over the Shandong Peninsula to China, february 8 President of the United States Warren G. Harding introduces the first radio in the White House. In the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Cheka becomes the Gosudarstvennoye Politicheskoye Upravlenie, february 14 Finnish Minister of the Interior Heikki Ritavuori is assassinated by Ernst Tandefelt. Baragoola, last of the Binngarra class Manly ferries, is launched at Balmain, february 15 – Inaugural session of the Permanent Court of International Justice. February 25 – French serial killer Henri Désiré Landru is beheaded by the guillotine, february 26 – A challenge to the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, allowing women the right to vote, is rebuffed by the Supreme Court of the United States. March 2 An ice mass breaks the Oder Dam in Breslau, the British Civil Aviation Authority is established. March 4 – The movie Nosferatu is released, March 10 – Mohandas Gandhi is arrested in Bombay for sedition. March 10-14 – The Rand Revolt or Rebellion, a strike by white South African mine workers begins on 28 December 1921, March 15 – Egypt having gained self-government from the United Kingdom, Fuad I becomes King of Egypt
World War I
World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany
1918 flu pandemic
The 1918 flu pandemic was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus. Disease had already greatly limited life expectancy in the early 20th century, a considerable spike occurred at the time of the pandemic, specifically the year 1918. Life expectancy in the United States alone dropped by about 12 years, most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill juvenile, elderly, or already weakened patients, in contrast, the 1918 pandemic predominantly killed previously healthy young adults. There are several explanations for the high mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Some research suggests that the variant of the virus had an unusually aggressive nature. Historical and epidemiological data are inadequate to identify the geographic origin. It was implicated in the outbreak of encephalitis lethargica in the 1920s, in Spain, a different nickname was adopted, the Naples Soldier, which came from a musical operetta titled La canción del olvido, which premiered in Madrid during the first epidemic wave. Federico Romero, one of the librettists, quipped that the plays most popular musical number, the site of the very first confirmed outbreak was at Camp Funston, within Fort Riley in Kansas, USA at a military training facility preparing American troops for involvement in World War I. The first victim diagnosed with the new strain of flu on Monday, historian Alfred W. Crosby recorded that the flu originated in Kansas and popular writer John Barry echoed Crosby in describing Haskell County, Kansas, as the point of origin. These researchers postulated that a significant precursor virus, harbored in birds, earlier hypotheses of the epidemics origin have varied. Some hypothesized the flu originated in East Asia and he considered several other hypotheses of origin, such as Spain, Kansas, and Brest, as being possible, but not likely. Political scientist Andrew Price-Smith published data from the Austrian archives suggesting the influenza had earlier origins, in fact, it found evidence that the virus had been circulating in the European armies for months and potentially years before the 1918 pandemic. When an infected person sneezes or coughs, more than half a million virus particles can be spread to those close by, some speculate the soldiers immune systems were weakened by malnourishment, as well as the stresses of combat and chemical attacks, increasing their susceptibility. A large factor in the occurrence of this flu was increased travel. Modern transportation systems made it easier for soldiers, sailors, in the United States, the disease was first observed in Haskell County, Kansas, in January 1918, prompting local doctor Loring Miner to warn the U. S. On 4 March 1918, company cook Albert Gitchell reported sick at Fort Riley, by noon on 11 March 1918, over 100 soldiers were in the hospital. Within days,522 men at the camp had reported sick, by 11 March 1918, the virus had reached Queens, New York. Failure to take measures in March/April was later criticised
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football. The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia, Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard, Yale and Columbia then agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
1919 Green Bay Packers season
The 1919 Green Bay Packers season was their first season of competitive football. The club was formed by Curly Lambeau and George Calhoun with help from the Indian Packing Company, the club posted a 10–1 record against other teams in Wisconsin and Michigan. Still wanting to play football, a conversation with George Calhoun, editor of the Press-Gazette. In the succeeding weeks, Calhoun ran advertisements in the Press-Gazette inviting prospective players to join the team, on August 11, local athletes came together in the editorial room at the Press-Gazette building and formed the team that would become the Green Bay Packers. While the Packer organization recognizes 1919 as the year this team was founded. Since the team needed funds for uniforms and equipment, Lambeau entered an agreement with his employer, the company provided $500 and Lambeau agreed to name the team after it. At first the team was denoted the Green Bay Indians but by the end of the year the press was referring to the team as the Packers, the company also allowed the team to use an open lot on company property for practices three times a week. The Packers played their games in Hagemeister Park, a vacant lot next to East High. There were no bleachers and fans could watch the game for free, the field was sectioned off by ropes although the fans sometimes entered the field of play during particularly exciting parts of the game. At halftime, the players would gather in the endzone to discuss strategy, to pay player salaries, a hat was passed around the crowd for donations. The Packers played 8 games at Hagemeister Park in their first season, the Packers finished the season with a record of 10-1, only losing to the Beloit Fairies 0–6. Apart of the Beloit loss, they only allowed one team to score. For the 1919 season, they placed first among all teams in Wisconsin. Their first ever road game occurred on Oct 19,1919, at Ishpeming, MI
