1920 Pulitzer Prize
The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1920.
- Editorial Writing:
Letters and Drama Awards
- Biography or Autobiography:
The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1920.
1. Pulitzer Prize – The Pulitzer Prize /ˈpʊlᵻtsər/ is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each receives a certificate. The winner in the service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal. The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can also only be entered in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties, each year,102 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 20 separate juries for the 21 award categories, one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. For each award category, a jury makes three nominations, the board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75% majority vote. The board can also vote to issue no award, the board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work, however, the jurors in letters, music, and drama receive a $2,000 honorarium for the year, and each chair receives $2,500. Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant, the jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists who were submitted, but not nominated as finalists. For example, Bill Dedman of msnbc, Dedman wrote, To call that submission a Pulitzer nomination is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters Thats My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars dont work that way—the studios dont pick the nominees and its just a way of slipping Academy Awards into a bio. The Pulitzers also dont work that way, but fewer people know that, newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Prize. It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships and he specified four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships. After his death, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4,1917, many people have won more than one Pulitzer Prize. Nelson Harding is the person to have won a Prize in two consecutive years, the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1927 and 1928. Four prizes Robert Frost, Poetry Eugene ONeill, Drama Robert E, in rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners. Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs, infrequently, Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts, letters and fiction
2. New York World – The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931. The paper played a role in the history of American newspapers. It was a national voice of the Democratic Party. From 1883 to 1911 under publisher Joseph Pulitzer, it became a pioneer in yellow journalism, capturing readers attention, the World was formed in 1860. From 1862 to 1876, it was edited by Manton Marble, in 1864, the World was shut down for three days after it published forged documents purportedly from Abraham Lincoln. But Scott was unable to meet the newspapers growing losses, Gould, like Scott, used the paper for his own purposes, employing it to help him take over Western Union. But Gould could not turn the state of the newspaper around. Joseph Pulitzer bought the World in 1883 and began an era of circulation building. Reporter Nellie Bly became one of Americas first investigative journalists, often working undercover, as a publicity stunt for the paper, inspired by the Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days, she traveled around the planet in 72 days in 1889-1890. In 1890, Pulitzer built the New York World Building, the tallest office building in the world at the time, in 1889, Julius Chambers was appointed by Pulitzer as managing editor of the New York World, he served until 1891. In 1896, the World began using a printing press, it was the first newspaper to launch a color supplement. It joined a battle with William Randolph Hearsts New York Journal American. The World was attacked for being sensational, and its battles with Hearsts Journal American gave rise to the term yellow journalism. The charges of sensationalism were most frequently leveled at the paper by more established publishers, and while the World presented its fair share of crime stories, it also published damning exposés of tenement abuses. After a heat wave in 1883 killed a number of poor children. Its coverage spurred action in the city for reform, hearst reproduced Pulitzers approach in the San Francisco Examiner and later in the Journal American. Frank Irving Cobb was employed on a basis as the editor of the World in 1904 by publisher Pulitzer. Cobb was a fiercely independent Kansan who resisted Pulitzers attempts to run the office from his home, the elder man was so invested in the paper that he continually meddled with Cobbs work
3. Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing – The Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing is one of the fourteen American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Journalism. Thus it is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, the program has also recognized opinion journalism with its Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning from 1922. Finalists have been announced from 1980, ordinarily two others beside the winner, one person ordinarily wins the award for work with one newspaper or with affiliated papers, and that was true without exception between 1936 and 1977. In the early years, several newspapers were recognized without naming any writer, several times from 1977, two or three people have shared the award for their work with one paper. In its first 97 years to 2013, the Editorial Writing Pulitzer was awarded 89 times, in nine years there was no award given and there were two prizes in 1936. 1927, F. P. Chase, Atlantic News-Telegraph, for an editorial titled,1935, no award given 1936, Felix Morley, The Washington Post, for distinguished editorial writing during the year 1936, George B. The Gainesville Sun, for his editorials in support of the desegregation of Floridas schools. Bethlehem Globe-Times, for his campaign to reduce racial tensions in Bethlehem 1973
4. Evening World Herald – The Omaha World-Herald is the primary daily newspaper of Nebraska and portions of southwest Iowa. It is based in Omaha, Nebraska, for decades it circulated daily throughout Nebraska and Iowa and in parts of Kansas, South Dakota, Missouri, Colorado, and Wyoming. In 2008, distribution was reduced to the third of Nebraska. The World-Herald was the largest employee-owned newspaper in the United States, on November 30,2011, Warren Buffetts Berkshire Hathaway announced plans to buy the newspaper. The Omaha World-Herald Company also operates the website Omaha. com, the site has more than 300,000 registered users and more than 14 million page views monthly. The company dubs its downtown Omaha production center the John Gottschalk Freedom Center, the Freedom Center also houses its three printing presses, which can each print 75,000 papers per hour, and are considered to be some of the most advanced in the world. In 2006, the company purchased the 16-story former Northwestern Bell/Qwest Communications building in downtown Omaha as a new base for its news, editorial, circulation, the newspaper has bureaus in Lincoln, Nebraska, and Washington, D. C. Throughout the region, The World-Herald also owns smaller daily and weekly newspapers, through the World Publishing Co. the former name of the newspapers parent company, The World-Herald owned Omaha television station KETV from its founding in 1957. Because of a change in Federal Communications Commission law, The World-Herald had to divest the station in 1976 and it sold the station to the now-defunct Pulitzer Broadcasting Co. of St. Louis, which merged with the Hearst Corporation in 1998 and is the stations current owner. The World-Herald has won three Pulitzer Prizes, including the esteemed Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, awarded in 1943. 1920 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing, Harvey E. Newbranch for an editorial entitled Law and the Jungle, Newbranch was the first editorial writer to win a Pulitzer under his own name—as opposed to awards for unsigned staff editorials—in opinion writing. 1943 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, For its initiative and originality in planning a campaign for the collection of scrap metal for the war effort. The Nebraska plan was adopted on a national scale by the daily newspapers,1944 Pulitzer Prize for Photography, Earle L. Bunker for his photo entitled Homecoming. The newspaper was founded in 1885 by Gilbert M. Hitchcock as the Omaha Evening World and it purchased George L. Millers Omaha Herald in 1889. The paper was established as an independent political voice but quickly moved to the Democratic Party column, william Jennings Bryan was its editor in 1894–1896. Hitchcock served three terms in the U. S. House of Representatives and, starting in 1911 and it was a more objective voice than the Omaha Bee, which tended to sensationalize news to drum up sales. His son-in-law, Henry Doorly, took control of the paper after Hitchcocks death in 1934, the editorial page began leaning Republican after Hitchcocks death. Over his lifetime, Doorly served 58 years at the paper, when he died, Kiewit left provisions to ensure that the paper would remain locally owned, with a large part of the plan securing employee ownership
5. Pulitzer Prize for Drama – The Pulitzer Prize for Drama is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes and it recognizes a theatrical work staged in the U. S. during the preceding calendar year. The drama jury, which consists of one academic and four critics, attends plays in New York, in 1955 Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. Edward Albees Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf. was selected for the 1963 Pulitzer Prize for Drama by that awards committee. However, the selection was overruled by the awards advisory board. Had Albee been awarded, he would be tied with Eugene ONeill for the most Pulitzer Prizes for Drama, in its first 98 years to 2013, the Drama Pulitzer was awarded 82 times, none were given in 15 years and it was never split. Many of the prizes were won by people for their collaboration. * Star marks winners of the annual Tony Award for Best Play or Best Musical,1917, no award 1918, Why Marry. – Jesse Lynch Williams 1919, no award Nine musicals have won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama and they are, George and Ira Gershwins Of Thee I Sing, Rodgers and Hammersteins South Pacific, Bock & Harnicks Fiorello. Of Thee I Sing, Sunday in the Park with George, however, Of Thee I Sing opened when the Tony Awards did not exist, and Next to Normal won the Tony Award for Best Original Score and the Tony Award for Best Orchestrations. The award goes to