1921 Pulitzer Prize
The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1921.
- Public Service:
Letters and Drama Awards
- Biography or Autobiography:
The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1921.
1. Woodrow Wilson – Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, he spent his years in Augusta, Georgia and Columbia. In 1910, he was the New Jersey Democratic Partys gubernatorial candidate and was elected the 34th Governor of New Jersey, while in office, Wilson reintroduced the spoken State of the Union, which had been out of use since 1801. Leading the Congress that was now in Democratic hands, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. The Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, through passage of the Adamson Act that imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads, he averted a railroad strike and an ensuing economic crisis. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality, Wilson faced former New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes in the presidential election of 1916. By a narrow margin, he became the first Democrat since Andrew Jackson elected to two consecutive terms, Wilsons second term was dominated by American entry into World War I. In April 1917, when Germany had resumed unrestricted submarine warfare and sent the Zimmermann Telegram, the United States conducted military operations alongside the Allies, although without a formal alliance. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving military strategy to the generals, loaning billions of dollars to Britain, France, and other Allies, the United States aided their finance of the war effort. On the home front, he raised taxes, borrowing billions of dollars through the publics purchase of Liberty Bonds. In his 1915 State of the Union Address, Wilson asked Congress for what became the Espionage Act of 1917, the crackdown was intensified by his Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to include expulsion of non-citizen radicals during the First Red Scare of 1919–1920. Wilson staffed his government with Southern Democrats who implemented racial segregation at the Treasury, Navy and he gave department heads greater autonomy in their management. Following his return from Europe, Wilson embarked on a tour in 1919 to campaign for the treaty. The treaty was met with concern by Senate Republicans, and Wilson rejected a compromise effort led by Henry Cabot Lodge. Due to his stroke, Wilson secluded himself in the White House, disability having diminished his power, forming a strategy for re-election, Wilson deadlocked the 1920 Democratic National Convention, but his bid for a third-term nomination was overlooked. Wilson was a devoted Presbyterian and Georgist, and he infused his views of morality into his domestic and he appointed several well known radically progressive single taxers to prominent positions in his administration. His ideology of internationalism is now referred to as Wilsonian, an activist foreign policy calling on the nation to promote global democracy and he was the third of four children of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow. Wilsons paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland and his mother was born in Carlisle, England, the daughter of Rev. Dr. Thomas Woodrow from Paisley, Scotland, and Marion Williamson from Glasgow
2. Edith Wharton – Edith Wharton was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist, short story writer, and designer. She was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1927,1928 and 1930, Wharton combined her insiders view of Americas privileged classes with a brilliant, natural wit to write humorous, incisive novels and short stories of social and psychological insight. She was well acquainted with many of her eras other literary and public figures, Edith Wharton was born Edith Newbold Jones to George Frederic Jones and Lucretia Stevens Rhinelander at their brownstone at 14 West Twenty-third Street in New York City. She had two older brothers, Frederic Rhinelander, who was sixteen, and Henry Edward, who was eleven. She was baptized April 20,1862, Easter Sunday, at Grace Church, to her friends and family she was known as Pussy Jones. The saying keeping up with the Joneses is said to refer to her fathers family and she was also related to the Rensselaer family, the most prestigious of the old patroon families. She had a lifelong friendship with her Rhinelander niece, landscape architect Beatrix Farrand of Reef Point in Bar Harbor. Edith was born during the Civil War, she was three years old when the South surrendered, after the war, the family traveled extensively in Europe. From 1866 to 1872, the Jones family visited France, Italy, Germany, during her travels, the young Edith became fluent in French, German, and Italian. At the age of ten, she suffered from typhoid fever while the family was at a spa in the Black Forest, after the family returned to the United States in 1872, they spent their winters in New York and their summers in Newport, Rhode Island. While in Europe, she was educated by tutors and governesses and she rejected the standards of fashion and etiquette that were expected of young girls at the time, intended to enable women to marry well and to be displayed at balls and parties. She thought these requirements were superficial and oppressive, Edith wanted more education