Green Bay, Wisconsin
Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin, located at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River. It is located 581 feet above sea level and 112 miles north of Milwaukee, the population was 104,057 at the 2010 census. Green Bay is the third-largest city in the state of Wisconsin, after Milwaukee and Madison, Green Bay is home to the National Football League team Green Bay Packers. Green Bay is the city of the Green Bay Metropolitan Statistical Area, which covers Brown, Kewaunee, and Oconto counties. Green Bay is a city with several meatpacking plants, paper mills, and a port on Green Bay. Located in Green Bay are the Neville Public Museum, with exhibitions of art, history, and science, the Childrens Museum, and the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay. Nicolet and others had learned from other First Nations of the Ho-Chunk people, who identified as People of the Sea, Champlain had also heard about natural resources in the area, including fertile soil, forests, and animals. Nicolet began his journey for this new land shortly before winter in 1634 and he is believed to have landed at Red Banks, near the site of the modern-day city of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Nicolet founded a trading post here in 1634, originally named La Baye or La Baie des Puants. From this, Green Bay claims to be one of the oldest European permanent settlements in America, when Nicolet arrived in the Green Bay area, he encountered the Menominee, as this was their territory. He also met the Ho-Chunk, also known as the Winnebago, the Winnebago hunted, fished, and cultivated corn, bean, squash, and tobacco. Wild rice, which they had incorporated as a dietary staple and they regularly harvested and cooked this, along with a wide variety of nuts, berries, and edible roots of the woods. The tribe had clearly distinguished gender roles, the men typically hunted and fished for food, and the women processed game and other foods in cooking. They prepared and made clothing from the furs as well as using other parts of animals for tools, cord, women also had a role in the political process, as no action could be taken without agreement of half of the women. Nicolet stayed with this tribe for about a year, becoming an ally and he helped open up opportunities for trade and commerce with them before returning to Quebec. A few months after Nicolet returned to Quebec, Champlain died and his death halted other journeys to La Baie Verte. Père Claude Allouez sent Nicolas Perrot to La Baie, after this, the French avoided the area for some decades, because of the intensity of First Nations and European conflicts in the east. In 1671, a Jesuit Mission was set up in the area, a fort was added in 1717 and gradually associated development took place
History of the Chicago Bears
The Chicago Bears American football franchise is a charter member of the National Football League and have played in all of the leagues 97 seasons. The Bears have captured nine NFL championships – eight NFL championships, the club has played in over a thousand games since becoming a charter member of the NFL in 1920. Through the 2012 season, they lead the NFL in overall wins with 739 and have an overall record of 739–544–42. The organization that became the Chicago Bears, the Decatur Staleys, was originally conceived by the A. E. Staley food starch company of Decatur, Illinois. This was the start for several early professional football franchises. The company hired George Halas and Edward Dutch Sternaman in 1920 to run the team, however, official team and league records cite Halas as the founder as he took over the team in 1920 when it became a charter member of the NFL. On September 17,1920,13 team representatives, including those representing Halas team, met in Canton, in the interest of ticket sales and crowning a yearly champion, they decided to form the American Professional Football Association. On October 3,1920, the Staleys played their first NFL game, George Halas, then the player-coach of A. E. Staleys Decatur Staleys, was among the driving forces of this meeting, which gave birth to what is now the NFL. In their first season as part of the Association, the Staleys won 10 games, all by shutouts, but lost the first league championship to the Akron Pros, who finished the season unbeaten at 8–0–3. There was no official scheduling in the 1920 season, which accounted for the difference in the number of games played that season, the Staleys and Cardinals split the 1920 series with the home team winning in each. In the Cardinals 7–6 victory over the Staleys in their first meeting of the season, each scored a TD on a fumble recovery. George Halas 1920 Staleys went on to a 10–1–2 record overall, the 1920 Akron Pros were the first ever league champions, they finished with an 8–0–3 record, 6–0–3 in league play, ending their season in a 0–0 tie against the Decatur Staleys. Because the Staleys had lost to the Racine Cardinals earlier that year, the Staleys loss to the Cardinals began a long-standing rivalry between the franchises. Had the Staleys won, there would have been a three way tie among the Staleys, the Buffalo All-Americans and the Pros, each team having one loss, each team likely would have played more games to allow teams to settle parity at the top of the standings. The Staleys moved to Chicago from Decatur, Illinois in 1921, Halas, who was given the team and $5000 by Staley to keep the name Staleys for another year, made the move. In the 1921 season, the Chicago Staleys finished first in the league, in 1922, Halas changed the team name to the Bears to reflect baseballs Chicago Cubs, the teams host at Wrigley Field. Over the next few years, the Bears were ranked among the teams in the NFL. Instead it had a somewhat controversial scheduling formula, which led to uneven standings, the highlight of the decade was George Halass unprecedented move to sign Red Grange for $100,000 in 1925