the playwright, although production of the play is taken into account. In the case of a musical being awarded the prize, the composer, lyricist, the reason given was that the Pulitzer Prize for Drama is a dramatic award, and not a musical one. Additionally, since 1983, when the identity of finalists was first disclosed and they are, Lee Breuer and Bob Telsons The Gospel at Colonus, Lin-Manuel Miranda and Quiara Alegría Hudes In the Heights, and Jeanine Tesori and Lisa Krons Fun Home. The latter two shows, however, each won the Tony Award for Best Musical, ¹All listed dates are Prize years. Generally, the musical in question opened in New York during either the preceding year or the preceding Broadway season. Eugene ONeill won the Pulitzer for Drama four times, three in the 1920s, several people have won two or three. Media related to Pulitzer Prize for Drama winners at Wikimedia Commons
6. Beyond the Horizon (play) – Beyond the Horizon is a play written by American playwright Eugene ONeill. It was ONeills first full-length work, and the winner of the 1920 Pulitzer Prize for Drama, directed by Homer Saint-Gaudens, the cast featured Erville Alderson, Richard Bennett, Robert Kelly, Mary Jeffery, and Sidney Macy. This production won the 1920 Pulitzer Prize for Drama, beyond the Horizon was revived on Broadway at the Mansfield Theatre on November 30,1926 and closed on February 5,1927 after 79 performances. Directed by James Light, the cast featured Malcolm Williams, Judith Lowry, Albert Tavernier, Thomas Chalmers, Robert Keith, Aline MacMahon, Eleanor Wesselhoeft, the play was presented by Royal & Derngate in Northampton in November 2009. This production subsequently transferred to Londons National Theatre in March 2010, the play takes place on a farm in the Spring, and then moves forward three years later, in the Summer, and finally 5 years later, in late Fall. The play focuses on the portrait of a family, and particularly two brothers Andrew and Robert, the play was adapted for television and broadcast on PBS Great Performances series in July 1975, directed by Rick Hauser and Michael Kahn. The cast featured Richard Backus, Kate Wilkinson, John Randolph, Edward J. Moore, Maria Tucci, Geraldine Fitzgerald, John Houseman and it was adapted into an opera by composer Nicolas Flagello in 1983. According to the PBS American Experience program, Theater historians point to ONeills Beyond the Horizon, beyond the Horizon at the Internet Broadway Database Beyond the Horizon at the Internet Broadway Database Beyond the Horizon public domain audiobook at LibriVox
7. Eugene O'Neill – Eugene Gladstone ONeill was an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature. ONeills plays were among the first to include speeches in American vernacular and they struggle to maintain their hopes and aspirations, but ultimately slide into disillusionment and despair. Of his very few comedies, only one is well-known, nearly all of his other plays involve some degree of tragedy and personal pessimism. ONeill was born in a hotel, the Barrett House, at Broadway and 43rd Street, a commemorative plaque was first dedicated there in 1957. The site is now occupied by 1500 Broadway, which offices, retail. He was the son of Irish immigrant actor James ONeill and Mary Ellen Quinlan and his father suffered from alcoholism, his mother from an addiction to morphine, prescribed to relieve the pains of the difficult birth of her third son, Eugene. ONeill spent his summers at the Monte Cristo Cottage in New London and he attended Princeton University for one year. Accounts vary as to why he left, ONeill spent several years at sea, during which he suffered from depression and alcoholism. Despite this, he had a love for the sea and it became a prominent theme in many of his plays. ONeill joined the Marine Transport Workers Union of the Industrial Workers of the World, ONeills parents and elder brother Jamie died within three years of one another, not long after he had begun to make his mark in the theater. After his experience in 1912–13 at a sanatorium where he was recovering from tuberculosis, ONeill had previously been employed by the New London Telegraph, writing poetry as well as reporting. In the fall of 1914, he entered Harvard University to attend a course in dramatic technique given by Professor George Baker and he left after one year and did not complete the course. During the 1910s ONeill was a regular on the Greenwich Village literary scene, ONeill also had a brief romantic relationship with Reeds wife, writer Louise Bryant. ONeill was portrayed by Jack Nicholson in the 1981 film Reds and his involvement with the Provincetown Players began in mid-1916. ONeill is said to have arrived for the summer in Provincetown with a full of plays. He was not left alone in the dining-room when the reading had finished, the Provincetown Players performed many of ONeills early works in their theaters both in Provincetown and on MacDougal Street in Greenwich Village. Some of these early plays began downtown and then moved to Broadway, ONeills first published play, Beyond the Horizon, opened on Broadway in 1920 to great acclaim, and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. His first major hit was The Emperor Jones, which ran on Broadway in 1920 and his best-known plays include Anna Christie, Desire Under the Elms, Strange Interlude, Mourning Becomes Electra, and his only well-known comedy, Ah, Wilderness