than she received, so she read from her fathers library and from the libraries of her fathers friends. Her mother forbade her to read novels until she was married, Edith began writing poetry and fiction as a young girl. She attempted to write a novel at age eleven and her first publication was a translation of the German poem, Was die Steine Erzählen by Heinrich Karl Brugsch, which earned her $50. Her family did not wish her name to appear in print because the names of upper class women of the time appeared in print to announce birth, marriage. Consequently, the poem was published under the name of a friends father and he was a cousin of Ralph Waldo Emerson and supported womens education. He played a role in Ediths efforts to educate herself. In 1877, at the age of 15, she wrote a 30,000 word novella Fast
3. The Boston Post – The Boston Post was a daily newspaper in New England for over a hundred years before it folded in 1956. The Post was founded in November 1831 by two prominent Boston businessmen, Charles G. Greene and William Beals, Edwin Grozier bought the paper in 1891. Within two decades, he had built it into easily the largest paper in Boston and New England and he passed it to his son, Richard, upon his death in 1924. Under the younger Grozier, The Boston Post grew into one of the largest newspapers in the country, at its height in the 1930s, it had a circulation of well over a million readers. At the same time, Richard Grozier suffered a breakdown from the death of his wife in childbirth from which he never recovered. Throughout the 1940s, facing increasing competition from the Hearst-run papers in Boston and New York and from radio and television news, when it ceased publishing in October 1956, its daily circulation was 255,000 and Sunday circulation approximately 260,000. In 2017 some publishers are planning to start The Boston Post starting with www. thebostonpost. com, Richard Frothingham, Jr. a Massachusetts historian, journalist, and politician who was a proprietor and managing editor of The Boston Post. Kenneth Roberts Olga Van Slyke Owens Huckins, literary editor,1941 to 1954, Huckins letter to Rachel Carson inspired the book Silent Spring. Appearing in the Sunday paper every week was a weekly magazine and it was called first The Sunday Magazine of The Boston Sunday Post and later The Boston Sunday Post Sunday Magazine. The Boston Post was awarded the Pulitzer prize for its investigation and it was the first time that a Boston paper had won a Pulitzer, and would be the last Pulitzer won for public service awarded to a Boston paper until the Globe won it in 2003. In 1909, under the ownership of Edwin Grozier, the Boston Post engaged in its most famous publicity stunt. The paper had several hundred ornate, gold-tipped canes made and contacted the selectmen in New Englands largest towns, the Boston Post Canes were given to the selectmen and presented in a ceremony to the towns oldest living man. The custom was expanded to include a communitys oldest women in 1930, many towns in New England still carry on the Boston Post cane tradition with the original canes they were awarded in 1909. New Boston Post The Boston Daily Advertiser The Boston Evening Transcript The Boston Globe The Boston Herald The Boston Journal The Boston Record The Boston Post Cane Information Center
4. D. Appleton & Company – D. Appleton & Company was an American company founded by Daniel Appleton, who opened a general store which included books. He published his first book in 1831, the companys publications gradually extended over the entire field of literature. It issued the works of scientists at moderate prices, for example, Herbert Spencer, John Tyndall, Thomas Huxley, Charles Darwin. Medical books formed a special department, and books in the Spanish language for the South American market were a specialty which the firm made its own, in belles lettres and American history it had a strong list of names among its authors. Sears of Harpers 1905 Appletons Magazine renamed Appletons Booklovers Magazine 1919 J. W. S. Crofts Co. founded in 1924, the Flag-ship, Or, A Voyage Around the World in the United States Frigate Columbia. The rights were acquired from Alvin J. Johnson & Co, Universal Cyclopaedia 1900, in 12 volumes derived from Johnsons Universal Cyclopaedia. Edited by Charles Kendall Adams, and from 1902 by Rossiter Johnson, with title Universal Cyclopaedia and Atlas The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, 1889–1891, robert Hall Babcock Diseases of the Lungs by Dr. T. DeWitt Talmage, D. D. American Negro Slavery by Ulrich Bonnell Phillips,1918 Appletons Cyclopædia of American Biography American Cyclopædia Appletons Magazine Appletons travel guides Appleton-Century MSS NYPL, portraits of William H. Appleton, Daniel Appleton, founder, John A. Appleton, George Appleton, Daniel Sidney Appleton. Printers mark of D. Appleton and Co. in North Corridor, library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D. C. This has information on the firms evolution