Decatur /dəˈkeɪtər/ is the largest city and the county seat of Macon County in the U. S. state of Illinois. The city was founded in 1829 and is along the Sangamon River, in 2015, the citys estimated population was 73,254. The city is home of private Millikin University and public Richland Community College. s wheel-tractor scrapers, off-highway trucks, Decatur is located at 39°51′6″N 88°56′39″W. Decatur is three hours southwest of Chicago,40 miles due east of Springfield, the state capital, and two hours northeast of St. Louis by car. According to the 2010 census, Decatur has an area of 46.91 square miles, lakes include Lake Decatur, formed in 1923 by the damming of the Sangamon River. As of the census of 2000, there were 81,860 people,34,086 households, the population density was 1,969.7 people per square mile. There were 37,239 housing units at a density of 896.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77. 59% White,19. 47% African American,0. 17% Native American,0. 66% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 43% from other races, and 1. 65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 19% of the population,32. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the family size was 2.90. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 83.9 males, the median income for a household in the city was $33,111, and the median income for a family was $42,379. Males had an income of $36,920 versus $22,359 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,009, about 12. 1% of families and 16. 5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25. 1% of those under age 18 and 9. 0% of those age 65 or over. The citys motto is Decatur, We Like it Here, the old motto was The Pride of the Prairie. The Soybean Capital of the World is the unofficial, but popular motto, Decatur was awarded the All-America City Award in 1960. The citys symbol is the Transfer House, an early-20th-century Victorian structure located originally in the center of town where the mass transit lines met. The Transfer House was moved in 1963 to save it from destruction as increasing automobile traffic flowed through the highway routed through downtown
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, novels, film, theater, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago also has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language. The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad, manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Bears compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference North division. The Bears have won nine NFL Championships and one Super Bowl and hold the NFL record for the most enshrinees in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, the Bears have also recorded more victories than any other NFL franchise. The franchise was founded in Decatur, Illinois, in 1919 and it is one of only two remaining franchises from the NFLs founding. The team played games at Wrigley Field on Chicagos North Side through the 1970 season, they now play at Soldier Field on the Near South Side. The Bears have a rivalry with the Green Bay Packers. The team headquarters, Halas Hall, is in the Chicago suburb of Lake Forest, the Bears practice at adjoining facilities there during the season. They hold their training camp from late July to mid-August at Ward Field on the campus of Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois. Originally named the Decatur Staleys, the club was established by the A. E. Staley food starch company of Decatur and this was the typical start for several early professional football franchises. The company hired George Halas and Edward Dutch Sternaman in 1920 to run the team, the 1920 Decatur Staleys season was their inaugural regular season completed in the newly formed American Professional Football Association. Full control of the team was turned over to Halas and Sternaman in 1921, official team and league records cite Halas as the founder as he took over the team in 1920 when it became a charter member of the NFL. The team relocated to Chicago in 1921, where the club was renamed the Chicago Staleys, under an agreement reached by Halas and Sternaman with Staley, Halas purchased the rights to the club from Staley for US$100. In 1922, Halas changed the name from the Staleys to the Bears. The team moved into Wrigley Field, which was home to the Chicago Cubs baseball franchise, as with several early NFL franchises, the Bears derived their nickname from their citys baseball team. Halas liked the bright colors of his alma mater, the University of Illinois. The Staleys/Bears dominated the league in the early years and their rivalry with the Chicago Cardinals, the oldest in the NFL, was key in four out of the first six league titles. During that span, the Bears posted 34 shutouts, the Bears rivalry with the Green Bay Packers is one of the oldest and most storied in American professional sports, dating back to 1921. The franchise was a success under Halas, capturing the NFL Championship in 1921
The Canton Bulldogs were a professional American football team, based in Canton, Ohio. They played in the Ohio League from 1903 to 1906 and 1911 to 1919, and its successor, the Bulldogs would go on to win the 1917,1918 and 1919 Ohio League championships. They were the NFL champions in 1922 and 1923, in 1921–1923, the Bulldogs played 25 straight games without a defeat, which as of 2016 remains an NFL record. As a result of the Bulldogs early success along with the league being founded in the city, Jim Thorpe, the Olympian and renowned all-around athlete, was Cantons most-recognized player in the pre-NFL era. In 1924, Sam Deutsch, the owner of the NFLs Cleveland Indians, bought the Canton Bulldogs and took the Bulldogs name and its players to Cleveland and named his franchise the Cleveland Bulldogs. He then offered to sell the Canton franchise back to the city of Canton to play in the 1924 season, however there were no interested in the team. The Canton Bulldogs were however