1920 Pulitzer Prize
The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1920.
- Editorial Writing:
Letters and Drama Awards
- Biography or Autobiography:
The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1920.
1. Eugene O'Neill – Eugene Gladstone ONeill was an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature. ONeills plays were among the first to include speeches in American vernacular and they struggle to maintain their hopes and aspirations, but ultimately slide into disillusionment and despair. Of his very few comedies, only one is well-known, nearly all of his other plays involve some degree of tragedy and personal pessimism. ONeill was born in a hotel, the Barrett House, at Broadway and 43rd Street, a commemorative plaque was first dedicated there in 1957. The site is now occupied by 1500 Broadway, which offices, retail. He was the son of Irish immigrant actor James ONeill and Mary Ellen Quinlan and his father suffered from alcoholism, his mother from an addiction to morphine, prescribed to relieve the pains of the difficult birth of her third son, Eugene. ONeill spent his summers at the Monte Cristo Cottage in New London and he attended Princeton University for one year. Accounts vary as to why he left, ONeill spent several years at sea, during which he suffered from depression and alcoholism. Despite this, he had a love for the sea and it became a prominent theme in many of his plays. ONeill joined the Marine Transport Workers Union of the Industrial Workers of the World, ONeills parents and elder brother Jamie died within three years of one another, not long after he had begun to make his mark in the theater. After his experience in 1912–13 at a sanatorium where he was recovering from tuberculosis, ONeill had previously been employed by the New London Telegraph, writing poetry as well as reporting. In the fall of 1914, he entered Harvard University to attend a course in dramatic technique given by Professor George Baker and he left after one year and did not complete the course. During the 1910s ONeill was a regular on the Greenwich Village literary scene, ONeill also had a brief romantic relationship with Reeds wife, writer Louise Bryant. ONeill was portrayed by Jack Nicholson in the 1981 film Reds and his involvement with the Provincetown Players began in mid-1916. ONeill is said to have arrived for the summer in Provincetown with a full of plays. He was not left alone in the dining-room when the reading had finished, the Provincetown Players performed many of ONeills early works in their theaters both in Provincetown and on MacDougal Street in Greenwich Village. Some of these early plays began downtown and then moved to Broadway, ONeills first published play, Beyond the Horizon, opened on Broadway in 1920 to great acclaim, and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. His first major hit was The Emperor Jones, which ran on Broadway in 1920 and his best-known plays include Anna Christie, Desire Under the Elms, Strange Interlude, Mourning Becomes Electra, and his only well-known comedy, Ah, Wilderness
2. New York World – The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931. The paper played a role in the history of American newspapers. It was a national voice of the Democratic Party. From 1883 to 1911 under publisher Joseph Pulitzer, it became a pioneer in yellow journalism, capturing readers attention, the World was formed in 1860. From 1862 to 1876, it was edited by Manton Marble, in 1864, the World was shut down for three days after it published forged documents purportedly from Abraham Lincoln. But Scott was unable to meet the newspapers growing losses, Gould, like Scott, used the paper for his own purposes, employing it to help him take over Western Union. But Gould could not turn the state of the newspaper around. Joseph Pulitzer bought the World in 1883 and began an era of circulation building. Reporter Nellie Bly became one of Americas first investigative journalists, often working undercover, as a publicity stunt for the paper, inspired by the Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days, she traveled around the planet in 72 days in 1889-1890. In 1890, Pulitzer built the New York World Building, the tallest office building in the world at the time, in 1889, Julius Chambers was appointed by Pulitzer as managing editor of the New York World, he served until 1891. In 1896, the World began using a printing press, it was the first newspaper to launch a color supplement. It joined a battle with William Randolph Hearsts New York Journal American. The World was attacked for being sensational, and its battles with Hearsts Journal American gave rise to the term yellow journalism. The charges of sensationalism were most frequently leveled at the paper by more established publishers, and while the World presented its fair share of crime stories, it also published damning exposés of tenement abuses. After a heat wave in 1883 killed a number of poor children. Its coverage spurred action in the city for reform, hearst reproduced Pulitzers approach in the San Francisco Examiner and later in the Journal American. Frank Irving Cobb was employed on a basis as the editor of the World in 1904 by publisher Pulitzer. Cobb was a fiercely independent Kansan who resisted Pulitzers attempts to run the office from his home, the elder man was so invested in the paper that he continually meddled with Cobbs work