5. New York World – The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931. The paper played a role in the history of American newspapers. It was a national voice of the Democratic Party. From 1883 to 1911 under publisher Joseph Pulitzer, it became a pioneer in yellow journalism, capturing readers attention, the World was formed in 1860. From 1862 to 1876, it was edited by Manton Marble, in 1864, the World was shut down for three days after it published forged documents purportedly from Abraham Lincoln. But Scott was unable to meet the newspapers growing losses, Gould, like Scott, used the paper for his own purposes, employing it to help him take over Western Union. But Gould could not turn the state of the newspaper around. Joseph Pulitzer bought the World in 1883 and began an era of circulation building. Reporter Nellie Bly became one of Americas first investigative journalists, often working undercover, as a publicity stunt for the paper, inspired by the Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days, she traveled around the planet in 72 days in 1889-1890. In 1890, Pulitzer built the New York World Building, the tallest office building in the world at the time, in 1889, Julius Chambers was appointed by Pulitzer as managing editor of the New York World, he served until 1891. In 1896, the World began using a printing press, it was the first newspaper to launch a color supplement. It joined a battle with William Randolph Hearsts New York Journal American. The World was attacked for being sensational, and its battles with Hearsts Journal American gave rise to the term yellow journalism. The charges of sensationalism were most frequently leveled at the paper by more established publishers, and while the World presented its fair share of crime stories, it also published damning exposés of tenement abuses. After a heat wave in 1883 killed a number of poor children. Its coverage spurred action in the city for reform, hearst reproduced Pulitzers approach in the San Francisco Examiner and later in the Journal American. Frank Irving Cobb was employed on a basis as the editor of the World in 1904 by publisher Pulitzer. Cobb was a fiercely independent Kansan who resisted Pulitzers attempts to run the office from his home, the elder man was so invested in the paper that he continually meddled with Cobbs work
6. Charles Ponzi – Charles Ponzi, born Carlo Ponzi, was an Italian swindler and con artist in the U. S. and Canada. His aliases include Charles Ponci, Carlo, and Charles P. Bianchi, born and raised in Italy, he became known in the early 1920s as a swindler in North America for his money-making scheme. In reality, Ponzi was paying early investors using the investments of later investors, while this swindle predated Ponzi by several years, it became so identified with him that it now bears his name. His scheme ran for over a year before it collapsed, costing his investors $20 million, Ponzi may have been inspired by the scheme of William F. Miller, a Brooklyn bookkeeper who in 1899 used the same scheme to take in $1 million. Charles Ponzi was born Carlo Pietro Giovanni Guglielmo Tebaldo Ponzi in Lugo, Italy and he told The New York Times that he had come from a family in Parma, Italy. His ancestors had been well to do, and his continued to use the title Dona. He took a job as a postal worker early on, and his richer friends considered the university a four-year vacation, and he was inclined to follow them around to bars, cafés, and the opera. This resulted in Ponzi spending off all his money and four years later, he was left broke, during this time, a number of Italian boys were migrating to the United States and returning to Italy as rich people. Ponzis family encouraged him to do the same thereby returning his family to its lost glory, on November 15,1903, he arrived in Boston aboard the S. S. Vancouver. By his own account, Ponzi had $2.51 in his pocket, I landed in this country with $2.50 in cash and $1 million in hopes, and those hopes never left me, he later told The New York Times. He quickly learned English and spent the few years doing odd jobs along the East Coast, eventually taking a job as a dishwasher in a restaurant. He managed to work his way up to the position of waiter, by this time, Ponzi had a charming cheerful personality and spoke French, English and Italian, which Zuckoff says helped him get the job at Banco Zarossi. It was here that Ponzi first saw how the scheme of Robbing Peter to pay Paul, Zarossi paid 6% interest on bank deposits – double the going rate at the time – and was growing rapidly as a result. Ponzi eventually rose to bank manager, the bank eventually failed and Zarossi fled to Mexico with a large portion of the banks money. Ponzi stayed in Montreal and, for time, lived at Zarossis house helping the mans abandoned family, while planning to return to the United States. As Ponzi was penniless, this proved to be very difficult, confronted by police who had taken note of his large expenditures just after the forged check was cashed, Ponzi held out his hands wrist up and said Im guilty. He ended up spending three years at St. Vincent-de-Paul Federal Penitentiary, a facility located on the outskirts of Montreal. Rather than inform his mother of this development, he posted her a letter stating that he had found a job as an assistant to a prison warden