re-established in 1925, and the NFL considers the 1925 to 1926 Canton Bulldogs to be the team as the 1920 to 1923 incarnation. All in all, this version of the Cleveland-Canton-Philadelphia Bulldogs played from 1961 to 1966, another Canton Bulldogs team was slated to begin play in the Stars Football League in 2012, although that team never materialized. The Bulldogs name is also in use at Canton McKinley High School, prior to the debut of professional football in the city, an amateur team from Canton was mentioned as being a superior team in Stark County, Ohio. Until about 1902, this team competed with the Akron East Ends for the Ohio Independent Championship, when the Massillon Tigers arrived on the scene and went professional, Canton, as an amateur team, was no longer competitive. The Canton Bulldogs were officially established on November 15,1904 as the Canton Athletic Club, the statement stated that the football team was to be a professional organization, complete with a professional coach. The team was given the goal of beating the rival Massillon Tigers, to do this, Canton went out and offered money to the best players on all the other Ohio League teams. Bill Laub, a player, team captain and coach of the Akron East Ends, was hired as the teams first-ever coach, the team began its 1905 season, with a 7–0 record. The Bulldogs then traveled to Latrobe, Pennsylvania to play the Latrobe Athletic Association, Latrobe was not only the current Pennsylvania champions, but had gone undefeated for the last three seasons. Latrobe were also considered the only pro team capable of competing with Canton and Massillon, Canton would go on to lose its 1905 game to Latrobe, 6–0. However, the worst part of the loss came when coach Bill Laub became injured and was unable to finish the season, Blondy Wallace, a former All-American for the Penn Quakers, was then named as Laubs successor and team captain. Two weeks later, the team would lose the Ohio League championship game to the Massillon Tigers, sometime during the 1906 season, the Canton team became known as the Bulldogs although no one is quite sure how it came to be affixed to the Canton team. It wasnt called that in 1905, nor through most of the 1906 season, as late as November 4, R. C
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Football League First Division
The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League. Between 1888 and 1992 it was the division in the English football league system. Following the creation of the FA Premier League it was a second-level division, in 2004 it was rebranded as the Football League Championship. The Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor and it originally consisted of a single division of 12 clubs, known as The Football League. When the League admitted additional members from the rival Football Alliance in 1892, for the next 100 years, the First Division was the top professional league in English football. Then, in 1992 the 22 clubs making up the First Division elected to resign from the Football League, the Football League was consequently re-organised, with the Second, Third and Fourth Divisions now renamed the First, Second and Third respectively. Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, the First Division was renamed as the Football League Championship prior to the start of the 2004–05 season, as part of a league-wide rebrand. Liverpool were the most frequent winners of the First Division when it was the top flight of English football, winning it a total of 18 times. After the creation of the Premier League, the new Division One title was won more than once by one club, Sunderland. The First Division initially consisted of 12 founder clubs, since then it has undergone a series of expansions as football became more popular, as of the 1975–76 season players had to make 14 appearances for their club during the season in order to qualify for a winners medal. See List of English football champions, see List of winners of English Football League Championship and predecessors
Chelsea Football Club is an English professional football club based in Fulham, London, that competes in the Premier League. Founded in 1905, the home ground since then has been Stamford Bridge. Chelsea had their first major success in 1955, when they won the league championship and they then won various cup competitions between 1965 and 1996. The clubs greatest period of success has come during the last two decades, winning 21 trophies since 1997. Chelsea are the only London club to win the UEFA Champions League, and one of four clubs, Chelseas regular kit colours are royal blue shirts and shorts with white socks. The clubs crest has changed several times in attempts to re-brand the club. The current crest, featuring a lion rampant regardant holding a staff, is a modification of the one introduced in the early 1950s. The club have the sixth-highest average all-time attendance in English football and their average home gate for the 2015–16 season was 41,500, the seventh highest in the Premier League. Since 2003, Chelsea have been owned by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich, in 2016, they were ranked by Forbes magazine as the seventh most valuable football club in the world, at £1.15 billion. In 1904, Gus Mears acquired the Stamford Bridge athletics stadium with the aim of turning it into a football ground, an offer to lease it to nearby Fulham was turned down, so Mears opted to found his own club to use the stadium. Chelsea were founded on 10 March 1905 at The Rising Sun pub, opposite the main entrance to the ground on Fulham Road. The club won promotion to the First Division in their second season and they reached the 1915 FA Cup Final, where they lost to Sheffield United at Old Trafford, and finished third in the First Division in 1920, the clubs best league campaign to that point. Chelsea attracted large crowds and had a reputation for signing big-name players, former Arsenal and England centre-forward Ted Drake became manager in 1952 and proceeded to modernise the club. The following season saw UEFA create the European Champions Cup, but after objections from The Football League, Chelsea failed to build on this success, and spent the remainder of the 1950s in mid-table. Drake was dismissed in 1961 and replaced by player-coach Tommy Docherty, Docherty built a new team around the group of talented young players emerging from the clubs youth set-up and Chelsea challenged for honours throughout the 1960s, enduring several near-misses. They were on course for a treble of League, FA Cup and League Cup going into the stages of the 1964–65 season, winning the League Cup. In three seasons the side were beaten in three major semi-finals and were FA Cup runners-up, under Dochertys successor, Dave Sexton, Chelsea won the FA Cup in 1970, beating Leeds United 2–1 in a final replay. Chelsea took their first European honour, a UEFA Cup Winners Cup triumph, the year, with another replayed win