3. Beyond the Horizon (play) – Beyond the Horizon is a play written by American playwright Eugene ONeill. It was ONeills first full-length work, and the winner of the 1920 Pulitzer Prize for Drama, directed by Homer Saint-Gaudens, the cast featured Erville Alderson, Richard Bennett, Robert Kelly, Mary Jeffery, and Sidney Macy. This production won the 1920 Pulitzer Prize for Drama, beyond the Horizon was revived on Broadway at the Mansfield Theatre on November 30,1926 and closed on February 5,1927 after 79 performances. Directed by James Light, the cast featured Malcolm Williams, Judith Lowry, Albert Tavernier, Thomas Chalmers, Robert Keith, Aline MacMahon, Eleanor Wesselhoeft, the play was presented by Royal & Derngate in Northampton in November 2009. This production subsequently transferred to Londons National Theatre in March 2010, the play takes place on a farm in the Spring, and then moves forward three years later, in the Summer, and finally 5 years later, in late Fall. The play focuses on the portrait of a family, and particularly two brothers Andrew and Robert, the play was adapted for television and broadcast on PBS Great Performances series in July 1975, directed by Rick Hauser and Michael Kahn. The cast featured Richard Backus, Kate Wilkinson, John Randolph, Edward J. Moore, Maria Tucci, Geraldine Fitzgerald, John Houseman and it was adapted into an opera by composer Nicolas Flagello in 1983. According to the PBS American Experience program, Theater historians point to ONeills Beyond the Horizon, beyond the Horizon at the Internet Broadway Database Beyond the Horizon at the Internet Broadway Database Beyond the Horizon public domain audiobook at LibriVox
4. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt – Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is an educational and trade publisher in the United States. Headquartered in Bostons Back Bay, it publishes textbooks, instructional materials, assessments, reference works. The company was known as Houghton Mifflin Company but changed its name following the 2007 acquisition of Harcourt Publishing. Prior to March 2010, it was a subsidiary of Education Media and Publishing Group Limited, in 1832, William Ticknor and James Thomas Fields had gathered an impressive list of writers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David Thoreau. The duo formed a relationship with Riverside Press, a Boston printing company owned by Henry Oscar Houghton. Shortly after, Houghton also founded a company with partner George Mifflin. The company still had debt from when it merged from Houghton, Osgood and Company, in 1884, James D. Hurd, the son of Melancthon Hurd became a partner. Three people in 1888 became partners as well, James Murray Kay, Thurlow Weed Barnes, shortly thereafter the company established an Educational Department, and from 1891 to 1908 sales of educational materials increased by 500 percent. Soon after 1916, Houghton Mifflin became involved in publishing standardized tests and testing materials, the company was the fourth-largest educational publisher in the United States in 1921. In 1961, Houghton Mifflin famously passed on Julia Childs Mastering the Art of French Cooking, giving it up to Alfred A. Knopf who later published it in 1962. It went on to become a success and is considered by many to be the bible of French cooking. Houghton Mifflins strategic error was depicted in the 2009 film Julie & Julia, in 1967, Houghton Mifflin became a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol HTN. Under president Nader F. Darehshori Houghton Mifflin acquired in 1994 for $138 million McDougal Littell, a publisher of secondary school materials. Heath and Company, a publisher of educational resources. In 1996, the company created their Great Source Education Group to combine the supplemental material product lines of their School Division and these two companies. In 1998, HMH announced a sub-brand called LOGAL Software, which was to release a new line of interactive science software called Science Gateways, as of 2017, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is offering the Logal Science brand as a licensing opportunity on its website. Mergers and acquisitions activities have had effects on this company. In 2001, Houghton Mifflin was acquired by French media giant Vivendi Universal for $2.2 billion including assumed debt, on December 22,2006, it was announced that Riverdeep PLC had completed its acquisition of Houghton Mifflin