7. The Age of Innocence – It won the 1921 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, making Wharton the first woman to win the prize. The story is set in upper-class New York City in the 1870s, Wharton wrote the book in her 50s, after she had established herself as a strong author with publishers clamoring for her work. The Age of Innocence was a softer and more work than The House of Mirth. Wharton wrote, I found an escape in going back to my childish memories of a long-vanished America. It was growing more and more evident that the world I had grown up in, scholars and readers alike agree that The Age of Innocence is fundamentally a story which struggles to reconcile the old with the new. Wharton was raised in old world of rigid and proper New York society which features in the story. She spent her years, including World War I, in Europe where the devastation of new mechanized warfare was felt most deeply. As explained by Millicent Bell in the Cambridge companion to Wharton, “The Age of Innocence was composed and first read in the aftermath of Roosevelt’s death and in the immediate wake of World War I. We frame the ending remembering the multiple losses… not only the loss of Roosevelt but the destruction of the prewar world, with World War I, a definitive line was crossed. There would be no return to the New York of old from which Wharton was raised, and for all that can be condemned in that, there is a certain tenderness with which she crafts the world, as if she had forgotten nothing. This intones the title word innocence, as the novel seems to connect personal innocence with that of national innocence, to Robert Martin, The Age of Innocence, was fundamentally about America and its failure to fulfill its own possibilities. The Age of Innocence centers on an upper-class couples impending marriage, Wharton was 58 years old at publication, she had lived in that world and had seen it change dramatically by the end of World War I. The title is a comment on the polished outward manners of New York society when compared to its inward machinations. The title, while ironic, was not as caustic as the title of story featured in the The House of Mirth, published in 1905. Newland Archer, gentleman lawyer and heir to one of New York Citys best families, is happily anticipating a highly desirable marriage to the sheltered, yet he finds reason to doubt his choice of bride after the appearance of Countess Ellen Olenska, Mays exotic and beautiful 30-year-old cousin. Ellen has returned to New York from Europe after scandalously separating herself from a bad marriage to a Polish count. As Newlands admiration for the countess grows, so does his doubt about marrying May, Ellens decision to divorce Count Olenski causes a social crisis for the other members of her family, who are terrified of scandal and disgrace. Living apart can be tolerated, but divorce is unacceptable, to save the Welland familys reputation, a law partner of Newland asks him to dissuade Countess Olenska from divorcing the count
8. Zona Gale – Zona Gale was an American novelist, short story writer, and playwright. She became the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1921, Gale was born in Portage, Wisconsin, which she often used as a setting in her writing. After college, Gale wrote for newspapers in Milwaukee and New York City, a visit to Portage in 1903 proved a turning point in her literary life, as seeing the sights and sounds of town life led her to comment that her old world was full of new possibilities. Gale had found the material she needed for her writing, and she wrote and published there until her 1938 death, but made trips to New York. She published her first novel, Romance Island, in 1906, in 1920, she published the novel Miss Lulu Bett, which depicts life in the Midwestern United States. She adapted it as a play, which was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1921, in addition to her fiction writing, Gale was an active supporter of the La Follettes and progressive causes. She was an member of the National Womens Party. In the same year, she attended the meeting of the Lucy Stone League. Her activism on behalf of women was her way to solve a problem she returned to repeatedly in her novels. In 1928 at the age of fifty-four she married William L. Breese, Zona Gale, who was a frequent visitor to the Mission Inn Hotel in Riverside, California, became a close friend of Frank Augustus Miller, the founder of the hotel. After Frank Miller died in 1935 Zona Gale wrote a biography entitled Frank Miller of Mission inn, a group of rooms on the fourth floor of The Mission Inn became known as authors row and the Zona Gale room is room 409. Gale died of pneumonia in a Chicago hospital in 1938, the house she built for her parents in Portage, now known as the Zona Gale House, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. American Women Writers, 1900-1945, A Bio-bibliographical Critical Sourcebook, still Small Voice, The Biography of Zona Gale. Writers of Conviction, The Personal Politics of Zona Gale, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, Rose Wilder Lane, columbia, University of Missouri Press,2004. Not in Sisterhood, Edith Wharton, Willa Cather, Zona Gale, and the Politics of Female Authorship