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Highbury, London, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club has won 13 League titles,12 FA Cups, Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893. They entered the First Division in 1904, and have accumulated the second most points. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, in the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, and another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970–71, they won their first League and FA Cup Double, between 1989 and 2005, they won five League titles and five FA Cups, including two more Doubles. They completed the 20th century with the highest average league position, Herbert Chapman won Arsenals first national trophies, but died prematurely. He helped introduce the WM formation, floodlights, and shirt numbers, Arsène Wenger has been the longest-serving manager and has won the most trophies. His teams set several English records, the longest win streak, the longest unbeaten run, in 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury. They became Tottenham Hotspurs nearest club, commencing the North London derby, in 2006, they moved down the road to the Emirates Stadium. Arsenal earned €435. 5m in 2014–15, with the Emirates Stadium generating the highest revenue in world football, based on social media activity from 2014–15, Arsenals fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2016, Forbes estimated the club was the second most valuable in England, on 1 December 1886, munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with David Danskin as their first captain. Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C. s first home was Plumstead Common, though spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead. Royal Arsenal won Arsenals first trophies in 1890 and 1891, Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893. They registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended later that year, Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers, businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall took the club over, and sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury and this saw their third change of name, the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to simply The Arsenal
Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club /ˈtɒtnəm, -tənəm/, commonly referred to as Spurs, is an English football club located in Tottenham, Haringey, London, that competes in the Premier League. The clubs home stadium is White Hart Lane and their newly developed training ground is in Bulls Cross on the northern borders of the London Borough of Enfield. Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After successfully defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners Cup, in 1967, Spurs won the FA Cup for a third time in the 1960s. In the 1970s Tottenham won the League Cup on two occasions and were the winner of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. In the 1980s Spurs won several trophies, the FA Cup twice, FA Community Shield, in the 1990s the club won the FA Cup and the League Cup. When they won the League Cup once more in 2008, it meant that they had won a trophy in each of the last six decades – an achievement only matched by Manchester United. The clubs Latin motto is Audere est Facere, and its emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football, the club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby neighbours Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby. The club was formed in 1882, as Hotspur F. C. and played in the Southern League from 1896 until 1908, when they were elected into the Football League Second Division. Before this promotion Tottenham had won the FA Cup in 1901, since then, Tottenham have won the FA Cup a further seven times, the Football League twice, the Football League Cup four times, the UEFA Cup twice and also the UEFA Cup Winners Cup. The Cup Winners Cup victory in 1963 made Tottenham the first English team to win a UEFA competition, in 1960–61 they became the first team to complete The Double in the 20th century. Tottenham played their first matches at Tottenham Marshes on the public pitches. It was at this ground that Spurs first played archrivals Arsenal, there were occasions on which fights would break out on the marshes in dispute of the teams that were allowed to use the best pitches. Crowd sizes were regularly increasing and a new site was becoming needed to accommodate these supporters, in 1898 the club moved from the marshes to Northumberland Park and charged an admission fee of 3d. They only remained at this ground for a year as in April 1899,14,000 fans turned up to watch Spurs play Woolwich Arsenal. The ground was no able to cope with the larger crowds and Spurs were forced to move to a new larger site 100 yards down the road. The White Hart Lane ground was originally a disused nursery owned by the brewery Charringtons, the landlord spotted the increased income he could enjoy if Tottenham played their matches behind his pub and in 1899 the club moved in. They brought with them the stand they used at Northumberland Park which gave shelter to 2,500 fans, notts County were the first visitors to the Lane in a friendly watched by 5,000 people and provided in £115 in receipts, Spurs won 4–1
Derby County F.C.