5. Pulitzer Prize – The Pulitzer Prize /ˈpʊlᵻtsər/ is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each receives a certificate. The winner in the service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal. The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can also only be entered in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties, each year,102 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 20 separate juries for the 21 award categories, one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. For each award category, a jury makes three nominations, the board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75% majority vote. The board can also vote to issue no award, the board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work, however, the jurors in letters, music, and drama receive a $2,000 honorarium for the year, and each chair receives $2,500. Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant, the jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists who were submitted, but not nominated as finalists. For example, Bill Dedman of msnbc, Dedman wrote, To call that submission a Pulitzer nomination is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters Thats My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars dont work that way—the studios dont pick the nominees and its just a way of slipping Academy Awards into a bio. The Pulitzers also dont work that way, but fewer people know that, newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Prize. It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships and he specified four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships. After his death, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4,1917, many people have won more than one Pulitzer Prize. Nelson Harding is the person to have won a Prize in two consecutive years, the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1927 and 1928. Four prizes Robert Frost, Poetry Eugene ONeill, Drama Robert E, in rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners. Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs, infrequently, Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts, letters and fiction
6. Albert J. Beveridge – Albert Jeremiah Beveridge was an American historian and US senator from Indiana. He was a leader of the Progressive Era and a biographer of Chief Justice John Marshall. He was born on October 6,1862 in Highland County, Ohio, both of his parents were of English descent. His childhood was one of hard work and labor, securing an education with difficulty, he eventually became a law clerk in Indianapolis. He was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1887 and practiced law in Indianapolis, Beveridge graduated from Indiana Asbury University in 1885, with a Ph. B. degree. He was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and he was known as a compelling orator, delivering speeches supporting territorial expansion by the US and increasing the power of the federal government. In 1899, Beveridge was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican and he supported Theodore Roosevelts progressive views and was the keynote speaker at the new Progressive Party convention which nominated Roosevelt for U. S. President in 1912. Beveridge is known as one of the great American imperialists and he supported the annexation of the Philippines and along with Republican leader Henry Cabot Lodge he campaigned for the construction of a new navy. In addition, in 1901, Beveridge became chair of the Senate Committee on Territories and this allowed him to sponsor the annexation of Oklahoma in 1906. However, he blocked statehood for New Mexico and Arizona because the population of the territories were too sparse and contained a population of Hispanics. After Beveridges re-election in 1905 to a term, he became identified with the reform-minded faction of the GOP. Furthermore, Beveridge joined insurgents in supporting postal savings bank legislation and he lost his senate seat to John Worth Kern when the Democrats took Indiana in the 1910 elections. New, but would never again hold office, another contribution towards his political downfall was the fact he was big critic of Woodrow Wilson. He encouraged Wilson to take a more interventionist policy with the Mexican Revolution and he felt the League of Nations undermined American independence. In the twilight of his life, Beveridge came to some of the earlier expansion of governmental power that he had championed in his earlier career. As his political career drew to a close, Beveridge dedicated his time to writing historical literature and he was a member and secretary of the American Historical Association. It stripped away the myths, to reveal a complex and imperfect politician and his accumulated materials for the continuance of the project were handed on to Carl Sandburg at the request of his wife, Catherine Eddy Beveridge. In 1939, the AHA established the Beveridge Award in his memory, through a gift from the widow, there is a famous lost film of Leo Tolstoy made in 1901, a decade before Tolstoy died