9. Edward Bok – Edward William Bok was a Dutch-born American editor and Pulitzer Prize-winning author. He was editor of the Ladies Home Journal for 30 years, Bok is credited with coining the term living room as the name for a room of a house that had commonly been called the parlor or drawing room. He also created Bok Tower Gardens in central Florida, Bok was born in Den Helder, Netherlands. At the age of six, he immigrated to Brooklyn, New York, in Brooklyn he washed the windows of a bakery shop after school to help support his family. His people were so poor that in addition he used to go out in the street with an every day. In 1882 Edward Bok began work with Henry Holt and Company, in 1884 he became involved with Charles Scribners Sons, where he eventually became its advertising manager. From 1884 until 1887 Bok was the editor of The Brooklyn Magazine and it was published by Cyrus Curtis, who had an established publishing empire that included many newspapers and magazines. In 1896 Bok married Mary L. Curtis, the daughter of Louisa and she shared her familys interest in music, cultural activities, and philanthropy and was very active in social circles. The magazine focused upon the issues of the day. The mother of H. L. Mencken was one of those busy, when Bok’s autobiography, The Americanization of Edward Bok, appeared in 1920, he reviewed it with an interest based on long acquaintance with the magazine. Mencken observed that Bok showed an irrepressible interest in artistic, When he looked at the houses in which his subscribers lived. Bok flung himself headlong into his campaigns, and practically every one of them succeeded, if there were gratitude in the land, there would be a monument to him in every town in the Republic. He has been, aesthetically, probably the most useful citizen that ever breathed its muggy air, the Journal also became the first magazine to refuse patent medicine advertisements. In 1919, after thirty years at the journal, Bok retired, in 1923 Bok proposed the American Peace Award. Bok Tower sometimes is called a sanctuary and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark, Bok is used as an example in Dale Carnegies How to Win Friends and Influence People. Bok died on January 9,1930 in Lake Wales, Florida within sight of his beloved Singing Tower, two of his grandsons are Derek Bok and Gordon Bok. Later, Bok and the Journal became a force in promoting the bungalow. Plans for these houses cost as little as a dollar, I refused to cooperate with him
10. William Sims – William Sowden Sims was an admiral in the United States Navy who fought during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to modernize the navy. During World War I he commanded all United States naval forces operating in Europe and he also served twice as president of the Naval War College. Sims was born to American parents living in Port Hope, Ontario and he graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1880, the beginnings of an era of naval reform and greater professionalization. Luce founded the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island in 1884, during the same era, Naval War College instructor Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was writing influential books on naval strategy and sea power. In March 1897, shortly after his promotion to lieutenant, Sims was assigned as the military attache to Paris, in this position he became aware of naval technology developments in Europe as well attaining familiarity with European politics which would greatly assist him during World War I. He was in this assignment during the Spanish–American War during which Sims was able to use his connections to gain information on Spain. As a young officer, Sims sought to reform naval gunnery by improving target practice and his superiors resisted his suggestions, failing to see the necessity. He was also hindered by his low rank, in 1902, Sims wrote directly to President Theodore Roosevelt. He was promoted to commander in 1907, from 1911 to 1912, Sims attended the Naval War College. Promoted to captain in 1911, he became Commander, Atlantic Destroyer Flotilla in July 1913, on March 11,1916, Sims became the first captain of the battleship USS Nevada. Nevada was the largest, most modern and most powerful ship in the U. S. Navy at that time, Sims selection as her captain shows the esteem in which Sims was held in the Navy. Shortly before the United States entered World War I, then Rear Admiral Sims was assigned as the president of the Naval War College in Newport, just before the U. S. entered the war, the Wilson administration sent him to London as the senior naval representative. After the U. S. entry in April 1917, Sims was given command over U. S. naval forces operating from Britain and he received a temporary promotion to vice admiral in May 1917. The major threat he faced was a highly effective German submarine campaign against freighters bringing vital food and he ended the war as a vice admiral, in command of all U. S. naval forces operating in Europe. In 1919 after the war ended in Allied victory, Sims publicly attacked the deficiencies of American naval strategy, tactics, policy and he charged the failures had cost the Allies 2,500,000 tons of supplies, thereby prolonging the war by six months. He estimated the delay had raised the cost of the war to the Allies by $15 billion, secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels was more of a politician than a naval strategist, but he ably countered the accusations. He pointed to Sims anglophilism and said his point in London was too narrow to assess accurately the overall war effort by the U. S. Navy. Daniels cited prewar naval preparations and strategy proposals made by other American leaders during the war to disprove Sims charges, despite the public acrimony, Sims emerged with his reputation unharmed and served a second tour as president of the Naval War College