Derby County Football Club is a professional association football club based in Derby, Derbyshire, England. Their home matches are played at Pride Park Stadium, where the club moved in 1997. Derby County F. C. was founded in 1884, by William Morley, as an offshoot of Derbyshire County Cricket Club, it has spent all, additionally, the club was a strong force in the interwar years and won the 1945–46 FA Cup. Derby County F. C. was formed in 1884 as an offshoot of Derbyshire County Cricket Club in an attempt to give players and supporters a winter interest as well as secure the cricket club extra revenue. The original intention was to name the club Derbyshire County F. C. The opening day of the first ever season was 8 September 1888. They absorbed another Derby club, Derby Midland F. C. who had members of the Midland League, in 1891. Steve Bloomer, generally considered to be Derby Countys best-ever player, in 1895 the club moved to a new stadium, the Baseball Ground, which became their home for the next 102 years and adopted their traditional colours of black and white. Although Derby were inconsistent in the league, they did finish runners-up to Aston Villa in 1896 as well as achieving a number of third-place finishes. They were a force in the FA Cup, appearing in three finals in six years around the turn of the 20th century, though lost all three, in 1898,1899 and 1903. In 1914 they were relegated again, but instantly won the Second Division to get promoted, after two seasons, they were relegated yet again in 1921. Derby were one of clubs to close down after the outbreak of World War II but restarted in the early 1940s, in part due to the persistence of Jack Nicholas. In 1967, Brian Clough and Peter Taylor took over and led them to their greatest glory, though Derby did not retain their title the following season, they did reach the semi-finals of the European Cup, where they lost to Juventus. Cloughs frequent outspoken comments against footballs establishment eventually led to him falling out with the board of directors at the club, and Clough and Taylor left in October 1973. Such was their impact on the club that,37 years later, though they challenged well in their first season, Derby were soon hit hard by rising debts, falling attendances and dismal performances. However, Derby did manage to avoid going out of business, after relegation to the Third Division in May 1984, the club appointed Arthur Cox as manager. A lack of any investment from Maxwell quickly led to a decline. At this time, local newspaper businessman Lionel Pickering became the majority shareholder of the club, in 1992, Derby County paid £2
Preston North End F.C.
Preston North End Football Club is a professional association football club located in the Deepdale area of Preston, Lancashire. They play in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. Prestons unbeaten League and Cup season earned them the nickname The Invincibles, Prestons most recent major trophy success was their FA Cup victory over Huddersfield Town in 1938. Many notable players have played for the club, including Tom Finney, Bill Shankly, Tommy Docherty, Alan Kelly, Sr. and Graham Alexander. On 21 January 1875, the club leased a field opposite Moor Park on the site of the current Deepdale stadium, Preston North End were famously successful during the early years of professional football in England. In 1887, Preston beat Hyde 26–0 in the First Round of the FA Cup, Preston forward Jimmy Ross scored eight goals in the match, going on to score 19 goals in the competition that season, also still a record. The clubs last major win was their FA Cup triumph in 1938. Prestons most famous player, Sir Tom Finney, played for the club between 1946 and 1960, Finney is considered to be one of the greatest footballers of all time, and was also a local lad, dubbed the Preston Plumber due to his professional training as a plumber. Finney remains the top goalscorer, with 187 goals from 433 appearances. Following Finneys retirement, Preston were relegated to the Second Division in 1961 and have not played in the top division since, the club did reach the FA Cup final in 1964, but lost to West Ham United. Preston were relegated to the Third Division in the 1969–70 season, Alan Ball, Sr. John McGrath oversaw Prestons promotion back to the Third Division a year later, where they remained when John Beck took over in October 1992. The 38-year-old Beck had only recently been sacked by Cambridge United, the club almost made it two promotions in a row to reach the Premier League, but lost to Bolton Wanderers in the 2001 play-off final. Simon Grayson was appointed by the club on 18 February 2013, of Simon Graysons next 10 games, Preston won 3, drew 4 and lost 3. In Simon Graysons first summer in charge, he permanently signed 4 players, Tom Clarke, a centreback, Chris Humphrey, a winger, Kevin Davies, a Centre forward and Alex Nicholson. He also signed Declan Rudd on a long loan from Norwich City. He allowed 3 players to leave during the summer, those being Luke Foster, Chris Robertson, the 2013–14 season started off well, unbeaten in their first 9 league games. They also beat local rivals Blackpool in the League Cup, before being beaten by Lancashire rivals Burnley in the second round. The 9 league game unbeaten run came to an end on 5 October, against Peterborough United, Preston then went on another 9 game unbeaten league run, winning 5 and drawing 4, including a win against Leyton Orient, only their second league defeat of the season
Glossop North End A.F.C.
Glossop North End Association Football Club are an English football club in Glossop, Derbyshire. Formerly members of the Football League, they are currently in the Northern Premier League Division One North and are members of the Derbyshire County Football Association and they play their home matches at Surrey Street, which has a capacity of 1,350. The club play in blue, and are known as the Hillmen, between 1899 and 1992 the club were known as Glossop. At the turn of the 20th century, Glossop played in the Football League First Division, during this period the club was bankrolled by Sir Samuel Hill-Wood, who was later to become chairman of Arsenal, and the club retains connections with Arsenal to this day. Glossop North End were founded in 1886, when they played friendly amateur matches and they played at various grounds in the town, including Pyegrove, Silk Street, Water Lane and Cemetery Road before settling at North Road. The club joined the North Cheshire League in 1890, before moving to the Combination in 1894, in their first season in the Combination, 1894–95, they finished as runners-up. After ending the season, 1895–96, in third, the club moved to the Midland League. The clubs chairman and benefactor at the time was Sir Samuel Hill-Wood, however, the club became perennial strugglers in the Second Division. The 1913–14 season saw a record attendance of 10,736 for an FA Cup second round match against Preston North End on 31 January 1914. However, the season they finished bottom of the league. The start of World War I meant the Football League closed down, Glossop were re-formed toward the end of the war by Oswald Partington, but failed to be re-elected to the Football League. Glossop then joined the Lancashire Combination, playing just one season, Northern Nomads ground-shared with Glossop for several years during this time. The club then dropped out of the Lancashire Combination and into the Manchester League, in the 1920s and 1930s they won the Gilcryst Cup three times and were crowned Manchester League champions in 1927–28. They won the Gilcryst Cup for a time in 1947–48. During 1955, the club moved from its home of North Road to their current ground Surrey Street. In 1957 Glossop rejoined the Lancashire Combination, finishing in eighth in 1957–58 and they spent nine seasons in the league before dropping back down once more to the Manchester League after the 1965–66 season. They joined the Cheshire County League as founder members of Division Two in the 1978–79 season, in 1980–81 they were Division Two runners-up, only losing out on the title on goal difference, but still winning promotion to Division One. In 1986, the club marked their centenary season with a match with sister club Arsenal and they joined Division One, however they struggled in the league for the next six seasons and after finishing bottom in 1987–88 were relegated to Division Two
Stoke City F.C.
Stoke City Football Club is a professional football club based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Founded as Stoke Ramblers in 1863 the club changed its name to Stoke in 1878 and they are the second oldest professional football club in the world, after Notts County, and are one of the founding members of the Football League. Their first, and to date only major trophy, the League Cup was won in 1972, the clubs highest league finish in the top division is 4th, which was achieved in the 1935–36 and 1946–47 seasons. Stoke played in the FA Cup Final in 2011, finishing runners-up to Manchester City and have reached three FA Cup semi-finals, in 1899 then consecutively in 1971 and 1972. Stoke have competed in European football on three occasions, firstly in 1972–73 then in 1974–75 and most recently in 2011–12, the club has won the Football League Trophy twice, in 1992 and in 2000. Stokes home ground is the bet365 Stadium, a 28,116 all-seater stadium, before the stadium was opened in 1997, the club was based at the Victoria Ground, which had been their home ground since 1878. The clubs nickname is The Potters, named after the industry in Stoke-on-Trent and their traditional home kit is a red and white vertically striped shirt, white shorts. Stokes traditional rivals are Midlands clubs West Bromwich Albion and Wolverhampton Wanderers whilst their local rivals are Port Vale with whom they contest the Potteries derby, the clubs first documented match was in October 1868, against an EW May XV at the Victoria Cricket Club ground. Henry Almond, the founder, was also captain. During this period they played at the Victoria Cricket Ground, however, in 1878, the club merged with Stoke Victoria Cricket Club, and became Stoke Football Club. They moved from their previous ground, Sweetings Field, to the Athletic Club ground and it was around this time that the club adopted their traditional red-and-white striped kit. In August 1885, the club turned professional, Stoke were one of the twelve founding members of the Football League when it was introduced in 1888. The club struggled in their first two seasons, 1888–89 and 1889–90, finishing bottom on both occasions, in 1890 Stoke failed to be re-elected and joined the Football Alliance, which they won and thus were re-elected to the Football League. Stoke spent the next 15 seasons in the First Division and reached the FA Cup Semi-Final in the 1898–99 season before being relegated in 1907, Stoke went bankrupt and entered non-league football until 1914, when the First World War meant the Football League was suspended for four years. During the wartime period, Stoke entered the Lancashire Primary and Secondary leagues, when football recommenced in August 1919, Stoke re-joined the league. The club became owners of the Victoria Ground in 1919 and this was followed by the construction of the Butler Street stand, which increased the overall capacity of the ground to 50,000. In 1925, Stoke-on-Trent was granted city status and this led the club to change its name to Stoke City F. C, the 1930s saw the debut of clubs most celebrated player, Stanley Matthews. Matthews, who grew up in Hanley, was an apprentice at the club and made his first appearance in March 1932, against Bury, by end of the decade, Matthews had established himself as an England international and as one of the best footballers of his generation
Coventry City F.C.
Coventry City Football Club is a professional football club in Coventry, West Midlands, England, which plays in League One, the third tier of English football. Coventry City formed as Singers F. C. in 1883 and they won their only major trophy in 1987 when they beat Tottenham Hotspur 3–2 to win the FA Cup. They are one of five clubs to have ever won the FA Cup and FA Youth Cup in the same season. They returned to Wembley in April 2017, beating Oxford United 2-1 to win the English Football League Trophy. Following eleven seasons in the second-tier Football League Championship, Coventry were relegated to Football League One in 2012, Coventry have qualified for European competitions twice. In the 1970–71 season, they competed in the European Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, despite beating Bayern Munich 2–1 in their home leg, they had lost 1–6 in the first leg in Munich to go out of the competition. They were unable to compete in the 1987–88 UEFA Cup Winners Cup due to the ban on English clubs at that time, from 1899 to 2005, Coventry City played at Highfield Road. A return to the Ricoh Arena was announced on 21 August 2014 by the club after a one-year absence,1883 – The club is founded by employees of Singer, the cycle firm, with William Stanley one of the leading lights. 1898 – The clubs name is changed from Singers F. C. to Coventry City,1899 – The club move to Highfield Road following stints at Dowells Field and Stoke Road. 1901 – The club suffer their worst ever defeat with an 11–2 loss against Worcester-based Berwick Rangers in the round of the FA Cup. 1919 – The club are voted into the Football League, where they have remained ever since,1928 – In February, and with Coventry struggling near the foot of Division Three South, the clubs worst ever attendance is recorded. Only 2,059 turn up for the match against Crystal Palace,1932 – Centre-forward Clarrie Bourton heads the Football League scoring lists with 49 goals. The following season he scored 40 goals,1934 – City record their biggest ever victory a 9–0 league drubbing of Bristol City. 1936 – Coventry City win the Third Division South championship after a final day 2–1 victory over Torquay United. 1958 – Goalkeeper Alf Wood becomes the oldest player to start a game for the club and he played against Plymouth Argyle in the FA Cup aged 43 years and 207 days. 1961 – Former Fulham player and PFA chairman Jimmy Hill is appointed following an embarrassing FA Cup defeat at home to non-league Kings Lynn. 1964 – Jimmy Hill guides Coventry to promotion from Division Three as champions after a final day 1–0 victory over Colchester United,1967 – Coventry City promoted as Second Division champions to the top flight for the first time in their history. This made manager and BBC Sport presenter Jimmy Hill a legend at the club, Coventrys record attendance was also set in this year – officially recorded as 51,455, against Wolverhampton Wanderers, the team that finished a close second to Coventry at the top of the table
Rotherham United F.C.
Rotherham United Football Club, nicknamed The Millers, is a professional association football club based in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England. They compete in the Championship, the tier in the English football league system. Founded in 1925 as a merger between Rotherham Town and Rotherham County, the colours were initially yellow and black, but later evolved into the more traditional red. Rotherham United play their games at New York Stadium, a 12,000 capacity all-seater stadium. The Millers featured in the inaugural League Cup final in 1961 and they also achieved two separate back to back promotions in 1999–2001 under Ronnie Moore and 2012–2014 under Steve Evans. The clubs roots go back to 1870, when the club was formed as Thornhill Football Club, george Cook was the trainer around this time. For many years the team in the area was Rotherham Town. By the turn of the century, however, Town had resigned from the Football League and gone out of business, a new club of the same name later joined the Midland League. Meanwhile, Thornhills fortunes were on the rise to the extent that in 1905 they laid claim to being the pre-eminent club in the town, for a period both clubs competed in the Midland League, finishing first and second in 1911–12. Over time it became clear that to have two clubs in the town was not sustainable. Talks had begun in February 1925 and in early May the two merged to form Rotherham United. Days later the club was formally re-elected under its new name. The red and white was adopted around 1928 after playing in amber and black, immediately after the Second World War things looked up. The Millers won the only edition of the Football League Third Division North Cup in 1946 beating Chester 5–4 on aggregate. They then finished as runners-up three time in succession between 1947 and 1949 and then were champions of Division Three in 1951, during that season they had notable results including a 6–1 win over Liverpool. In 1961 the Millers beat Aston Villa 2–0 at Millmoor in the inaugural League Cup final first leg, the second leg was played the season after due to Villa having a Congested Fixture List. The club held on to its place in Division Two until 1968, in 1975 they were promoted back to the Third Division finishing in the 3rd promotion spot in the Fourth Division. The Millers won the Division Three title in 1981, Rotherham had a dismal first half of the 1981–82 season but a surge after the turn of 1982 saw them emerge as promotion contenders for the first time in nearly 30 years